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World History B
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269
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01/18/2011

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Cards

Term
Which theory is most closely associated with Nicolaus Copernicus?
Definition
heliocentrism
Term
Who formulated the laws of planetary motion?
Definition
Johannes Kepler
Term
Identify the author who wrote a book entitled The Prince, which was a guidebook for leaders, and stated that it is better for a leader to be "feared than loved."
Definition
Niccolo Machiavelli
Term
Which of the following secrets did alchemists like Paracelsus hope to discover?
Definition
how to change lead into gold
Term
Who made improvements to the telescope?
Definition
Johannes Kepler
Term
What invention, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in 1454, enabled ideas to spread quickly?
Definition
printing press
Term
Great thinkers looked to the accomplishments of the Middle Ages as inspiration. T/F
Definition
False
Term
Which northern Renaissance artist was considered the greatest German artist, known for his prints as well as paintings?
Definition
Albrecht Durer
Term
Who is regarded as the founder of the study of human anatomy?
Definition
Andreas Vesalius
Term
Which of the following characteristics is different from Italian Renaissance art and most identifies the work produced in the northern Renaissance?
Definition
reflected everyday life
Term
Which historical figure made the decision to break England from the Catholic Church in order to grant himself a divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon?
Definition
Henry VIII
Term
Due to the Reformation, changes in marriage practices led to more freedom for women, who could now seek divorce for desertion, impotence, and abuse. T/F
Definition
True
Term
What new religious order, founded by Ignatius Loyola, stemmed out of the Counter-Reformation?
Definition
Society of Jesus, or Jesuits
Term
What event prompted the Protestant Reformation?
Definition
Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses on a church door.
Term
Martin Luther objected to what policy of the Catholic Church, which prompted him to write and post his Ninety-Five Theses?
Definition
indulgences
Term
What invention, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in 1454, enabled the ideas of the Reformation to spread quickly?
Definition
printing press
Term
Which of the following reformers, based in Switzerland, believed in Martin Luther's ideas about faith, and also claimed that salvation was a gift from God only for those who were predestined for it?
Definition
John Calvin
Term
Which nation did not send large groups of settlers to the Americas, or enslave Native Americans, and primarily sought to obtain fish and fur for trade?
Definition
France
Term
Due to the Columbian Exchange, millions of Native Americans died from diseases, such as the flu and common cold, brought to the Americas by the Europeans to which the natives had no immunity. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Which European explorer attempted to circumnavigate the world, leaving from Spain in 1519, but was killed in the midst of his journey, leaving his crew members to complete his goal?
Definition
Ferdinand Magellan
Term
What language is spoken in Brazil and why?
Definition
Portuguese, as they were permitted to control that territory east of the imaginary line established in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Term
Identify the nation that conquered the Aztecs and Incas in the mid-1500s under the direction of Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro.
Definition
Spain
Term
The expansion of colonies in the Americas and the loss of millions of Native Americans to disease and mistreatment led European colonists to purchase
Definition
slaves from the Africans for labor.
Term
What is mercantilism?
Definition
an economic theory that stressed the importance of colonies as sources of raw materials
Term
Which animal, brought from the Old World during the Columbian Exchange, made hunting for buffalo much easier for Native Americans?
Definition
horse
Term
What is NOT true about the effects of the slave trade?
Definition
Africans became educated and translated correspondence between the French and Native Americans.
Term
Select the artistic achievement that occurred during the Ming dynasty in China.
Definition
production of blue-and-white porcelain
Term
Although the shogun was a powerful military figure in Japan, the emperor always possessed the power over the people and land. T/F
Definition
False
Term
When fourteen-year-old Esma'il was crowned shah in the 1500s, he made Shi'ism the official religion, which resulted in significant violence when his subjects who were of another religion opposed. Of what religion were most of his subjects?
Definition
Sunni
Term
Which of the following was NOT one of the significant results of May 29, 1453?
Definition
The Hagia Sophia Cathedral was demolished when Ottomans took control
Term
Which member of the Japanese feudal hierarchy followed the Bushido, was viewed as an honorable and disciplined warrior, and was responsible for protecting the people of the land?
Definition
samurai
Term
The Mughal Empire saw great prosperity and peace when its leader Akbar encouraged tolerance of what cultural aspect?
Definition
belief in religious toleration
Term
Why did the Tokugawa Shogunate see a rise of a popular culture, during which time the visual arts, literature, and performing arts thrived?
Definition
The Tokugawa shoguns closed the country's borders which permitted its own unique culture to develop.
Term
Who was responsible for writing Don Quixote de la Mancha, a novel about a fantastical medieval adventure with sidekick Sancho Panza?
Definition
Cervantes
Term
Which of the following accomplishments of Peter the Great were considered to have the most impact on Russia?
Definition
He brought elements of Western culture to Russia in effort to modernize the nation.
Term
Which French leader was a military dictator who was credited with a series of lasting reforms such as the Bank of France and a system of public education?
Definition
Napoleon
Term
Which American colonist used ideas from European thinkers of the enlightenment to draft the Declaration of Independence?
Definition
Thomas Jefferson
Term
How was the American Revolution different from the French Revolution?
Definition
The revolution was an attempt to break free from the motherland and create a new nation.
Term
Which French leader was an absolute monarch who was eventually beheaded with the guillotine?
Definition
Louis XVI
Term
Question Asked
Who was responsible for the heliocentric theory that stated the earth revolved around the sun?
Definition
Nicolaus Copernicus
Term
Which writer from the Enlightenment wrote the Essay Concerning Human Understanding (in which he evaluated the development of human thought) and Two Treatises of Government (which stated the power of government should be limited)?
Definition
John Locke
Term
Under the reign of Philip II in Spain, all of the following occurred EXCEPT:
Definition
The Spanish Armada sent by Philip II was successful in defeating the English.
Term
Which economic principle means 'free to do', and was based on the idea that the market should be free from regulation and government involvement, resulting in the creation of wealth?
Definition
laissez-faire
Term
Identify the incorrect statement about Lewis Hine and his efforts during the Industrial Revolution in America.
Definition
He was hired by the National Child Labor Committee to identify ways factory owners could hide the exploitation of children to make more money.
Term
Who invented the light bulb, generator, and other electrical devices?
Definition
Thomas Edison
Term
How did industrialization change the social class structure?
Definition
The Industrial Revolution brought about the middle class, who had free time to travel and enjoy leisurely activities.
Term
Urbanization occurred during the Industrial Revolution because people started moving to the city to obtain work. As more and more people arrived, there were improvements in infrastructure and environmental standards. T/F
Definition
true
Term
Identify the key figure of the Industrial Revolution who was responsible for inventing the Model T, an affordable automobile for most families.
Definition
Henry Ford
Term
In what country did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Definition
Great Britain
Term
Which of the following events occurred in Russia and led to the establishment of the October Manifesto, which promised more rights to Russians?
Definition
Hundreds of protesters were shot after Father Gapon led them to the Winter Palace to demand reform; this was known as Bloody Sunday.
Term
Identify the two key figures who led movements in South America's struggle for independence from Spain.
Definition
Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín
Term
What term refers to the concept of forcefully extending a nation's authority over weaker nations for purpose of acquiring land or natural resources for their own benefit?
Definition
imperialism
Term
Who traveled to Japan in 1852, setting up two trading posts and opening the country to trade with the West?
Definition
Matthew Perry
Term
In what nation did former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture lead a revolt against French forces?
Definition
Haiti
Term
What nation did Otto von Bismarck unite in the late 1800s after wars with Austria and France?
Definition
Germany
Term
Identify the nation that exerted imperial control over India, impacting their language and religious beliefs.
Definition
Britain
Term
What event required European nations to inform others when claiming a new African territory?
Definition
Berlin Conference
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the causes of World War I?
Definition
the desire of European nations to remain isolated, not forging relationships with neighbors
Term
Who led the Bolsheviks to revolution in Russia during World War I?
Definition
Vladimir Lenin
Term
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the primary cause for World War I. Of what nation was he the heir to the throne?
Definition
Austria-Hungary
Term
What key Indian figure encouraged nonviolent opposition to British rule and the boycott of British products, requiring Indians to spin their own thread for cloth?
Definition
Mohandas Gandhi
Term
What document was drafted that ended World War I and required that Germany take responsibility for the war?
Definition
Treaty of Versailles
Term
In 1905, a Russian priest named Father Gapon led a group of protesters to the Winter Palace seeking reforms for the people of Russia. Several hundred protesters were shot and killed in what has come to be known as
Definition
Bloody Sunday.
Term
What concept was coined to describe the belief that America had a divine right to expand its frontiers westward?
Definition
Manifest destiny
Term
What occurred when Napoleon realized he would not be successful in conquering North America?
Definition
He sold a large portion of central North America to President Jefferson for $15 million.
Term
What new weapon caused the loss of life on the Lusitania, resulting in the death of over 120 Americans?
Definition
U-boats
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about British imperialism in India during the mid-1700s to 1800s, known as the British Raj?
Definition
Indians began to develop a transportation network of railroads, roads, and canals to make it easier to fight the British.
Term
Which nation gained independence after years of protest and opposition led by Mohandas Gandhi?
Definition
India
Term
Identify what action helped bring the United States out of the Great Depression in the late 1930s.
Definition
President Franklin D. Roosevelt started the New Deal.
Term
The Versailles Treaty contained a clause that promised independence to nations who contributed to the efforts of the Allied Forces during World War I. T/F
Definition
False
Term
What occurred following the clash between Guomindang and Communist parties in China, resulting in the loss of over 90,000 people?
Definition
the Long March
Term
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Great Depression in the United States?
Definition
President Roosevelt's New Deal
Term
Which artist of the Renaissance was a self-professed sculptor, but was hired to paint the Sistine Chapel, which was a backbreaking task for the artist?
Definition
Michelangelo
Term
Which theory is most closely associated with Nicolaus Copernicus?
Definition
heliocentrism
Term
Alchemists like Paracelsus hoped to discover which of the following secrets?
Definition
the secret of eternal life
Term
Select the incorrect statement about the Renaissance.
Definition
Great thinkers looked to the accomplishments of the Middle Ages as inspiration.
Term
Which of the following Renaissance scientists made improvements to the telescope?
Definition
Galileo Galilee
Term
The triangular trade took place across the Pacific Ocean, exchanging goods between India, Mexico, and Japan. T/F
Definition
False
Term
Who borrowed money in 1454 to create an invention known as the printing press?
Definition
Johannes Gutenberg
Term
Which Italian Renaissance artist was considered the ideal “Renaissance Man” due to his desire for knowledge, particularly in the fields of science, technology, and art?
Definition
Leonardo da Vinci
Term
Identify the author who wrote a book entitled The Prince, which was a guidebook for leaders, and stated that it is better for a leader to be "feared than loved."
Definition
Niccolo Machiavelli
Term
Which of the following was NOT one of the effects of the Reformation efforts?
Definition
The Catholic Church started selling indulgences.
Term
What movement centered around studies of classics and belief in individual accomplishments?
Definition
humanism
Term
The Renaissance was a rebirth of ancient classics and ideas from what region?
Definition
Rome and Greece
Term
Artwork from the Northern Renaissance focused on what characteristic, which was different than works produced in Italy during the Renaissance?
Definition
reflection of everyday life
Term
Which German artist from the Northern Renaissance was known for his portraits of self-conscious individualism?
Definition
Albrecht Dürer
Term
The Black Death improved the life of ordinary people in Europe who survived, and it led to the rebirth, or renewal, known as the Renaissance. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Which northern Renaissance artist was considered the greatest German artist, known for his prints as well as paintings?
Definition
Albrecht Durer
Term
William Tyndale was burned at the stake as a heretic for making a copy of the vernacular Bible in Germany and smuggling copies into England. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Who is regarded as the founder of the study of human anatomy?
Definition
Andreas Vesalius
Term
Select the English playwright known for writing tragedies such as Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet.
Definition
William Shakespeare
Term
Which of the following was an effort by the Catholic Church to counter the Reformation?
Definition
Council of Trent
Term
Europeans brought sheep, chicken, sugar, coffee, and citrus fruits to the Americas during the Columbian Exchange. They also brought over influenza and the common cold, which killed many of the Native Americans. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Many people believed the Catholic Church had become too powerful and wealthy, and too involved in political matters, which sparked reformists to rise up and speak out about the abuses. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following characteristics is different from Italian Renaissance art and most identifies the work produced in the northern Renaissance?
Definition
reflected everyday life
Term
Pope Julius II commissioned Donato Bramante to design which structure in Rome that had been demolished because of deterioration? Saint Peter's Basilica was designed and rebuilt using Bramante's plan, but also later redesigned by Michelangelo and Maderno.
Definition
Saint Peter's Basilica
Term
Who formulated the laws of planetary motion?
Definition
Johannes Kepler
Term
Which leader of the Mughal Empire was very curious, but illiterate, and displayed religious tolerance to the extent that he took one wife from every of the four major religions?
Definition
Akbar
Term
Which Russian leader encouraged education, developed training in fields such as shipbuilding, printing, and dentistry, and attempted to modernize Russia by exposing it to Western culture?
Definition
Peter the Great
Term
Who was responsible for the development of the Communist economic theory, which states that government should control all businesses, people should not be paid for their work, and that all products should be equally distributed amongst society?
Definition
Karl Marx
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte?
Definition
He was successful in uniting all of Europe in his Continental System.
Term
Which social class came to be during the Industrial Revolution, typically comprised of factory and business owners, who now had time to enjoy leisurely activities?
Definition
middle class
Term
In which country did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Definition
England
Term
Which Chinese dynasty came about in the 1400s after a peasant rebel rose up and conquered the last of the Yuan dynasty?
Definition
Ming
Term
What Japanese art form, meaning "pictures of the floating world," was created using woodblock prints and greatly impacted Western art, particularly Impressionists in Europe and America?
Definition
ukiyo-e
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the three factors of production?
Definition
Communist ideology
Term
Who invented the process of removing bacteria cells from food and liquids such as milk, cheese, and juice?
Definition
Louis Pasteur
Term
Identify the two figures that developed the five-step process known as the scientific method.
Definition
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
Term
Select the Japanese figure of the feudal warrior society whose role was similar to that of the knight in Medieval Europe.
Definition
samurai
Term
Select the theory of economics that believes government should not play a role in business and supports the laissez-faire principle of 'free to do.'
Definition
capitalism
Term
Select the nation that governed with a monarchy, but whose leader was limited in power due to the lawmaking body of Parliament.
Definition
England
Term
Who was largely responsible for the child labor reform efforts in America, as he made much of the American population aware of the situation through his photography?
Definition
Lewis Hine
Term
Which of the following did NOT occur after the fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453?
Definition
The Ottomans refused to permit anyone in the region that was not a Muslim.
Term
On July 14, 1789 a mob of people stormed a prison that held political prisoners, revolting against the injustices of the governing party. In which country did this occur?
Definition
France
Term
Which nation did Spain go to war with during the Anglo-Spanish War, when Philip II sent a Spanish Armada to defeat them, but the severe weather inhibited their efforts and Spain lost?
Definition
England
Term
All of the following are true about the beginnings of industrialization EXCEPT:
Definition
The first factories were powered by steam engines, but later converted to water mills because coal was scarce.
Term
Upon being crowned the shah of the Safavid Empire, fourteen-year-old Esma'il declared Shi'ism the official religion, which was a problem because the majority of his subjects belonged to what religious sect?
Definition
Sunni Islam
Term
The writings of the Enlightenment influenced the leaders of the American and French Revolutions. For example, Thomas Jefferson wrote that all citizens have a right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" in the Declaration of Independence, based on the writings of John Locke. T/F
Definition
True
Term
During the reign of the Kamukura Shogunate, the emperor was still at the top of the hierarchical structure, but possessed little power. T/F
Definition
true
Term
Which nation gained independence after years of protest and opposition led by Mohandas Gandhi?
Definition
India
Term
Why did Germany declare war on Belgium, although they were a neutral country?
Definition
Germany wanted to cut through Belgium to have easier access to France.
Term
What concept was coined to describe the belief that America had a divine right to expand its frontiers westward?
Definition
Manifest destiny
Term
What group was systematically exterminated by the Turks during World War I, with the loss of nearly 1.5 million people?
Definition
Armenians
Term
On what date was an armistice signed between Germany and the Allies, ending World War I?
Definition
November 11, 1918
Term
During World War I, which nation had to pull out of battle because a revolution began on the home front, and they lacked the industrial power needed to match the weaponry of its enemies?
Definition
Russia
Term
MAIN is an acronym that explains why World War I started, as well as the reason for the start of other wars throughout history. What is MAIN?
Definition
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Term
Identify the Latin American country that was eventually freed from French rule after former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture encouraged rebels to rise and revolt in 1791.
Definition
Haiti
Term
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Great Depression in the United States?
Definition
President Roosevelt's New Deal
Term
Identify the two key figures who led movements in South America's struggle for independence from Spain.
Definition
Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín
Term
What occurred following the clash between Guomindang and Communist parties in China, resulting in the loss of over 90,000 people?
Definition
the Long March
Term
What nation did Otto von Bismarck unite in the late 1800s after wars with Austria and France?
Definition
Germany
Term
In what country did the Long March, a treacherous journey endured by Communists who were seeking a safe place to regain strength and rise up again to take control of the government, take place?
Definition
China
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the causes of World War I?
Definition
the desire of European nations to remain isolated, not forging relationships with neighbors
Term
What new weapon caused the loss of life on the Lusitania, resulting in the death of over 120 Americans?
Definition
U-boats
Term
Africans who fought with the British during World War I had hoped to be freed from European control once the Allies were victorious. What African nation was finally freed from Britain in 1922, after protests?
Definition
Egypt
Term
In what nation did former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture lead a revolt against French forces?
Definition
Haiti
Term
Franz Ferdinand was in line to the throne of what nation, which first declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, one month after his assassination?
Definition
Austria-Hungary
Term
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the primary cause for World War I. Of what nation was he the heir to the throne?
Definition
Austria-Hungary
Term
Which of the following types of warfare was used during World War I but was not a new form of warfare?
Definition
trench warfare
Term
Identify what action helped bring the United States out of the Great Depression in the late 1930s.
Definition
President Franklin D. Roosevelt started the New Deal.
Term
What occurred when Napoleon realized he would not be successful in conquering North America?
Definition
He sold a large portion of central North America to President Jefferson for $15 million.
Term
What occurred on November 9 and 10, 1938 that was the beginning of the violence between the 'Aryans' and the Jews?
Definition
Jewish businesses, places of worship, and homes were burned and destroyed during Kristallnacht.
Term
Which European leader did NOT create a totalitarian system of government that controlled all aspects of society?
Definition
Winston Churchill in England
Term
After World War I, how did Japan become a dominant power, producing advanced weaponry to compete with Western nations?
Definition
It became an industrialized nation under strong military leaders.
Term
Which European leader created a Five-Year Plan, based on Communist ideology, that required workers to double, or triple, production to modernize their nation?
Definition
Joseph Stalin
Term
In 1931, which nation expanded its territories into Manchuria, leading to war with China and to violent deaths for more than 100,000 people in the Nanking Massacre?
Definition
Japan
Term
What system of government was started in Italy by Benito Mussolini, in which one leader ruled over all aspects of people's lives, and was primarily financed through private entities?
Definition
fascism
Term
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in Germany in the early 1930s. Which of the following statements is NOT accurate in regards to the tactics used to obtain control of the government and people of Germany?
Definition
Hitler established the Nuremberg Laws, providing more rights to the Jews living in Germany.
Term
Which of the following events took place on November 9 and 10, 1938?
Definition
In Germany, Jewish-owned stores, homes, and places of worship were destroyed in a planned attack.
Term
Which of the following was NOT a cause of World War II?
Definition
An alliance was formed between Germany and the United States.
Term
How were Japanese-Americans affected after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor?
Definition
They were forced to relocate to internment camps.
Term
What term refers to the method of attack used by the Nazis that allowed them to successfully conquer numerous European nations during World War II?
Definition
blitzkrieg
Term
Who became the Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II?
Definition
Winston Churchill
Term
Hitler's 'Final Solution' referred to the extermination of the Jewish population living in and around Germany during the time of World War II. This resulted in the execution of over 6 million Jews. T/F
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following countries was invaded by German forces, in spite of having signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939?
Definition
the Soviet Union
Term
The Marshall Plan was enacted to support a U.S. foreign policy to keep communism from spreading, also known as
Definition
containment.
Term
Who immigrated to the United States during World War II and became the director of the Manhattan Project, which created the atomic bomb?
Definition
Robert Oppenheimer
Term
What two new alliances were made after World War II, one between Communist Eastern European nations and the other between Western non-Communist nations?
Definition
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
Term
Which two superpowers engaged in an arms race during the cold war as they competed with each other to acquire advanced weaponry and build up their militaries?
Definition
the United States and the Soviet Union
Term
What is true about the key German leaders who were responsible for the Holocaust?
Definition
The Nuremberg Trials lasted nearly four years, and many key German leaders were found guilty and sentenced to death.
Term
To what did the U.S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education refer?
Definition
racial segregation in American schools
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war?
Definition
President Richard Nixon developed the theory of detente, in which two SALT treaties were created to increase U.S. holdings of nuclear weapons and anti-ballistic missiles.
Term
Mikhail Gorbachev's concept of glasnost referred to an openness to communicate to the West in an attempt to pull the Soviet Union out of a poor economy.
Definition
true
Term
What nation experienced the Velvet Revolution, a peaceful and non-violent movement that removed communists from power?
Definition
Czechoslovakia
Term
In what nation did the Soviet Union place missiles, which was viewed as a threat to the United States and prompted action by President John F. Kennedy?
Definition
Cuba
Term
What has happened to the leadership of Cuba since Fidel Castro stepped down due to illness?
Definition
His brother, Raul, has taken Fidel's place.
Term
Vietnam had been a colony controlled by what nation prior to World War II?
Definition
France
Term
What agreement was signed in 1992 between the United States, Mexico, and Canada?
Definition
the North American Free Trade Agreement
Term
In which country did Eva Perón work with her husband, President Juan Perón, to improve the lives of the poor and working class?
Definition
Argentina
Term
Who came to power in China, instituting a Communist regime that would bring great suffering to the nation's people?
Definition
Mao Zedong
Term
North Korea's capitalist economy has surged over the last decade due to increasing exports.
Definition
false
Term
Identify what happened in 1989 in Tiananmen Square.
Definition
Hundreds of pro-democracy protesters were killed by the Chinese government.
Term
Select the nation that was created in 1947 in the Middle East to provide a homeland for Jewish people.
Definition
Israel
Term
After World War II, Africa's economy was based on agriculture.
Definition
true
Term
In which country were apartheid laws created that prohibited interracial marriage and otherwise segregated the races?
Definition
South Africa
Term
During the 1990s, the United States became involved in a military dispute involving which nations?
Definition
Iraq and Kuwait
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about Nelson Mandela?
Definition
He was a farmer.
Term
Which leader of the Mughal Empire was very curious, but illiterate, and displayed religious tolerance to the extent that he took one wife from every of the four major religions?
Definition
Akbar
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about British imperialism in India during the mid-1700s to 1800s, known as the British Raj?
Definition
Indians began to develop a transportation network of railroads, roads, and canals to make it easier to fight the British.
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true about John Calvin and his reform efforts?
Definition
Calvinist churches were filled with music.
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte?
Definition
He was successful in uniting all of Europe in his Continental System.
Term
Identify the two figures that developed the five-step process known as the scientific method.
Definition
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
Term
Upon being crowned the shah of the Safavid Empire, fourteen-year-old Esma'il declared Shi'ism the official religion, which was a problem because the majority of his subjects belonged to what religious sect?
Definition
Sunni Islam
Term
Who made improvements to the telescope?
Definition
Galileo Galilei
Term
Which theory is most closely associated with Nicolaus Copernicus?
Definition
heliocentrism
Term
Which of the following secrets did alchemists like Paracelsus hope to discover?
Definition
how to change lead into gold
Term
Which wife of England's King Henry VIII produced a daughter named Mary, who later became known as "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of Protestants by burning them at the stake?
Definition
Catherine of Aragon
Term
What were indulgences, as practiced prior to the Reformation?
Definition
A religious figure pardoned one's sins and could reduce the amount of time in purgatory if money was paid to the Church.
Term
What Japanese art form, meaning "pictures of the floating world," was created using woodblock prints and greatly impacted Western art, particularly Impressionists in Europe and America?
Definition
ukiyo-e
Term
Which of the following is NOT a reason Europeans wanted to explore the unknown?
Definition
to give up their land in Europe to Chinese invaders
Term
Which was the first nation to break through in European exploration and exploitation, but was quickly surpassed by other European nations?
Definition
Portugal
Term
Which explorer sailed for both England and the Netherlands in search of a Northwest Passage, but instead discovered a river in North America that was named after him?
Definition
Henry Hudson
Term
Identify the nation that established colonies in Canada consisting of small groups of traders who focused on the trading of fish and fur.
Definition
France
Term
Which European nation colonized Brazil, resulting in that being one of the few South American nations to not speak Spanish?
Definition
Portugal
Term
Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico in 1519, resulting in the conquest of the Aztecs and Incas. Which country did Cortés travel to the Americas for?
Definition
Spain
Term
Which nation sent Christopher Columbus to find a route to the West Indies, resulting in his "discovery" of the Americas?
Definition
Spain
Term
Who formulated the laws of planetary motion?
Definition
Johannes Kepler
Term
Which Chinese dynasty came about in the 1400s after a peasant rebel rose up and conquered the last of the Yuan dynasty?
Definition
Ming
Term
Franz Ferdinand was in line to the throne of what nation, which first declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, one month after his assassination?
Definition
Austria-Hungary
Term
On what date was an armistice signed between Germany and the Allies, ending World War I?
Definition
November 11, 1918
Term
Which two key figures of the Reformation were from Switzerland, where Anabaptists were persecuted for their beliefs in adult baptism, the abolition of private property, and the ability to take more than one wife?
Definition
John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli
Term
Who was responsible for posting the Ninety-Five Theses on the front door of a church addressing the how practices of the Catholic Church contradicted the principles of Christianity?
Definition
Martin Luther
Term
Which Russian leader encouraged education, developed training in fields such as shipbuilding, printing, and dentistry, and attempted to modernize Russia by exposing it to Western culture?
Definition
Peter the Great
Term
Which nation did Spain go to war with during the Anglo-Spanish War, when Philip II sent a Spanish Armada to defeat them, but the severe weather inhibited their efforts and Spain lost?
Definition
England
Term
Which of the following did NOT occur after the fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453?
Definition
The Ottomans refused to permit anyone in the region that was not a Muslim.
Term
In what country did the Long March (a treacherous journey endured by Communists who were seeking a safe place to regain strength and rise up again to take control of the government) take place?
Definition
China
Term
Why did Germany declare war on Belgium, although they were a neutral country?
Definition
Germany wanted to cut through Belgium to have easier access to France.
Term
Choose the explorer who left from Spain in 1519 with five ships and a crew of 250 with a goal of circumnavigating the world, but was killed in the Philippines during his journey.
Definition
Ferdinand Magellan
Term
Select the Japanese figure of the feudal warrior society whose role was similar to that of the knight in Medieval Europe.
Definition
samurai
Term
In which country did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Definition
England
Term
As the Europeans explored the Americas, they would encounter new plants, animals, and diseases. All of the following plants and animals would have been new to Europeans EXCEPT
Definition
horses.
Term
Select the nation that governed with a monarchy, but whose leader was limited in power due to the lawmaking body of Parliament.
Definition
England
Term
What concept was coined to describe the belief that America had a divine right to expand its frontiers westward?
Definition
Manifest destiny
Term
In 1905, a Russian priest named Father Gapon led a group of protesters to the Winter Palace seeking reforms for the people of Russia. Several hundred protesters were shot and killed in what has come to be known as
Definition
In 1905, a Russian priest named Father Gapon led a group of protesters to the Winter Palace seeking reforms for the people of Russia. Several hundred protesters were shot and killed in what has come to be known as
Term
Who invented the process of removing bacteria cells from food and liquids such as milk, cheese, and juice?
Definition
Louis Pasteur
Term
What group was systematically exterminated by the Turks during World War I, with the loss of nearly 1.5 million people?
Definition
Armenians
Term
On July 14, 1789 a mob of people stormed a prison that held political prisoners, revolting against the injustices of the governing party. In which country did this occur?
Definition
France
Term
What occurred when Napoleon realized he would not be successful in conquering North America?
Definition
He sold a large portion of central North America to President Jefferson for $15 million.
Term
Identify the Latin American country that was eventually freed from French rule after former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture encouraged rebels to rise and revolt in 1791.
Definition
Haiti
Term
Who is regarded as the founder of the study of human anatomy?
Definition
Andreas Vesalius
Term
All of the following are true about the beginnings of industrialization EXCEPT:
Definition
The first factories were powered by steam engines, but later converted to water mills because coal was scarce.
Term
MAIN is an acronym that explains why World War I started, as well as the reason for the start of other wars throughout history. What is MAIN?
Definition
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Term
During World War I, which nation had to pull out of battle because a revolution began on the home front, and they lacked the industrial power needed to match the weaponry of its enemies?
Definition
Russia
Term
Which of the following types of warfare was used during World War I but was not a new form of warfare?
Definition
trench warfare
Term
What key Indian figure encouraged nonviolent opposition to British rule and the boycott of British products, requiring Indians to spin their own thread for cloth?
Definition
Mohandas Gandhi
Term
Which leader succeeded Vladimir Lenin in 1924 as the head of the Soviet Union?
Definition
Joseph Stalin
Term
According to the chart below, which nation suffered the greatest loss of military personnel?
Definition
the Soviet Union
Term
Which nation moved into Manchuria in the 1930s, resulting in the development of Manchukuo and a pact with Germany?
Definition
Japan
Term
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
Definition
The United States refused to sell oil to Japan.
Term
Which of the following did NOT occur after Germany invaded the Soviet Union?
Definition
Germany conquered the Soviet Union and exiled Joseph Stalin to Siberia.
Term
What occurred on the nights of November 8 and 9, 1938 in Germany that was a precursor for what was to come?
Definition
Businesses and homes of Jews were destroyed in an organized violent attack.
Term
In 1931, which nation expanded its territories into Manchuria, leading to war with China and to violent deaths for more than 100,000 people in the Nanking Massacre?
Definition
Japan
Term
What scientist emigrated from Germany to the United States and became the director of the Manhattan Project?
Definition
Robert Oppenheimer
Term
Select the term used to describe the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Definition
Holocaust
Term
Which of the following was NOT a cause of World War II?
Definition
An alliance was formed between Germany and the United States.
Term
Hitler believed that what group of people was the master race, as he made plans for territorial expansion to provide more living space for them?
Definition
Germans
Term
Adolf Hitler annexed what two German-speaking regions before invading and conquering Czechoslovakia in 1939?
Definition
Austria and Sudetenland
Term
How did the war between the United States and Japan come to an end during World War II?
Definition
President Truman ordered that two atomic bombs be dropped on Japan.
Term
Which European leader did NOT create a totalitarian system of government that controlled all aspects of society?
Definition
Winston Churchill in England
Term
Which system of government rests furthest left on the political spectrum and, as a totalitarian regime, focuses on the government owning all aspects of the economy, including property and the means of production?
Definition
communism
Term
At what point did the United States become involved in World War II?
Definition
after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
Term
The United States became fearful that communism would spread around the world and ultimately impact America. What action was taken in an attempt to prevent that from happening?
Definition
The Marshall Plan
Term
How many people, worldwide, are believed to have died during World War II?
Definition
60 million
Term
What nation did Germany conquer in September 1939 using the blitzkrieg method, which marked the beginning of World War II?
Definition
Poland
Term
According to the chart below, which of the following nations suffered the greatest loss of civilians during World War II?
Definition
Poland
Term
What is true about the key German leaders who were responsible for the Holocaust?
Definition
The Nuremberg Trials lasted nearly four years, and many key German leaders were found guilty and sentenced to death.
Term
Who immigrated to the United States during World War II and became the director of the Manhattan Project, which created the atomic bomb?
Definition
Robert Oppenheimer
Term
After World War I, how did Japan become a dominant power, producing advanced weaponry to compete with Western nations?
Definition
It became an industrialized nation under strong military leaders.
Term
Which of the following events took place on November 9 and 10, 1938?
Definition
In Germany, Jewish-owned stores, homes, and places of worship were destroyed in a planned attack.
Term
Who became the Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II?
Definition
Winston Churchill
Term
Which Soviet leader promoted the policies of glasnost and perestroika in an effort to save the Soviet economy?
Definition
Mikhail Gorbachev
Term
What event occurred in Tiananmen Square in 1989?
Definition
Pro-democracy protesters were killed by government troops.
Term
Which of the following was NOT one of the topics of discussion during the SALT talks initiated by President Richard Nixon?
Definition
increasing the number of anti-ballistic missiles, which were used to shoot down missiles
Term
During Mao Zedong's rule of China, he invoked the Cultural Revolution, which was an effort to increase the literacy rate in China and elevate the educators and intellectuals to the highest status. T/F
Definition
false
Term
What nation, once controlled by Great Britain, was partitioned into two nations based upon religion?
Definition
India
Term
Identify the nation that utilized biological and chemical weapons during war with the Iranians in the 1980s.
Definition
Iraq
Term
Why is war against terrorists difficult to fight?
Definition
Members of terrorist groups are scattered throughout the world, so there is no one clear target.
Term
Select the country in Africa that was subjected to apartheid laws once the Afrikaners, or descendents of original Dutch settlers, came to power.
Definition
South Africa
Term
What nation was established in 1948 as a homeland for the Jews?
Definition
Israel
Term
When Juan Perón came to power in Argentina, what group of people did his wife Eva work to support?
Definition
the poor working class
Term
What nation was responsible for constructing the Panama Canal from 1906 to 1914, and overseeing the waterway until 1999?
Definition
the United States
Term
What Muslim country was created when India was separated due to religious conflicts?
Definition
Pakistan
Term
What agreement was made between the United States, Mexico, and Canada in 1992 that concerned many working people?
Definition
a free trade agreement between all three nations, which cut tariffs on imports
Term
Who led Cuba to a revolution, became dictator for over 50 years, and converted the nation into a strict Communist regime?
Definition
Fidel Castro
Term
In 1962, President John F. Kennedy was faced with a decision to avoid nuclear war. What occurred to place the United States in that position?
Definition
The Soviets placed missiles in Cuba.
Term
Whose visit to Poland in the late 1970s helped helped inspire the Polish people to fight communism?
Definition
Pope John Paul II
Term
During the Russian Constitutional Crisis, which Russian president illegally dissolved the Russian Parliament and scrapped the constitution?
Definition
Boris Yeltsin
Term
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's concept of glasnost was an attempt to
Definition
pull the nation out of economic troubles.
Term
Who was the leader of the Polish movement called "Solidarity"?
Definition
Lech Walesa