Shared Flashcard Set

Details

urinary system
test for Urinary system
82
Anatomy
11/14/2011

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
the urinary system
Definition

regulates plasma concentration of electrolytes

regulates blood volume by removing RBC's from circulation

Term
Organs of the urinary system that are involved with urine transport are the
Definition
urethra and ureters.
Term
Using anatomical terminology, identify the correct order of words that make this a true statement: The ________ kidney extends ________ slightly more than the ________ kidney.
Definition
left; superiorly; right
Term
Urine is stored by the
Definition
urinary bladder.
Term
Which of the following is correct about the location of the kidney?
Definition
The kidneys are bilateral and retroperitoneal.
Term
Which of the following carries urine from the kidney to the bladder?
Definition
ureter
Term
The kidneys are
Definition

located in a position that is retroperitoneal.
 surrounded by a renal capsule.

 

Term
A pyelogram, an X-ray of the urinary system in which radio-opaque dye is injected into the urinary pathways, can be used to detect
Definition
A) kidney stones.
B) structural abnormalities of the kidney.
C) obstruction of the ureters.
D) tumors or growths in the urinary bladder.
Term
A renal corpuscle includes the
Definition
glomerulus and glomerular capsule.
Term
The renal pyramid is
Definition
a conical-shaped structure that is located in the renal medulla.
Term
The innermost layer of kidney tissue is the
Definition
renal medulla.
Term
Cortical tissue located between renal pyramids is called
Definition
renal columns.
Term
Renal columns are
Definition
located adjacent to interlobar vessels.
Term
Major calyces are
Definition
large branches of the renal pelvis.
Term
The glomerular capsule and glomerulus make up the
Definition
renal corpuscle
Term
The expanded end of a nephron is the
Definition
glomerular capsule.
Term
A DCT is
Definition
the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
Term
The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the
Definition
distal convoluted tubule.
Term
The portion of the nephron between the glomerular capsule and the nephron loop is the
Definition
proximal convoluted tubule.
Term
proximal convoluted tubule.
Definition
podocytes.
Term
The renal tubule contains cells adapted for absorption by having
Definition
microvilli.
Term
The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney:
Definition

4. renal artery
3. interlobar artery

2. arcuate artery

6. interlobular artery

1. afferent arteriole

5. glomerulus

7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary

Term
Which of the following are too large to be filtered?
Definition
proteins.
Term
The countercurrent mechanism functions in the
Definition
loop of Henle.
Term
Reabsorption of glucose occurs mostly in the
Definition
proximal convoluted tubule.
Term
Most hydrogen ions are secreted into the
Definition
PCT.
Term
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
Definition
absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.
Term
The ability to form a concentrated urine depends on the regulation of the
Definition
collecting duct.
Term
The cells of the proximal convoluted tubule normally reabsorb
Definition
A) approximately 60 percent of the volume of the filtrate produced in the renal corpuscle.
B) virtually all of the glucose and other nutrients under normal conditions.
C) cations such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium.
D) anions such as bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and phosphate.
Term
General characteristics of normal urine include
Definition

specific gravity

pH.

Term
Which of the following is the lesser amount?
Definition
the concentration of solute in the filtrate at the bottom of the descending limb of the nephron loop
Term
ADH promotes water reabsorption mainly through the wall of the
Definition
collecting duct.
Term
Which of the following is aldosterone able to affect?
Definition
regulation of body fluid concentration
Term
When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) increases,
Definition
less urine is produced.
Term
In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce
Definition
urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
Term
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by
Definition
vasodilation of the afferent arteriole.
Term
The hormone ADH
Definition
stimulates water conservation at the kidneys
Term
The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
Definition
aldosterone.
Term
If the afferent arteriole becomes constricted,
Definition
GFR will decrease
Term
Factors that increase the secretion of ADH include
Definition
A) increased concentration of sodium ions in the ECF.
B) water deprivation.
C) increased osmolarity of the ECF.
D) decreased renal blood flow.
Term
If, through injury, the blood flow to the kidneys decreases, which of the following will occur?
Definition
The renin-angiotensin system will be activated.
Term
Management of renal failure involves restriction of water and salt intake and reducing caloric intake to a minimum; dietary proteins are also limited. This combination lessens the strain on the urinary system by
Definition

minimizing volume of urine produced.

preventing the generation of large quantities of nitrogenous waste products.

Term
The micturition reflex center is located in the
Definition
sacral spinal cord
Term
Which of the following is the most distal part of the male urethra?
Definition
penile urethra
Term
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by
Definition
transitional epithelium.
Term
Which of the following is greater?
Definition
the length of the urethra in males
Term
The term incontinence refers to the
Definition
inability to control urination.
Term
The detrusor muscle
Definition
compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.
Term
The intracellular fluid (ICF) is found in
Definition
the cells of the body.
Term
Which of the following is considered transcellular fluid?
Definition
cerebrospinal fluid
Term
Movement of water between compartments is by
Definition
osmosis.
Term
Which compartment is the largest?
Definition
interstitial fluid
Term
The most abundant cation in the ECF is
Definition
sodium.
Term
The principal cation in the ICF is
Definition
potassium.
Term
When water is lost but electrolytes are retained
Definition
osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
Term
Hypoproteinemia could lead to
Definition
a temporary increase in blood volume.
Term
Intracellular fluid contains high concentrations of
Definition
potassium and phosphate.
Term
When the level of sodium ions in the ECF increases
Definition
a person experiences an increased thirst.
Term
When the amount of sodium ions in the ECF increases,
Definition
osmoreceptors are stimulated.
Term
Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects
Definition
an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.
Term
The thirst center is located in the
Definition
hypothalamus.
Term
Dehydration would cause
Definition
increased thurst
Term
If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body,
Definition
osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell.
Term
The primary stimulus in the blood for the secretion of aldosterone is
Definition
falling sodium levels.
Term
Ions normally found in urine and plasma include which of the following?
Definition
A) chloride
B) bicarbonate
C) potassium
D) sodium
Term
Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result of this exposure, one would expect to observe
Definition
elevated ADH levels
Term
The most important factor affecting the pH of body fluids is the concentration of
Definition
carbon dioxide
Term
The most abundant intracellular mechanism for regulating pH is
Definition
protein buffers.
Term
Hypoventilation would cause
Definition
respiratory acidosis.
Term
In response to respiratory alkalosis,
Definition
the body retains more carbon dioxide.
Term
A person who suffers from emphysema can exhibit signs of
Definition
respiratory acidosis
Term
A person who suffers from chronic diabetes can exhibit signs of
Definition
metabolic acidosis.
Term
A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk
Definition
metabolic alkalosis
Term
Which of the following is an example of a physiologic buffer?
Definition
renal mechanisms
Term
Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by
Definition
converting strong acids to weak acids
Term
Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate to relieve indigestion may lead to
Definition
metabolic alkalosis.
Term
Movement of fluid from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule is called _________________________.
Definition
secretion
Term
Water reabsorption occurs by the process of _________________________.
Definition
osmosis
Term
ADH is produced by cells in the _________________________.
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
The osmoreceptors of the nephron are located in the _________________________.
Definition
macula densa
Term
Substances that combine with hydrogen ions in solution are called _________________________.
Definition
bases
Term
The most abundant source of hydrogen ions are those from _________________________.
Definition
metabolism