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Urinary system A & P
(some found in NCLEX review set) Chap 27 - Urinary system
143
Nursing
01/18/2010

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Cards

Term
AKA excretory system
Definition
AKA urinary system
Term
Urology
Definition
study of the urinary system
Term
study of the urinary system
Definition
Urology
Term
AKA urinary system
Definition
AKA excretory system
Term
accumulation of water in the tissues
Definition
edema
Term
edema
Definition
accumulation of water in the tissues
Term
The kidneys are said to be ______ because they lie behind the peritoneum
Definition
retroperitoneal
Term
renal cortex (anatomy)
Definition
outer reddsh-brown part of the kidney
Term
outer reddish-brown part of the kidney
Definition
renal cortex
Term
contains the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules
Definition
renal medulla
Term
cone-shaped structures formed from the collecting tubules
Definition
renal pyramids
Term
 Describe the renal pyramids (anatomy)
Definition
cone-shaped structures formed from the collecting tubules
Term
Cup-like extensions of the renal pelvis
Definition
Calyces
Term
Calyces
Definition
Cup-like extensions of the renal pelvis
Term
the glomerulus is partially enclosed in a funnel-shaped structure called ____
Definition
Bowman's capsule
Term
a long twisted tube that extends from Bowman's capsule
Definition
convoluted tubule
Term
consists of specialized glandular cell responsible for maintaining blood pressure
Definition
juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
Term
the JGA secretes ___ into the bloodstream, activating the _____, which raises blood pressure
Definition
renin / renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) mechanism
Term
causes blood vessels to constrict
Definition
Angiotensin II
Term
When the blood vessels constrict, _____ is secreted by ______
Definition
aldosterone / adrenal cortex
Term
Hormone secreted by cells in the atria of the heart.
Definition
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Term
function of ANP
Definition
increase kidney filtration and blood flow when blood volume increases.
Term
increase kidney filtration and blood flow when blood volume increases.
Definition
function of ANP
Term
hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the stem cells in red bone marrow
Definition
erythropoetin (EPO)
Term
erythropoetin (EPO)
Definition
hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the stem cells in red bone marrow
Term
narrow tubes attached to the kidneys at the renal pelvis
Definition
ureters
Term
urine is carried through the walls of the ureters by what method?
Definition
peristalsis (similar to the intestine)
Term
hollow muscular sac
Definition
bladder
Term
bladder
Definition
hollow muscular sac
Term
triangular area on the floor of the bladder that does not expand
Definition
trigone
Term
trigone
Definition
triangular area on the floor of the bladder that does not expand
Term
the urge to void usually occurs when the bladder fills to this amount
Definition
250-400mL
Term
maximum volume of the bladder
Definition
1,000 mL
Term
1,000 mL
Definition
maximum volume of the bladder
Term
processes of urine formation
Definition
glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, an tubular secretion.
Term
ADH controls reabsorption of ___
Definition
water
Term
glomerular filtrate contains what?
Definition
water, glucose, urea, creatinine and electrolytes
Term
the amount of filtrate formed in all glomeruli of both kidneys per minute
Definition
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Term
GFR
Definition
the amount of filtrate formed in all glomeruli of both kidneys per minute
Term
about 125 mL/min
Definition
normal GFR
Term
normal GFR
Definition
about 125 mL/min
Term
mechanisms that cause reabsorption (types of reabsorption)
Definition
active and passive transport
Term
active and passive transport
Definition
mechanisms that cause reabsorption
Term
Because the proximal tubules are highly permeable, water is reabsorbed by _____
Definition
osmosis
Term
the maximum amount the tubules hold before excreting the excess into the urine is called ___
Definition
the renal threshold
Term
process by which substances move from the blood into the urine
Definition
tubular secretion
Term
tubular secretion
Definition
process by which substances move from the blood into the urine
Term
the process by which substances move from the urine to the blood
Definition
tubular reabsorption
Term
tubular reabsorption
Definition
the process by which substances move from the urine to the blood
Term
how much urine is excreted daily
Definition
1,000 - 1,500 mL
Term
another name for cloudy
Definition
turbid
Term
turbid
Definition
another name for cloudy
Term
normal pH of urine
Definition
4.5 - 8.0
Term
specific gravity of normal urine
Definition
1.010 - 1.025
Term
What appears in urine in the case of disease or malfunction?
Definition
blood, glucose, pus, large amounts of bacteria, casts, ketone bodies, bile, albumin.
Term
involuntary micturation
Definition
urinary incontinence
Term
major cause of incontinence as a result of aging
Definition
loss of muscle tone.
Term

The major function of the kidneys is

 

A) Regulation of sodium chloride

B) Balance of body pH

C) Hormone secretion

D) All of the above

Definition
D) All of the above
Term

The functioning unit of the kidney is the ___

 

Definition
Nephron
Term
When the blood pressure falls too low, the kidneys will secrete ___.
Definition
Renin
Term
The function of erythropoetin is to stimulate ____
Definition
Red bone marrow
Term
The tube that carries urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
Definition
Ureter
Term
The amount of filtrate formed in all the glomeruli of both kidneys per minute
Definition
Glomerular filtration rate
Term
The blood vessels, nerves, and ureters enter the kidney through the ____
Definition
Hilum
Term
The aging process can cause the elderly client to have what three urinary difficulties?
Definition

- frequency

- nocturia

- stress incontinence

Term
The process by which waste products are allowed to pass across a barrier and be removed from the body
Definition
Filtration
Term
The maximum amount of a substance that is reabsorbed back into the body from the kidney tubules
Definition
Renal threshold
Term

What condition is indicated by the following urinalysis results:

 

- volume: 100cc

- color: amber

- pH: 6.4

- spec. gravity: 1.035

- blood: none seen

- bacteria: none seen

- albumin: none seen

 

Definition
Dehydration
Term

To assist the elderly client to compensate for the age-related changes occurring in the urinary system, you suggest which of the following interventions?

 

A) Maintain a maximum fluid intake of 1,000 mL/day

B) Encourage the use of alcohol and caffeinated beverages at bedtime to enhance sleep

C) Teach the client to wipe from back to front after every urination

D) Teach the client to perform pelvic exercises

Definition
D) pelvic exercises
Term
What is the approximate urine output for an adult per day?
Definition
1,000 - 1,500 mL/day
Term

In clients with renal failure, the kidneys are not functioning as well.  Therefore, these people will be at risk for which of the following disorders?

 

A) Anemia

B) Bone demineralization

C) High blood pressure

D) All of the above

Definition
D) All of the above
Term
Generally, children begin to have voluntary control of urination at approximately what age?
Definition
Around 36 months
Term

Which of the following hormones is not responsible for sodium and water regulation in the body?

 

A) Atrial natriuretic peptide

B) Aldosterone

C) ADH

D) Angiotensin II

Definition

D) Angiotensin II

 

 

Term

A nurse is caring for a client with diabetic nephropathy.  Which should the nurse assess for in the client's kidneys as a result of his condition?

 

A) Increased incidence of urinary incontinence

B) Concentrated urine

C) Low blood pressure

D) Urinary retention

Definition
A) Increased urinary incontinence
Term

A client with a history of nocturia is confined to bed.  What should be the nursing intervention?

 

A) Fluid restriction during the day

B) Restrict cranberry juice

C) Incontinence pads

D) Offer bedpan frequently

Definition
D) Bedpan
Term

Which is an effect of aging on the urinary system?

 

A) Reduction in filtering ability of kidney

B) Reduction in nephron count

C) Alterations in the basement membrane

D) Decrease in blood urea nitrogen levels

Definition
B) Reduction in nephron count
Term

What is the role of renin?

 

 

Definition
Regulation of blood pressure
Term

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

 

A) Secrete aldosterone

B) Promote water retention

C) Regulate blood pressure

D) Produce erythropoietin

Definition
C) Regulate blood pressure
Term
What could lead to low specific gravity of urine?
Definition
Excess fluid intake
Term

Which effect could lead to stress incontinence?

 

A) Reduced bladder capacity

B) Decreased urine formation

C) Reduced renal blood flow

D) Loss of muscle tone

Definition
D) muscle tone loss
Term
Which part of the nephron assists in maximum reabsorption
Definition
Proximal tubule
Term
What is the effect of an enlarged prostate?
Definition
Urine retention
Term

Which is a common site for herniation in men?

 

A) Inguinal canal

B) Prostate gland

C) Cowper's glands

D) Scrotum

Definition
A) Inguinal canal
Term

Prostatic hypertrophy may cause

 

A) Difficulty with urination

B) Retention of urine

C) Inability to have an erection

D) All of the above

Definition
D) All of the above
Term
What blood vessels are found between the afferent and efferent arterioles?
Definition
Glomeruli
Term
What is the major artery that supplies the kidneys
Definition
Renal
Term

Which is correct?

 

A) One kidney

B) One ureter

C) Two urinary bladders

D) One urethra

Definition
D) One urethra
Term
The urinary tract is lined with ___
Definition
mucous membrane
Term
The renal cortex descends between the pyramids as the
Definition
renal columns
Term

The renal capsule

 

A) lines the tubules

B) lines the urinary bladder

C) surrounds the kidneys

D) outlines the trigone

Definition
C) surrounds the kidneys
Term

Which blood vessels are primarily concerned with reabsorption?

 

A) renal artery

B) glomeruli

C) renal vein

D) peritubular capillaries

Definition
D) peritubular capillaries
Term
What is the urine-making structure of the kidney?
Definition
Nephron unit
Term
Where does aldosterone exert its effects?
Definition
distal convoluted tubule
Term
The efferent arterioles extend to become the
Definition
peritubular capillaries
Term
The proximal convoluted tubules extend to become the ___
Definition
decending limb of Henle
Term
Urine flows fron the ascending limb of Henle into the
Definition
distal convoluted tubule
Term
The calyces receive urine from the
Definition
collecting ducts
Term
ADH affects the
Definition
collecting ducts
Term

Which of the following is not "plumbing"?

 

A) glomeruli

B) ureters

C) urinary bladder

D) urethra

Definition
A) glomeruli
Term

The word voiding refers to

 

A) urine formation

B) catheterization

C) micturation

D) cytisis

Definition
C) micturation
Term

Which of the following words best describes the function of the urinary bladder?

 

A) filtration

B) storage

C) reabsorption

D) neutralization of hydrogen

Definition
B) storage
Term
What structure is located between the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder?
Definition
Ureter
Term
The urinary meatus is part of the
Definition
urethra
Term

The detrusor muscle is concerned with

 

A) urine formation

B) micturition

C) sodium reabsorption

D) potassium excretion

Definition
B) micturition
Term
Kaliuresis refers to the renal excretion of
Definition
potassium
Term
Natriuresis refers to the renal excretion of
Definition
Sodium
Term
The renal excretion of Na+ is generally accompanied by the excretion of
Definition
water
Term
The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes
Definition
renin
Term
Renin activates
Definition
angiotensin II
Term

Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

 

A) causes polyuria

B) causes albuminuria

C) elevates blood pressure

D) causes hematuria

Definition
C) elevates blood pressure
Term

Aldosterone

 

A) depletes blood volume

B) causes potassium rebsorption

C) causes sodium excretion

D) causes Na+ reabsorption

Definition
D) causes Na+ reabsorption
Term

The juxtagolmerular apparatus is located near the

 

A) collecting duct

B) afferent arteriole

C) ureter

D) renal pelvis

Definition
B) afferent arteriole
Term
The internal and external sphincters are associated with the 
Definition
urinary bladder
Term

Which of the following is not located within the urinary bladder?

 

A) trigone

B) detrusor muscle

C) internal sphincter

D) calyces

Definition
D) calyces
Term

Which of the following should not be in the filtrate within Bowman's capsule?

 

A) albumin

B) sodium

C) potassium

D) water

Definition
A) albumin
Term

Which of the following is most apt to cause polyuria

 

A) oversecretion of aldosterone

B) oversecretion of antidiuretic hormone

C) deficiency of ADH

D) activation of angiotensinogen

Definition
C) deficiency of ADH
Term

Which of the following is not true of ADH?

 

A) secreted by the posterior pituitary gland

B) secreted in response to low blood volume and a concentrated plasma (as in dehydration)

C) causes the renal excretion of sodium, potassium, and water

D) a deficiency causes diabetes insipidus

Definition
C) causes the renal excretion of sodium, potassium, and water
Term

Which of the following is absorbed across the walls of the collecting duct under the influence of ADH?

 

A) potassium

B) urea

C) water

D) albumin

Definition
C) water
Term

Pyuria is indicative of

 

A) infection

B) glomerular damage

C) deficiency of ADH

D) excess of aldosterone

Definition
A) infection
Term
This substance is filtered by the glomerulus and is excreted in the urine; there is minimal reabsorption
Definition
creatinine
Term
Cystitis refers to inflammation of the
Definition
urinary bladder
Term

Which of the following is found in the kidney?

 

A) detrusor muscle

B) trigone

C) nephron units

D) urethra

Definition
C) nephron units
Term
Bowman's capsule is part of what structure in the kidney?
Definition
nephron unit
Term
Which structure filters 180 L of water per day?
Definition
glomeruli
Term

Which of the following is true of creatinine?

 

A) it is completely reabsorbed by the peritubular capillaries

B) it is a waste product that is filtered and not reabsorbed

C) it is a renal enzyme that activates angiotensinogen

D) it is a renal hormone that stimulates red blood cell production by the bone marrow

Definition
B) it is a waste product that is filtered and not reabsorbed
Term

Which of the following is an effect of a diuretic?

 

A) it causes the excretion of sodium in the urine

B) it causes hyperglycemia

C) it blocks the effects of PTH

D) it stimulates the reabsorption of sodium by the peritubular capillaries

Definition
A) it causes the excretion of sodium in the urine
Term

Which of the following occurs at the distal convoluted tubule?

 

A) 180 L of water is filtered into the tubules

B) renin is secreted

C) urine flows from the distal convoluted tubule into the ascending loop of Henle

D) sodium and water are reabsorbed

Definition
D) sodium and water are reabsorbed
Term

Which term refers to the voluntary expulsion of urine?

 

A) polyuria

B) diuresis

C) micturition

D) dialysis

Definition
C) micturition
Term
Which structure plays the most important role in reabsorption?
Definition
peritubular capillaries
Term

Which statement is true about ADH?

 

A) ADH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

B) ADH is a mineralcorticoid that is secreted by the adrenal cortex

C) ADH stimulates the collecting duct to reabsorb water

D) an absence of ADH is called diabetes mellitus

Definition
C) ADH stimulates the collecting duct to reabsorb water
Term
Low plasma levels of oxygen stimulate the kidneys to secrete this hormone
Definition
erythropoietin
Term
In the process of secretion, a substance moves from the peritubular capillaries into this structure.
Definition
tubules
Term

Under normal conditions, this substance is present in the urine

 

A) creatinine

B) fibrinogen

C) myosin

D) albumin

Definition
A) creatinine
Term

Which condition is associated with proteinuria?

 

A) bladder infection

B) urethritis

C) glomerular disease

D) deficiency of ADH

Definition
C) glomerular disease
Term

Which hormone affects blood volume?

 

A) PTH

B) erythropoietin

C) insulin

D) aldosterone

Definition
D) aldosterone
Term

Which of the following is true of aldosterone?

 

A) secreted by the posterior pituitary gland

B) acts on the collecting duct blocking the reabsorption of water

C) stimulates the reabsorption of water, but has no effect on potassium

D) a mineralocorticoid that stimulates reabsorption of sodium

Definition
D) a mineralocorticoid that stimulates reabsorption of sodium
Term
What is caused by a deficiency of erythropoietin?
Definition
anemia
Term

Which of the following is caused by prolonged hypotension?

 

A) oliguria

B) albuminuria

C) cystitis

D) glomerulonephritis

Definition
C) cystitis
Term
What is the meaning of an elevated serum creatinine?
Definition
sign of kidney failure
Term
What is diuresis?
Definition
increased urinary output
Term

Which condition is characterized by hematuria and pyuria?

 

A) renal failure

B) diuresis

C) retention

D) cycstitis

Definition
D) cycstitis
Term
How does renal failure lead to anemia
Definition
lack of erythropoietin.
Term

Which is a possible complication from mumps?

 

A) Seminal vesicles stop production of semen

B) Prostate gland atrophies completely

C) Orchitis (inflammation of testes) may occur

D) Temperature of scrotum increases drastically

Definition
C) Orchitis