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Urinalysis: Specimen collection and physical examination
urinalysis test 1
40
Health Care
09/13/2009

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Cards

Term
What is the simplest and most common method for preservation of a urine sample?
Definition
refrigeration at 4 to 6 C
Term
How can refrigeration interfere with microscopic examination?
Definition
it can induce the precipitation of amorphous urate and phosphate crystals
Term
In order to test a refrigerated urine sample, you must first..?
Definition
let the sample return to room temperature because some tests are temperature dependent
Term
What preservative is used when urine specimens must be transported long distances?
Definition
boric acid.
Term
What causes color change in a urine specimen that is allowed to remain at room temp for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
oxidation or reduction of metabolites
Term
What causes increased turbidity in a urine sample that is allowed to remain at room temp. for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
bacterial proliferation and possible precipitation of amorphous material
Term
What happens to the pH of a urine sample allowed to remain unpreserved at room temperature for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
the pH increases due to the breakdown of urea to ammonia by bacteria
Term
What happens to glucose levels in a urine sample that remains at room temperature for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
glucose decreases due to glycolysis and bacterial utilization.
Term
What happens to ketones in a urine sample that is allowed to remain at room temperature for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
ketones are decreased because of evaporation and/or bacterial metabolism of acetoacetate to acetone.
Term
What happens to bilirubin in a urine sample that is allowed to remain at room temperature for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
bilirubin is decreased because of photo oxidation to biliverdin and hydrolysis to free bilirubin
Term
What happens to urobilinogen in a urine sample that is allowed to remain at room temperature for more than 1-2 hours?
Definition
urobilinogen is decreased because it's oxidized to urobilin
Term
What happens to nitrite levels in a urine sample that remains at room temperature for longer than 1-2 hours?
Definition
nitrites are increased because of bacterial reduction of nitrate.
Term
What is the most commonly recieved type of urine specimen?
Definition
random specimen
Term
Which type of urine specimen is considered the ideal screening specimen because it's more concentrated?
Definition
first morning specimen.
Term
When do you get a 2-hour post-prandial specimen and what is it good for?
Definition
2 hours after eating; it's used for glucose testing in monitoring insulin therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Term
What kind of specimen is needed in order to measure the exact amount of a urine chemical, rather than just its presence or absence?
Definition
24 hour specimen
Term
What type of specimen is commonly requested for bacterial cultures on hospitalized patients?
Definition
catheterized specimen
Term
What is an alternative to catheterized specimen for bacterial culture?
Definition
midstream clean catch specimen
Term
What is the best sample for bacterial culture?
Definition
suprapubic aspiration
Term
What pigment causes the yellow color of urine?
Definition
urochrome
Term
What is the normal range for 24 hour urine output?
Definition
600-1800 mL per 24 hour period
Term
The absence of urine formation is called..?
Definition
anuria
Term
What are the causes for anuria?
Definition
conditions that decrease the blood supply to the kidneys- hypotension, hemorrhage, shock, and heart failure.
Term
What is the word for diminished amount of urine?
Definition
oliguria
Term
What conditions can cause oliguria?
Definition
profuse perspiration, vomiting, diarrhea, renal failure
Term
What is the word for excessive production of urine?
Definition
polyuria
Term
What conditions are associated with polyuria?
Definition
diabetes, chronic nephritis, edematous states, hyperthyroidism, excessive intake of fluids
Term
what is the word for excessive urination during the night?
Definition
nocturia
Term
what can cause nocturia?
Definition
chronic renal failure
Term
Yellow foam in urine specimen could be caused by what?
Definition
bilirubin
Term
Urine containing abundant white foam, resembling beaten egg white, is caused by what?
Definition
a large concentration of protein or albumin
Term
What is the direct method for measuring specific gravity?
Definition
urinometer or hydrometer method.
Term
What correction is made to the refractometer result in the presence of glucose?
Definition
subtract .004 for each g/dL of glucose.
Term
What correction is made to the refractometer result in the presence of protein?
Definition
subtract .003 for each g/dL of protein
Term
what is the specific gravity of isosthenuria?
Definition
1.010
Term
what is the specific gravity of hyposthenuria?
Definition
below 1.010
Term
what is the specific gravity of hypersthenuria?
Definition
above 1.010
Term
what is fixed specific gravity- specific gravity of 1.010 regardless of fluid intake- associated with?
Definition
severe renal damage- the kidney can no longer carry out its diluting and concentrating functions
Term
If you get a specific gravity result above 1.035, what should you do?
Definition
measure specific gravity with the reagent strip, which is not affected by high molecular weight substances
Term
What is the specific gravity of a specimen diluted 1:2 with a reading of 1.025?
Definition
1.050 (multiply decimal portion by dilution factor)