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Tree Identification 2
Winter Characteristics
76
Plant Sciences
02/05/2009

Additional Plant Sciences Flashcards

 


 

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Term

Lonicera maackii

 

Family: Caprifoliaceae

 

Amur honeysuckle

Definition

Opposite

 

Tall shrub to 15'

 

Twigs pale brown, striped or lightly furrowed

Term

Rhamnus cathartica

 

Family:  Rhamnaceae

 

Common Buckthorn

Definition

Subopposite

 

Single thorn at tip of branches

 

Grayish-brown bark, elongated lenticels;

peels in curly-edged sheets;

orange inner bark

Term

Prunus americana

 

Family:  Roseaceae

 

Wild Plum

Definition

Suckers often form thickets

 

Buds & twiglets sharp, thornlike

 

Tree or shrub 20-35'

Term

Populus deltoides

 

Family:  Saliaceae

 

Eastern Cottonwood

Definition

Buds 1/2 - 3/4", three-sided at twig tips,

shiny, yellowish-brown, fragrant

 

Young bark smooth, yellowish-gray

Mature bark gray, furrowed, thick

 

5-pointed pith

Term

Ulmus rubra

 

Family: Ulmaceae

 

Slippery Elm 

Definition

Twig slightly zig-zag

 

Bud not directly above scar

 

Red, mucilaginous inner bark

 

Round, papery samara, 3/4 - 1"

Term

Euonymus alatus

 

Family: Celastraceae

 

Burning Bush

Definition

Four prominent wings on twigs

 

Buds sharp, reddish brown

 

Multi-stemmed shrub, to 10'

 

Gray bark splits slightly to look faintly striped

Term

Cephalanthus occidentalis

 

Family: Rubiaceae

 

Buttonbush

Definition

Shrub

 

Fruit are "buttons" -- a round cluster of nutlets,

each 1/4"

 

Twig: dark reddish brown; light, elongated lenticels;

tips die back

 

Leaf scar:  D-shaped

Term

Taxodium distichum

 

Family: Taxodiaceae

 

Bald Cypress

Definition

Buttressed base surrounded by "knees"

 

Fruit has "soccer-ball" look;

nearly spherical, 3/4-1"

 

Bark:  Fibrous, red-brown

Term

Fagus sylvatica

 

Family: Fagaceae

 

European Beech

Definition

Smooth grey bark; may be mottled

 

Long, 1" buds, light brown,

with slightly fuzzy scales

 

Fruits:  seeds in a woody, spiny husk, 1"

 

(Leaves have 7-9 pairs of veins;

margin is somewhat toothed or wavy)

Term

Alnus glutinosa

 

Family: Betulaceae

 

Black alder

Definition

Fruits in 5/8 - 1 1/2" cones -- persistent

 

Twigs sticky, with 3-sided pith

 

Buds stalked, blunt-tipped

 

Young bark has large horizontal lenticels

Term

Ginkgo biloba

 

Family: Ginkgoaceae

 

Ginkgo

Definition

Stubby twigs

 

Shallow diamond bark

 

(Fan-shaped leaves, 2 lobes)

Term

Acer rubrum

 

Family: Aceraceae

 

Red Maple

Definition

Twig:  new growth is reddish, has lenticels

 

Buds blunt, green or red, w. several loose scales

 

Leave scars v-shaped, 3 bundle scars

 

Young bark smooth, light grey;

Mature bark -- long, fine, scale plates

Term

Acer saccharinum

 

Family: Aceraceae

 

Silver Maple

Definition

Fruit:  Large samara, 1 1/2 - 2 1/2"

 

Reddish twig; buds have large scales;

flower buds in dense clusters

 

Unpleasant odor when crushed

 

Young bark light grey and smooth;

Mature bark has long, thin strips, loose at ends

Term

Fagus grandifolia

 

Family: Fagaceae

 

American Beech

Definition

Fruit:  seeds in woody, spiny husk, 1/2 - 3/4"

 

Slender twig; light brown, pointed buds, 3/4"

 

Smooth, grey bark

 

(Leaf:  11-14 pairs of veins,

each ending in a sharp tooth; 2 1/2 - 5 1/2")

Term

Fraxinus americana

 

Family: Oleaceae

 

White Ash

Definition

Opposite

 

Diamond-patterned bark

 

Stoutish twigs; tip buds reddish brown,

1/4 - 1/2", w. smaller bud on each side

 

Pyramidal shape

 

(Leaves compound, 5-9 leaflets, 8-16",

 white beneath w. tiny bumps)

Term

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

 

Family: Oleaceae

 

Red (or Green) Ash

Definition

Opposite

 

Leaf stalks narrowly winged

 

Diamond-patterned bark, reddish-tinged

 

(Leaves compound, 5-9 leaflets, 10 - 12",

shallow-toothed above the middle)

Term

Tilia americana

 

Family:  Tiliaceae

 

American Basswood

Definition

"Helicopter," several inches long,

with separate, round fruit attached

 

Red, 2-scaled bud, bulging on one side

 

Zig-zag twig

Term

Gymnocladus dioicus

 

Family:  Fabaceae

 

Kentucky Coffee Tree

Definition

Dark brown pods, 4 - 10"

 

Pink pith

 

Zig-zag branches

 

Heart-shaped leaf scar

 

(Leaves up to a yard long)

Term

Crataegus mollis

 

Family:  Rosaceae

 

Downy Hawthorn

Definition

Large, single thorns

 

Fruits:  bright red haws (small apples)

 

Round, red buds

 

Leaf scars:  3 bundle scars

Term

Carpinus caroliniana

 

Family:  Betulaceae

 

Hornbeam

Musclewood

 

Definition

Wood is gray, smooth, looks "muscular"

 

Short, crooked trunk

Term

Quercus alba

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

White Oak

Definition

Mulitple reddish terminal buds

 

Pith 5-pointed

 

Leaves persistent, deeply pinnately lobed,

rounded tips

Term

Acer saccharum

 

Family:  Aceraceae

 

Sugar Maple

Definition

Opposite

 

Seeds:  double helicopter (samara)

 

Brown buds on brown twigs

 

Leaf scar: crescent w. indents, 3 bundle scars

 

Rounded crown

Term

Ostrya virginiana

 

Family:  Betulaceae

 

Hophornbeam

Definition

Cat-scratch bark

 

Stiff catkins at end of twigs, in groups of 3

 

Fruit resembles hops

Term

Magnolia x soulangeana

 

Family:  Magnoliaceae

 

Saucer Magnolia

Definition

Large, fuzzy terminal bud,

with yellow-green flower inside

 

Small, multi-stemmed tree

 

Smooth, mottled grey bark

Term

Cercis canadensis

 

Family:  Fabaceae

 

Eastern Redbud

Definition

Short brown legume fruit

 

Zig-zag twig

 

Reddish, scaling bark

 

Often multiple purplish buds

Term

Larix decidua

 

Family:  Pinaceae

 

European Larch

Definition

Loses needles

 

Prefers dry soils

 

Cones 3/4 - 1 3/8"

 

Rounded, reddish buds, on top of knob-like twig

 

Twigs "droop" slightly

Term

Cornus alternifolia

 

Family:  Cornaceae

 

Pagoda Dogwood

Definition

Only alternate dogwood

 

Branches in "tiers" like a pagoda

 

Dead twigs turn yellow-orange

 

Fruit on drupes (purple berry on red strings)

Term

Liriodendron tulipifera

 

Family:  Magnoliaceae

 

Tuliptree

Yellow Poplar

 

Definition

Tulipflowers -- persistent

 

Twigs have stipeal scar all around

 

Buds:  duckbill shape, 2 scales

 

Barred (diaphragmed) pith

 

Trunk:  2/3 branch-free

Term

Larix laricina

 

Family:  Pinaceae

 

American Larch

Definition

Loses needles

 

Prefers wet soils

 

Cones 3/8 - 3/4"

 

Reddish bud on top of knob-like twig

 

Twigs do not droop

Term

Aesculus hippocastanum

 

Family:  Hippocastanaceae

 

Horsechestnut

Definition

Opposite

 

Very large, sticky terminal bud

 

Spiny green or brown fruits, 2 - 2 1/2"

 

Large shield-shaped leaf scar

Term

Quercus bicolor

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

Swamp White Oak

Definition

Persistent leaves, shallow pinnate rounded lobes,

pale and white-wooly beneath

 

Crooked, hanging branches below

 

Multiple terminal buds

 

Star-shaped pith

Term

Aesculus glabra

 

Family:  Hippocastanaceae

 

Ohio Buckeye

Definition

Opposite

 

Large, dry terminal bud;

smaller side buds just below

 

Green, spiny fruits 3/4 - 1 1/2"

 

Large shield-shaped leaf scar

Term

Quercus rubra

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

Red Oak

Definition

Leaves persistent, pinnately lobed,

sharp tips, bristles

 

Multiple terminal buds

 

Star-shaped pith

Term

Catalpa speciosa

 

Family:  Bignoniaceae

 

Northern Catalpa

Definition

10 - 20" thin pods, green then brown

 

Leaves "whorled" -- three buds at a node

 

Leaf scars elliptical or round, sunken;

circular bundle scar

Term

Rhus glabra

 

Family:  Anicardiaceae

 

Smooth Sumac

Definition

Very large pith

 

Hairless leaves and twigs

 

Large cone-shaped, red fruit clusters

 

Leaf scar almost encircles bud

 

 

Term

Carya cordiformis

 

Family:  Juglandaceae

 

Bitternut Hickory

Definition

Sulfur-yellow buds

 

4-ridged fruit husk, yellow-felted

 

Bark:  flat, shallow, grayish ridges

Term

Acer negundo

 

Family:  Aceracea

 

Box Elder

Definition

Opposite

 

Green or purple twigs, shiny or waxy-powdered

 

Bark slightly ridged

 

Buds covered with waxy white hairs

 

White, solid pith

 

Broken twig has acrid odor

Term

Gleditisia triacanthos

 

Family:  Fabaceae

 

Honey Locust

Definition

Branched thorns, up to 12"

(unless it is "thornless" variety)

 

Zig-zag twig

 

Fruits:  Brown, spirally-twisted pods, 6 - 18"

 

Bark:  gray plates w. orange interior

Term

Celtis occidentalis

 

Family:  Ulmaceae

 

Common Hackberry

Definition

Bark:  warty bumps on corky ridges

 

Zig-zag stems; no terminal bud

 

Fruit:  red-purple, 1/4, berry-like drupes

Term

Juglans nigra

 

Family:  Juglandaceae

 

Black Walnut

Definition

Bark almost black, ridged, diamond pattern

 

Chambered pith

 

Fruits:  round, 1 1/2 - 2 3/8, yellow then brown,

slightly hairy, in clusters of 1 to 3

Term

Prunus serotina

 

Family:  Rosaceae

 

Wild Black Cherry

Definition

"Burnt potato chip" bark,

reddish-brown underneath

 

Fruits:  reddish or blackish cherries,

many individually on stems

 

Few branches; tips droop

Term

Platanus acerifolia

 

Family:  Platanaceae

 

London Plane Tree

Definition

Bark flakes to expose pale inner bark

 

Fruit:  paired balls, 3/4 to 1 3/8"

 

(Deeply lobed leaves, similar to maple)

Term

Platanus occidentalis

 

Family:  Platanaceae

 

Sycamore

Definition

Bark flakes to expose pale inner bark

 

Fruit:  solitary balls, 3/4 to 1 3/8"

 

Stipules encircle twigs

 

(Leaves:  shallowly 3-5 lobed,

coarse and irregular teeth)

Term

Quercus macrocarpa

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

Burr Oak

Definition

Thick, corky bark; big, thick tree

 

Acorns:  fringed cap almost covers the nut

 

(Leaves deeply pinnately lobed, rounded,

whitish-hairy underneath, dark green above)

Term

Hamamelis virginiana

 

Family:  Hamamelidaceae

 

Witch Hazel

Definition

Shrub with two or more small trunks

 

Fruits:  2-beaked capsule, 1/2",

that opens to shoot out the seed

 

Buds and twigs densely fuzzy

Term

Crataegus phaenopyrum

 

Family:  Rosaceae

 

Washington Hawthorn

Definition

Thorns, 1 - 3", along stem

 

Tiny, bright red haws

 

Short trunk; as wide as tall

Term

Ulmus americana

 

Family:  Ulmaceae

 

American Elm

Definition

Bark -- white layers alternating with darker ones

 

Fruit:  clusters of samaras w. membraneous wing

 

Trunks buttress at base

 

No terminal bud

 

Leaf scar looks like a "cat face"

Term

Rhus typhina

 

Family:  Anacardiaceae

 

Staghorn Sumac

Definition

Fruit:  large, fuzzy crimson panicle

 

Very hairy, very thick stems

Term

Carya ovata

 

Family:  Juglandaceae

 

Shagbark Hickory

Definition

Shaggy grey bark with peeling plates

 

Buds:  greenish brown, 1/2 - 3/4" at twig tips,

upper scales hairy

 

Rounded nut, 1 - 1 1/2"

Term

Ailanthus altissima

 

Family:  Simaroubaceae

 

Tree of Heaven

Definition

Thick branches, thick pith

 

Twigs short, reddish-brown, velvety

 

Prominent U-shaped leaf scars

 

Buds downy, hemispherical,

2-4 scaled, absent at tips of twigs

Term

Salix babylonica

 

Family:  Saliaceae

 

Weeping Willow

Definition

Long, yellow twigs

 

Buds single-scaled

Term

Malus pumila

 

Family:  Rosaceae

 

Common Apple

Definition

Stubby spur-shoots

 

Fruits:  large pomes

Term

Morus rubra

 

Family:  Moraceae

 

Red Mulberry

Definition

Fruits:  red to dark purple berry-clusters

 

Bark dark reddish-brown

with long, flaky strips

 

Short tree -- max 35'

Term

Robinia pseudoacacia

 

Family:  Fabaceae

 

Black Locust

Definition

Paired thorns

 

Fruit:  reddish-brown to black pods, 3 - 4"

 

Ropy bark; inner bark yellow

Term

Cornus stolonifera

 

Family:  Cornaceae

 

Red-osier Dogwood

Definition

White pith

 

White fruit

 

No fuzz on twigs

Term

Acer platanoides

 

Family: Aceracea

 

Norway Maple

Definition

Samara -- almost 180 degrees

 

Rounded red and green bud

 

(Milky juice in leaves)

Term

Corylus americana

 

Family:  Betulaceae

 

American Hazelnut

Definition

Shrub with many trunks; smooth grey bark

 

Catkins

 

Nuts with wings

Term

Betula papyrifera

 

Family:  Betulaceae

 

Paper Birch

Definition

Peeling white bark, salmon color inside

 

Catkins -- 2"

 

Very thin twigs

Term

Liquidambar styraciflua

 

Family:  Hamamelidaceae

 

Sweetgum

 

 

Definition

Sticky, greenish bud

 

Twigs with corky ridges

 

Fruit:  spiny ball

 

(Leaves:  star-shaped)

Term

Betula nigra

 

Family:  Betulaceae

 

River birch

Definition

Brownish, heavily peeling bark

 

Long, single catkins

 

Fuzzy buds

Term

Myrica pennsylvanica

 

Family:  Myriaceae

 

Northern Bayberry

Definition

Fruits covered with wax

 

Fragrant odor

 

A shrub

Term

Salix nigra

 

Family:  Saliaceae

 

Black Willow

Definition

Multiple trunks

 

Flexible twigs

 

Black bark

Term

Juglans cinerea

 

Family:  Juglandaceae

 

Butternut

Definition

Dark, chambered pith

 

"Eyebrows" on the leaf scars

 

Lemon-shaped nuts, 1 1/2 - 2 3/8"

Term

Populus tremuloides

 

Family:  Saliaceae

 

Quaking Aspen

Definition

Roots "clone" to form groves

 

Leaf stalks flat -- leaves shimmer in wind

 

Catkins

Term

Sassafras albidum

 

Family:  Lauraceae

 

Sassafras

Definition

Green twig with corky ridges

 

Delightful odor

 

(Mitt-shaped leaf)

Term

Fraxinus nigra

 

Family:  Oleaceae

 

Black Ash

Definition

Very thick twig

 

Blue-black, pointed bud

 

Wide samara

 

Prefers moist, limey soil

Term

Carya illinoinensis

 

Family:  Julandaceae

 

Pecan

Definition
Dark brown, hairy nuts, 1 1/8 - 2 1/4"
Term

Diospyrus virginianum

 

Family:  Ebenaceae

 

Common Persimmon

Definition
Term

Quercus muehlenbergii

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

Chinquapin Oak

Definition
Term

Nyssa silvatica

 

Family:  Nyssaceae

 

Black (Pepperidge) Tupelo

Definition
Term

Asimina triloba

 

Family:  Annonaceae

 

Pawpaw

Definition
Fuzzy bud, no scales
Term

Quercus palustris

 

Family:  Fagaceae

 

Pin Oak

Definition

Drooping lower branches

 

Large trees with small, pin-like branchlets

 

Acorns small, 3/3 - 1/2"

with reddish-brown cap

Term

Cornus obliqua

 

Family:  Cornaceae

 

Silky Dogwood

Definition

Multiple trunks

 

Red stems

 

Silky grey fuzz on twigs

Term

Cornus florida

 

Family:  Cornaceae

 

Flowering Dogwood

Definition
Onion-bulb bud
Term

Fraxinus quadrangulata

 

Family:  Oleaceae

 

Blue Ash

Definition

Square twig

 

Fuzzy bud

 

Potato-chip bark

Term

Cornus racimosa

 

Family:  Cornaceae

 

Grey Dogwood

Definition

Shrub at edge of woods or in prairies

 

Thin, pointed bud

 

White fruits