Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Transport/Circulation (Blood)
Parts of blood
11
Biology
12/01/2008

Additional Biology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Transport/Circulation
Definition
- Life process which distributes material within an organism and in/out of a cell.
Term
Transport in Humans
Definition

- Require a special system of transport because not all cells are in contact with external environment.

- Serves 3 purposes:

1 - Transport of nutrients, gases, and wastes throughout the body.

2 - Fight off infection (Immune system a sub-system.).

3 - Regulation of body temperature.

Term
4 parts of blood
Definition

- 1.) Plasma

- 2.) Red Blood Cells (RBC)

- 3.) White Blood Cells (WBC)

- 4.) Platlets

Term
Plasma
Definition

- Liquid portion of the blood.

- Contains water, dissolved materials (Amino Acids, Glucose, Vitamins, Minerals), Gases, (O2, CO2), and wastes

Term
Red Blood Cells
Definition

- Another name - Erythrocyte

- Transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body

- Contain protein Hemoglobin (protein that binds oxygen).  Requires Fe (Iron) to function.

- Mature RBC contain no nucleus and cannot divide.  Therefore, all RBC must be produced in bone marrow by Pluripotent Stem Cell.

- Old RBC are removed from the blood by the spleen and destroyed in the liver.

- Is a red colored protein.

- About 30 trillion in body at any given time.

Term
Platelets
Definition

- Not cells.

- Also called Thrombocytes.

- Cell fragments responsible for intiating clotting process.

- In the clotting process, the damaged blood vessels are repaired and bleeding is stopped.

- The clotting process involves:

A) Thromboplastim ( Enzyme)

B) Calcium

C) Vitamin K

D) Thrombin (Enzyme)

E) Conversion of soluable protein into insoluable protein

(Fibringogen [Soluable] -> Fibrin [Insoluable blood protein])

- A blood clot is a matrix of fibrin strands that trapped RBC, WBC, and platelets.

- There is no nucleus, which means it must be produced in the bone marrow.

Term
White Blood Cells
Definition

- Also called leucocytes.

- Cells that protect the body from pathogens (Any disease-causing organism.) and cancers (Production of latge amounts of non-functional mutilated cells.).

- Have about 60 billion. (This is the smallest amount out of all of the other parts of the blood.)

- They are the largest cells in the blood.  They have a nucleus and other organelles.

- They play a major role in the IMMUNE SYSTEM.

- 2 Types of WBC:

A.) Phagocytes - nonspecific inflammatory response.  They engulf the foreign cell, virus, or anything tagged with an antibody by phagocytosis.

B.) Lymphocytes - specific immune response.

1- B Cells [Plasma Cells] produce antibody (which attaches to foreign abjects and renders them harmless, and attracts phagocytes). They become memory cells.

2- T Cells

a- Helper T Cells aid in production of antibodies

b- Cytortoxic T Cells destroy and attack body cells that are infected with virus/ cancer

Term
Body's Defense Mechanisms
Definition

- Against pathogens and cancers.

- 1st line: Skin and mucus membranes.

- 2nd line: Inflammatory Response

 - 3rd line: Immune Response

Term

1st line

Skin and mucus membranes

Definition

- Mucus is a polysaccharide that traps dust and pathogens.

- Prevents 99% of all pathogens from entering body.

- Mucus membranes include nose, ears, eyes, etc.

Term

2nd line

Inflammatory Response

Definition

- Non-specific response due to the presence of a foreign substance (Pathogen.).

- Involves:

a - Release of the chemical Histomine.

b - Increase of blood flow to the area (Extra nutrients, oxygen, and water.).

c - Attracts white blood cells (Phagocytes) to area of infection.

d - An increase in mucus production.

 - Allergies: have an inflammatory/immune response (production of antibodies) due to the presence of harmless substances (Dust, Pollen, Food.).

Term

3rd Line

Immune Response

Definition

- Specific defense to invading pathogen.

- Involves the recognition of foreign pathogen and PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODIES.