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Thyroid
Thyroid/ Parathyroid
64
Medical
01/22/2011

Additional Medical Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Indications for thyroid exam
Definition

-palpable or enlarged gland

-abnormal labs

-palpable neck mass

-neck "swelling" or asymmetry

-neck tenderness

-difficulty swallowing

-cold nodules on NM study

-guidance for bx/asp

Term
The endocrine system maintains ___________, _____________, and ____________.
Definition

body metabolism

growth

development

Term
What are the three hormones produced and secreted by the thyroid?
Definition

thyroxine (T4)

triiodothyroxine (T3)

calcitonin

Term
What does the pituitary gland secrete that controls thyroid secretion?
Definition
thyrotropin (TSH)
Term
The thyroid gland traps _________ from the blood and through a series of chemical reactions, produces hormones.
Definition
iodine
Term
What cells secrete Calcitonin?
Definition
parafollicular cells (C-cells)
Term
What is the primary function of Calcitonin?
Definition
decrease blood calcium levels to prevent hypercalcemia
Term
When thyroid hormone is needed it is released into the bloodstream by the action of _____________, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the ___________ gland.
Definition

thyrotropin

pituitary

Term
[image]
Definition

1. Rt lobe

2. Isthmus

3. Pyramidal lobe

4. Lt lobe

5. Parathyroid glands

Term
What is the location of the thyroid?
Definition
anteroinferior part of the neck below the larynx and anterior to the trachea
Term
In transverse, what outlines the thyroid posterolaterally?
Definition

common carotid artery (CCA) and

internal jugular vein (IJV)

Term

What muscles are included in the strap muscles?

 

 

 

 

*also called infrahyoid muscles

Definition
sternohyoid (SH), sternothyroid (ST), omohyoid (OH)
Term
In transverse, what marks the posterior border of the thyroid?
Definition
longus colli muscle (LCM), esophagus (E), and minor neurovascular bundle (MINB)
Term
In transverse, what outlines the thyroid medially?
Definition
trachea (T)
Term
In transverse, what outlines the thyroid anterolaterally?
Definition
strap muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscles
Term
Name 6 normal variants possible for a thyroid.
Definition

Pyramidal lobe

asymmetry

absent isthmus

agenesis

dysgenesis

ectopia

Term
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
Definition
posterior aspect of the thyroid
Term
What is a Pyramidal lobe?
Definition
an accessory lobe that extends superiorly (cephalad) from the isthmus and can ascend as far as the hyoid bone.
Term
A Pyramidal lobe is present in ____ to _____ percent of the population.
Definition
10%-40%
Term
Pyramidal lobes are most frequent on the _____ side.
Definition
left
Term
Size and shape of a thyroid varies with __________, _____, and ___________________.
Definition
gender, age, and body surface area
Term
Tall people tend to have _________ lobes.
Definition
longer (sup-inf/ lateral)
Term
Shorter people tend to have _______________ lobes.
Definition
oval shaped
Term
Which lobe is usually larger?
Definition
Right lobe is usually larger than the left.
Term
Average thyroid size in adult?
Definition

4-6 cm (L), 1.3-1.8 cm (AP), and 1.5-2 cm (W)

Isthmus - 2-6 mm (AP)

Term
Average thyroid size in children.
Definition
2-3 cm (L), .2-1.2 cm (AP), 1-1.5 cm (W)
Term
[image]
Definition
  1. Strap muscles
  2. Trachea
  3. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  4. Internal jugular vein
  5. Common carotid artery
  6. longus coli muscle
  7. vertebra
  8. esophagus
Term
In transverse the esophagus is seen as a ________________.
Definition
target sign
Term
What can you do to help identify the esophagus?
Definition
have the patient swallow
Term
What is the minor neurovascular bundle composed of and what is its location?
Definition

recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery

 

located between the longus coli muscle and the thyroid gland (posterior to thyroid)

 

*vaguely seen sonographically

Term
Where are the strap muscles and how do they appear?
Definition
anterior to thyroid, appear as thin bands
Term
Where is the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
Definition
anterolateral to thyroid
Term
Where is the longus colli muscle and how does it appear?
Definition
posterior to thyroid, appears wedge shaped
Term
The common carotid artery and internal jugular vein are __________ to the thyroid.
Definition
lateral
Term
Where is the trachea and how does it appear?
Definition

midline, posterior to thyroid

appears as a curved reflecting surface with reverberation artifact

Term
Sonographically, normal thyroid parenchyma is __________ with __________ level echoes.
Definition

homogenous

medium level echoes

Term
[image]
Definition
  1. Superior thyroid artery
  2. larynx
  3. thyroid gland
  4. isthmus
  5. common carotid artery
  6. trachea
Term

Arterial supply to the thyroid  is from the ___________________ and the ______________.

 

Definition

superior thyroid arteries

inferior thyroid arteries

Term
The superior thyroid artery is the 1st branch off the __________________.
Definition
external carotid arteries
Term
The inferior thyroid artery is the largest branch of the _______________________ of the _____________________________.
Definition

thyrocervical trunk

subclavian artery

Term
[image]
Definition
  1. superior thyroid veins
  2. middle thyroid veins
  3. inferior thyroid veins
Term
Venous drainage flows into the ____(1)_____________ via the ____(2)_____, _____(3)______, and ____(4)______ thyroid veins.
Definition
  1. internal jugular vein
  2. superior
  3. middle
  4. inferior
Term
define Hypothyroidism
Definition
the under secretion of thyroid hormones
Term
Hyopthyroidism is caused by:
Definition

-low intake of iodine (goiter) in the body

 

-inability of the thyroid to produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone

 

-problem in the pituitary gland that does not control the thyroid production

Term
Clinical signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism:
Definition

-weight gain

-hair loss

-increased subcutaneous tissue around the eyes

-lethargy

-intellectual & motor slowing

-intolerance to cold

-constipation

-deep husky voice

Term
define Hyperthyroidism
Definition
over secretion of thyroid hormones
Term
Causes of Hyperthyroidism:
Definition
-the entire gland is out of control, localized neoplasm causes over-production of the thyroid hormone
Term
Clinical signs/ symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Definition

-weight loss

-increased appetite

-high degree of nervous energy

-tremor

-excessive sweating

-intolerance to heat

-palpitations

-exophthalamos (protruding eyes)

Term
Name 4 lab tests (serum) to test thyroid function
Definition

-T4

-T3

-calcitonin

-TSH

Term
With hypothyroidism, describe what happens with lab values
Definition

elevated TSH

decreased T4/T3

Term
With Hyperthyroidism, describe what happens to lab values
Definition

decreased TSH

elevated T4/T3

Term
To test thyroid function, correlative testing called _________________ may be used.
Definition
Nuclear medicine (Scintigraphy)
Term
When using NM, radioactive tracers target the thyroid to determine whether a lesion is _______ or ________.
Definition
hot or cold
Term

In NM...

a "hot" lesion is ______functioning.

 

 

Definition
hyper
Term

With NM.....

______% of "hot" lesions are malignant

Definition
1-4 %
Term

With NM...

"cold" lesions are ____functioning/ _____ uptake

Definition

non

less

Term

With NM...

_____% of "cold" lesions are malignant

Definition
10-25%
Term
What correlative testing can give additional info or overview of the neck?
Definition

Nuclear Medicine (Scintigraphy)

CT

MRI

Term
What is the most effective means for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules?
Definition
FNA (with sonographic guidance)
Term
There are ____ parathyroid glands located _________ to the thyroid.
Definition

4, posterior

 

 

*2 superior, 2 inferior

 

Term
Normal parathyroid glands are not usually seen sonographically. But, IF they are, how do they appear?
Definition
oval shaped or flat and hypoechoic
Term
What is the size of a parathyroid gland?
Definition
approx. 5 mm (L) x 3 mm (W) x 1 mm (AP/thick)
Term
What is the function of parathyroid glands?
Definition
maintain homeostasis of blood calcium levels to prevent hypocalcemia
Term
What is the name of the hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands?
Definition

parathyrin

*also called parathormone (PTH)