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Thinking, Reasoning, Decisions, Memory, Emotion & Motivation
Thinking, Reasoning, Decisions, Memory, Emotion & Motivation
30
Psychology
12/08/2011

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Term
Thinking
Definition
activity that is involved in the understanding, processing, and communicating of information.
Term
Problem Solving
Definition
Move from a given state to a desired goal state and Move towards a solution in a series of steps
Term
Incubation Effect
Definition
Arrive at the solution to a problem when not even consciously working on the problem
Term
Mental Set
Definition
Respond to a new problem with an approach that has been successful in the past
Term
Functional Fixedness
Definition
Tendency to think of an object as being useful only for the function the object is usually used for
Term
Reasoning
Definition
The use of information to reach conclusions
Term
Deductive Reasoning
Definition
The conclusion is true if the premises are true (general statement-reason down to specifics that fit/support that statement)
Term
Inductive Reasoning
Definition
The conclusion is sometimes wrong even when premises are correct (reason from individual cases to reach general conclusion)
Term
Decision Making
Definition
The mental process resulting in selecting a course of action among several alternatives
Term
The Framing Effect
Definition
Way in which wording effects decision making (Advertisements) thin food is not as appetizing as light food
Term
Memory
Definition
Active system which receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
Term
Sensory Memory
Definition
Initial recording of information that enters through your senses
Term
Short-Term Memory
Definition
Holds small amounts of information for relatively brief period of time
Term
Selective Attention
Definition
Controls what information moves to short term memory
Term
Long-Term Memory
Definition
Lasting storehouse for meaningful information/limitless storage capacity
Term
Procedural Memory
Definition
Continued responses, actions that are automatic like riding a bike or typing
Term
Semantic Memory
Definition
Basic factual knowledge like months of the year and days of the week
Term
Episodic Memory
Definition
Times, places, personal experiences, and life events
Term
Emotion
Definition
• State of feeling (in response to situations and motivate behavior)
• Emotions have biological, cognitive, and behavioral components
Term
Facial Expressions
Definition
• Can visibly portray emotions
• Are probably inborn because they are the same around the world
Term
Theory of Emotion 1: The Opponent-Process Theory (Richard Solomon)

Definition
• Emotions come in pairs to maintain balance
• Extreme happiness (opposite) extreme sadness
Term
Theory of Emotion 2: The Commonsense Approach

Definition
• Interprets situation, interprets triggers (body sensation), triggers emotions which triggers behavior
Term
Theory of Emotion 3: James-Lange Theory
Definition
• Peoples emotions follow not cause behavior
• Emotions lead to instinctive body reactions
• People change feelings by changing behavior
Term
Motivation: Instinct Theory (James and McDougall)
Definition
• Human behavior is instinctive because instincts foster survival and social behavior (behavior not learned but born with it)
Term
Drive-Reduction Theory (Clark Hull)
Definition
• People experience a drive (force that motivates action) arising from a need to reduce an unpleasant tension
• Reduce the tension by reducing the drive (eating to reduce huger drive or working to reduce money drive)
Term
Humanistic Theory (Maslow)
Definition
• Motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth and artistic fulfillment
• People are willing to tolerate tensions in order to achieve self-actualization: Fulfillment of potential
• Hierarchy of needs
Term
Sociocultural Theory
Definition
Cultural experiences and factors influence the behavior people choose to use to satisfy inborn basic drives (the food chosen is shaped by culture)
Term
Personality
Definition
Paterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another
Term
Trait
Definition
Aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable and that is fixed or unchanged
Term
Hans Eysenck: Introvert & Extrovert
Definition
• Compared traits according to introversion-extroversion and stable-unstable scale
• Introverts:
-Imaginative, looks inward for ideas and energy
• Extroverts:
-Active and self-expressive, gain energy from interaction with other people