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Theory and Techniques of Organizational Communication
Test 1
181
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10/14/2009

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Cards

Term

Which “systems theory” term is defined erroneously?

Definition

a.            negative entropy means that all systems die

b.            dynamic homeostasis means that you need to attain a balance of a steady state and continual change

c.            equifinality means that there are many paths to the same endpoint

d.            synergy means that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts

 e.           permeable boundary means that the organization is effected by its environment and the environment is effected by the organization.*****

 

Term

OD Change Agents should have a

Definition

a.            diagnosis is crucial but many organizations don’t want to pay for it.

                        b.     b.  managers don’t like standardized steps, prepackaged OD programs and clear time and cost boundaries

c.            OD practitioners have their favorite techniques that they over prescribe

 d.            two of the above******

 e.            all of the above

 

Term

OD Change Agents should have a

Definition

a.            strong self-concept

            b.            tactical flexibility

            c.            results orientation

            d.            two of the above

            e.            all of the above (pg 6 of what is OD)****

Term

Which of the following is not typically a part of the scouting, entry, contracting phases?

Definition

a.            clarifying mutual expectations

            b.            understanding the organization and the relevant client

            c.            discussion of the presenting problem

            d.            development of an implementation plan****            

 

Term

Because each client is different, you should not have a list of scouting/entry questions for your initial contact.

Definition
False
Term

OD contracts should contain

Definition

a.            ground rules

b.            explanations of how the relationship will be structured

c.            descriptions of what the parties can expect from one another

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above****

 

Term

Which of the following is not a key activity for effective change management?

Definition

a.            plans to sustain momentum

b.            creation of a vision

c.            strategies to motivate change

d.            elimination of company politics****

 e.            plans to manage the transition

 

Term

Why is it important to develop a strategic plan for the OD change effort?            

Definition

a.            to establish a sense of direction***

b.            to separate this change effort from other change efforts

c.            to assist in the planning of resource allocations***

d.            two of the above***

e.            all of the above

 

Term

The use of teams/groups is a new focus for OD interventions.

Definition
False
Term

Compared to other OD interventions, team development efforts do not need to utilize the Action Research Model.

Definition
False
Term

Beckhards’ model of organizational change suggest that there must be 

Definition

a.            visible first steps taken

b.            a clear vision of what should be

c.            dissatisfaction with the status quo

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above***

 

Term

Sometimes change agents are expected to be:

Definition

a.            an extra pair-of-hands

b.            a process consultant

c.            an expert

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above****

 

Term

The best description of an OD change agent who acts as a process consultant is:

Definition

someone who helps people in organization help themselves

 

Term

Which of the following is not a typical stage of a consulting process?

Definition
Team building 
Term

Which of the following questions is not something to ask during the scouting/entry/contracting contact?

 

Definition

a.            Why is this issue/project important to the sponsor (s)?

b.            What is it like to work here?***

c.            What would really solve the problem?

d.            What has been the history of change efforts in the organization?

e.            What would success look like?

 

Term

During a contracting session, which is least likely to be determined?

Definition

What teambuilding components are the core of the problem?

Term

Most contracts are broken out of neglect, not intent?

Definition
True
Term

In an OD approach to diagnosis, the OD consultant is responsible to explain to the client what the real problem is.

Definition
True
Term

When measuring job satisfaction, you could ???

Definition

a.            Ask, “On a scale of 0 to 100% how satisfied are you with your job?”

b.            Ask about satisfaction with a variety of components and add these together to achieve a composite measure of job satisfaction.****

 c.            Determine the difference of what exists now compared to how much should there be and weighted  by how important the characteristic(s) are to the respondents. ***

d.            two of the above***

e.            all of the above

 

Term

Which of the following is not an advantage of the fixed format approach to survey questions?

 

Definition

a.            less time consuming for the respondents

b.            easier to determine the feelings and specific reactions of the respondents****

c.            make data entry easier

d.            gather quantifiable data from a large number of people

e.            provide a fixed set of response options

Term

Which of the following is not a good suggestion for utilizing a survey approach to diagnosis?

Definition

a.            utilize some items worded in the negative direction

b.            observe the body language of the respondents****

c.            provide specific instructions when administering the survey

d.            place the question in a logical order

e.            avoid double-barreled and rhetorical questions

 

Term

Individual interviews should be used instead of group interviews whenever possible.

Definition
True
Term

Objective surveys should be used instead of interviews in order to make OD efforts successful.

Definition
False
Term

When observing a team in action for diagnostic purposes:

Definition

a.            use a checklist of what to look for

b.            encourage the team to reach conclusions not just to complain

c.            notice participation patterns

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above****

 

Term

Which type of quantitative analysis are you likely to use as an OD consultant?

Definition

a.            descriptive statistics

b.            inferential statistics

c.            correlational statistics

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above***

 

Term

Which of the following statements about a SWOT analysis is in error?

 

Definition

a.            Opportunities refer to solutions to the problem.***

b.            Strengths refer to current positive elements available to the target.

c.            Weaknesses refer to current problems/deficiencies of the target area.

d.            Threats refer to possible future problems.

e.            None of the above are in error. 

 

Term

Which of the following would enhance a data feedback session?

Definition

a.            clarify the purpose of the feedback session***

b.            emphasize procedures to clarify who is to blame for problems and give credit for those who were right

c.            record commitments to action on a flip chart

d.            two of the above

e.            all of the above

 

Term

Which of the following is not a step of the Strategic Planning Process?

Definition

a.            Action Planning

b.            Reviewing what has happened so far

c.            Problem Solving and/or Futuring

d.            Alternating the political perspective***

e.            Assessing the current state

 

Term

Which of the following is not a basic type of education technique

Definition

a.            to build the group

b.            to develop input from the group

c.            to present material

d.            to create hands-on learning by doing

e.            Wait! All of the above are basic types of education techniques?****

 

Term

Which of the following is not important for an OD change agent to do in a training event?

Definition

            a.            establish the credibility of the trainer/change agent

            b.            establish the need for the training

            c.            make use of the experience of the trainees

            d.            have the trainees verbalize what they are doing

            e.            insure negative transfer of learning***

 

Term

Which of the following is not one of the four key skills needed to be an effective coach?

Definition

            a.            scouting***

            b.            teaching

            c.            encouraging practice

            d.            teaching

            e.            providing feedback

 

Term

BATNA stands for "Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement"

Definition
True
Term

Developing internal commitment to choices made is most like which stage of Lewin’s model?

 

Definition

            a.            unfreezing

            b.             changing***

            c.            refreezing

            d.             none of the above

            e.             anal stage

 

Term
OD is
Definition

            a.            a long-term, planned change process

            b.            firmly rooted in the theories and techniques of the behavioral sciences

            c.             an effort to improve an organizations effectiveness and simultaneously increase the quality of the working lives of the employees of that system

            e.             two of the above

            f.            all of the above****

 

Term

Which of the following statements is in error?

 

Definition

a.            OD emphasizes process over content

b.            OD emphasizes the ongoing efforts rather than the end result

c.            OD emphasizes proactive rather than reactive change

d.            OD emphasizes individuals rather than organizations****

e.             OD emphasizes the use of a change agent as a catalyst rather than as a solution given

 

Term

  Survey can be used

 

Definition

a.              to diagnose organizations

b.              to help evaluate OD efforts

c.              as part of an intervention themselves

d.              two of the above

e.              all of the above***

 

Term

OD change is not brought about by following a grand master plan but by 

continually readjusting direction and goals.

 

Definition
True
Term

The advantage of using surveys include:

 

Definition

They generate data that is easy to quantify and analyze

 

Term

In the General Mode of Planned Change, which stage is associated with “moving”

            stage of Lewin’s model?

 

Definition

a.              Entering and Contracting

b.              Planning and Implementing Change***

c.              Diagnosing

d.              Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change

e.              none of the above

 

Term

OD is:

Definition
a process
Term

Which of the following represents values often advocated in OD efforts?

 

 

Definition

participation in decision making should be encouraged

Term

The biggest problem in organizational change efforts seems to be a lack of follow 

Definition
True
Term

The entry phase of an OD effort doesn’t start until there is a face-to-face meeting with the potential client.

 

 

Definition
False
Term

Elements of an OD contract include: 

Definition

a.              Your role and the sponsor’s role in the project

b.              The kind of information you will seek for diagnosis

c.              The boundaries of your analysis 

d.              Two of the above

e.              All of the above**** 

 

Term

Which of the following is NOT a good groundrule for effective contracting? 

 

Definition

Social contracts are always renegotiable 

 

Term

Which of the following is not one of the elements of the McKinsey 7-S model? 

 

Definition

a.                   Shared Values / Superordinate goals

b.                  Systems

c.                   Style

d.                  Synergy***

e.                   Structure 

 

Term

Which of the following is a reason why you should hold a diagnostic data 

Definition

a.              For problem solving / planning purposes

b.              For discussion and interpretation of the results

c.              To fulfill the promise of providing feedback

d.              Two of the above

e.              All of the above**** 

 

Term
Which of the following is not one of the stems of OD
Definition
Action research/survey feedback
Term
The first T group was formed
Definition
As people related to data about their own behavior
Term
According to the Managerial Grid, an individual's style can best be described as which of the following
Definition
His or her concern for product and actions
Term
As a QWL movement evolved, it fostered a new phase of activities known as
Definition
Employee involvement
Term
In Levin's model of change, change is brought by
Definition

modifying forces maintaining the status quo

and 

increasing forces for change

Term
The three sequential steps in Lewin's change model are
Definition
unfreezing, movement, and refreezing
Term
The Action Research Model focuses on
Definition

A planned change as a cyclical process 

and 

heavy diagnosis prior to acting, planning, and implementation

Term
Which activity is not part of the general model of planned change?
Definition
interviews and action planning 
Term
Which of the following is not a core skill of an OD practitioner 
Definition
Financial management 
Term
One of the major limitations of the internal consultant is
Definition
Their potential loss of objectivity 
Term
Which is true of external OD consultants
Definition
None of the above
Term
Ethical dilemmas of the OD practitioner concern
Definition
All of the above- misrepresentation, misuse of data, coercion, value and goals
Term
The process of entering a client system consists of
Definition
Clarifying the issue, determining the relevant client, and selecting a practitioner 
Term
The presenting problem
Definition
Often a symptom of an underlying problem
Term
Which answer below best describes the "relevant" client?
Definition
Generally those who can directly impact change issues
Term
The goal of the contracting process is
Definition
To make a good decision about how to proceed with the OD process
Term
Which of the following is not a step in the contracting process?
Definition
Determining the change project
Term
Which of the following is not a step in the contracting process
Definition
Determining the change project
Term
Diagnosis models incorporate
Definition
Scientific models of how organizations function; conceptual framework of how organizations function; intuitive hunches
Term
Which of the following is not one of Porter's five forces that defined the task environment
Definition
Organization member perceptions
Term
Which general diagnostic model most underlies OD
Definition
Open systems model
Term
Group level diagnosis examines
Definition
Goal clarity, task structure, group composition, group functioning, performance norms
Term
Quality of work life at the group level is an
Definition
output
Term
Which of the following design components are appropriate for job-level diagnosis
Definition
Skill variety
Term
Establishing a diagnostic relationship refers to 
Definition
Clarifying expectations between relevant organizational members and consultant
Term
Questionnaires are often used
Definition
They can collect data from many people and then can be quickly analyzed
Term
Observations can be particularly helpful in diagnosing 
Definition
Interpersonal relations
Term
A key objective of the feedback process is to be sure the client has 
Definition
Ownership of the data
Term
Successful use of data feedback process is to be sure the client has
Definition
Relevant and understandable data
Term
Which item is not one of the features of a successful feedback meeting
Definition
Unstructured meetings
Term
Interventions mean
Definition
Planned actions or events intended to increase effectiveness 
Term
Human Resources Issues refer to 
Definition
?
Term
Key questions to ask when deciding the appropriate intervention methods are
Definition

Have the issues been accurately diagnosed?

Can skills to implement the intervention be transfered to organizational members?

Term
Which of the following is NOT considered a strategy for dealing with resistance to change?
Definition
Avoid conflict
Term
The vision process involves
Definition
Describing the organization's core ideology, looking at desired performance and human outcomes, a vivid description of the future state
Term
Developing political support
Definition
Is the same as addressing power issues and involves identifying key stakeholders
Term
Which power strategy is most closely aligned with OD's traditional humanistic values?
Definition
Playing it straight 
Term
Activity planning and commitment planning are key activities in
Definition
Managing a transitions
Term
Research supports that leaders accelerates transitions with which of the following practices:
Definition

1) Support continuous discussion of organization change.

2) Created shared meaning

3) Help individuals understand how each person fits the change.

4) Allow organizational units in the lower organization levels to be responsible for implementing change

Term
Understanding how an intervention is progressing is example of ___________ feedback
Definition
Evaluation
Term
When should you identify the measurement variables to be used for evaluation and feedback?
Definition
Diagnosis stage
Term
Testing the internal consistency of the questions in a survey is a measure of its
Definition
Reliability
Term
Od helps members of an organization solve their own problem
Definition
True 
Term
The normative background in OD represents a human relations approach represents the one best way to manage organization
Definition
True 
Term
According to Lewin, the best way to manage change is to increase the forces for change. 
Definition
False
Term
Change strategies are often motified on the basis of continued diagnosis. 
Definition
False 
Term
In under- organized organizations, the consultant attempts to tighten up the governance system.
Definition
True
Term
The relationship between planned change and organizational performance and effectiveness is well understood.
Definition
False 
Term
OD practitioners have recently given greater focus to organizational effectiveness and bottom line results.
Definition
True
Term
Following entry and contracting, an OD practitioner starts with diagnosing an organization or department. 
Definition
False
Term
Contracting is typically a very formal, written process when internal OD practitioner are involved. 
Definition
False
Term
An organization's strategic competitive advantage is aided when its strategies are difficult to imitate.
Definition
True
Term
By nature of the open systems model, organizations are largely unaffected by external forces. 
Definition
False
Term
Diagnostic models derive from conceptual framework about how organizations function.
Definition
True
Term
Quality of work life is a results of team effectiveness.
Definition
False
Term
Group effectiveness has two components: quality of work life and performance.
Definition
True
Term
Interview data can be collected and analyzed quickly. 
Definition
False
Term
Unobtrusive measures include archives and other company records.
Definition
True
Term
Force field analysis is a quantitative technique for analyzing data. 
Definition
False
Term
A correlation coefficient clearly establishes cause and effect between two variables.
Definition
False
Term
A key objective of feeding back data is to ensure that the client feels ownership of the data. 
Definition
True
Term
Quality of work life encompasses more than just the work environment.
Definition
True
Term
Work design gets at the issue of job enrichment via greater task variety, autonomy, and feedback results. 
Definition
True
Term
The key intervention implementation issues underlying all OD interventions is the need to tailor them to fit the organization.
Definition
True
Term
The need to tailor interventions suggests applications of the same interventions are often identical. 
Definition
False
Term
Understanding how people experience change requires the change agent to have great capacity for empathy and support.
Definition
True
Term
Politics has no place in a change process.
Definition
False
Term
Assessment intended to discover intervention outcomes is called implementation feedback.
Definition
False
Term
Reliability refers to whether a particular measure actually measures what it is supposed to measure. 
Definition
False
Term
External validity is irrelevant without internal validity.
Definition
True
Term
Job enrichment calls for adding discretion, variety, and meaningful feedback to people's jobs. 
Definition
True
Term
Process consultants offer expert help in the form of solutions to problems.
Definition
False
Term
It is difficult to isolate the impact of process consultation from other interventions.
Definition
True
Term
Team building involves helping work groups improve the way they accomplish tasks as well as improving interpersonal and problem-solving skills.
Definition
True
Term
Microcosm groups are small, representative group who can solve problems in the group and recommend actions to address the problem in the larger system. 
Definition
True
Term
Open space methods for large- group interventions are highly structured processes.
Definition
False
Term
The primary goal of any team in a process-based structure is quality of work life. 
Definition
False
Term
Process-based structures remove layers of management, and consequently information flows more quickly and accurately throughout the organization. 
Definition
True
Term
Employee involvement activity is prospering in many countries other than the United States. 
Definition
True
Term
Statistical process control techniques are usually an integral part of training in total quality management.  
Definition
True
Term
Vertical loading of a job results in combined tasks and increased autonomy. 
Definition
True 
Term
There is little evidence to support job enrichment programs. 
Definition
False
Term
Goal setting interventions involve managers and employees in jointly setting subordinate's goals, monitoring them, and providing counseling and support when necessary. 
Definition
True
Term
Organizations generally do a good job of appraising employees.
Definition
False
Term
Workforce diversity refer primarily to the increasing number of ethic background entering the workforce.
Definition
False 
Term
An organization culture that values inquiry and discovery is better suited to implement organization learning interventions.  
Definition
True 
Term
Developing internal commitment to choices made is most like which of the stage of Lewin's model?
Definition
Changing
Term

In the General Mode of Planned Change, which stage is associated with “moving”

            stage of Lewin’s model?

 

Definition
Planning and Implementing 
Term
Which of the following depicts the critical path of action of a change?
Definition
PERT Charts
Term
Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation technique:
Definition

1) Contrast tension with relaxation

2) Moves the sense of relaxation from muscle groups to muscle groups

3) Two of the above***

Term
In a Roles and Responsibility Matrix
Definition
R stands for responsibility
Term
In order to utilize a "Win- Win Collaborative" approach
Definition

A) You need to emphasize the vale differences

B) Listen descriptively

C) Use a systematic approach to problem solving

D) All of the above

Term
Which of the following is not one of the principles of Win-Win Bargaining?
Definition
Focus on positions not on interests
Term
When confronting difficult people
Definition
Invite them to help you develop at least three alternatives to resolve the problems underlying your conflict
Term
Which of the following is not one of the above four levels of evaluation?
Definition

A) On the job learning

B) Learning

C) Pioneers require evidence***

D) The self blind require coaching

E) The inexperienced required training

Term
Which of the following is not one of the above four levels of evaluation?
Definition

A) On the job learning application

B) learning

Results

D) Suggestions***

E) Reaction

Term
Which of the following is a common cost of implementation failure?
Definition

A) Just another program criticism

B) Time, money, people, and resources are wasted***

C) Present problems is not solved or an opportunity is lost***

D) Two of the above********

Term
Why do people feel uncomfortable during the transition state?
Definition
Lack of control
Term
Which of the following is not identified as a key player in the change model?
Definition

A) Change target

B) Sustaining sponsor

C) Competition*****

D) Initating sponsor

E) Change agent

Term
Weak sponsors need to be
Definition

A) Educated 

B) Replaced

C) Both of the above

Term
Sponsorship should be delegated to the change agents?
Definition
False
Term
Whenever the target role overlaps with the role of a sponsor or agent treat the individual as a _________ first.
Definition
Target
Term
Which sign of lack of support is likely to occur first?
Definition
Unawareness
Term
When using Force Field Analysis, an OD consultant should suggest to the client
Definition
to emphasize planning on how to reduce the Forces Against more than the other forces
Term
Which of the following are primary tasks for OD change agents
Definition

A) Generate free, informed choices by the client

B) Develop internal commitment to choices made

C) To generate valid information

D) All of the above****

Term
When you view organizations as open systems, you discover that there is "more than one way to peel an orange."  This refers to which principle Systems Theory?
Definition
Equifinality 
Term
Which of the following is not a base of knowledge needed by OD practitioners?
Definition

A) Knowledge of synergistic equifinality***

B) Knowledge of how change occurs

C) Knowledge of how organizations work

D) Knowledge of how to intervene in organizations

Term
Training and Management Development programs typically offered in organizations today under emphasize which phase of Lewin's model of Organizational Change?
Definition
Refreezing
Term
Which of the following can generate an ethical dilemma for an OD change agent?
Definition

A) Who and how the goals of the intervention will be set?***

B) Questions regarding the qualifications of the OD change agent and the likelihood of successes with OD***

C) Two of the above******

Term
The goals of OD are
Definition
To enhance organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction
Term
According to QWL research, satisfied workers are far more productive
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following is not a skill needed to be a successful OD change agent?
Definition
Synergistic equifinality 
Term
The best interventions in OD is the socio-technical approach to the quality of worklife.
Definition
False
Term
It is more important that the process consultant is able to provide evaluative rather than descriptive feedback to individuals and/or groups.
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following is not one of the components in the model of a team
Definition

A) Effectiveness discussed

B) Clear roles and responsibilities

C)Low level of conflicts between numbers****

D) Useful procedures

E) Clear goals

Term
Actual organizational boundaries tend to be
Definition
Somewhat elusive
Term
Because of a changing environment, OD consultants must increasingly be involved with:
Definition
Transformational changes
Term
Rigorous assessments of OD interventions
Definition
Will be more important in the future
Term
Which set of interventions are more difficult to institutionalize?
Definition
Strategies focusing on interpersonal relationships
Term
When processing a group observation for a team, you should:
Definition
Seek permission to provide the feedback
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the places to look for trouble
Definition
Strategy
Term
OD efforts typically emphasize who is right or wrong?
Definition
False
Term
Confusion results when ______ is missing
Definition
Vision
Term
When evaluating an OD effort
Definition

A) Measures of organizational effectiveness are needed

B) The date needs to be a source of engergy

C) Measures of employee satisfaction is needed

D) All of the above***

Term
Which of the following is not a root of the field of OD?
Definition
Communication
Term
Which of the following is NOT a step in Lewin's Force Field Analysis?
Definition
Scan the environment
Term
We describe change as if it were chaotic, emotional, disorderly, and dynamic process when actually it is a logical and neat process
Definition
False
Term
Experienced and skilled OD consultants no longer face ethical dilemmas
Definition
False
Term
Which of the following is NOT a key activity contributing to effective change management?
Definition

A) Managing transitions

B) Scouting/Entry Diagnosis***

C) Sustaining momentum

D) Developing political support

E) Creating vision

Term
Which of the following is NOT a step in my strategic planning model?
Definition

A) Searching****

B) Assessing

C) Futuring

D) Problem solving

E) Reviewing

Term
Which of following are action planning techniques?
Definition

A) PERT charts

B) Gannett Charts

C) Two of the above

Term
Once a plan has been developed, you need to
Definition

A) Adjust the plan

B) Review the planning process

C) Communicate the plan

D) Two of the above

E) All of the above****

Term
Which of the following is NOT a core job dimension in the Hackman and Oldham's job redesign model?
Definition
Awareness
Term
When evaluating an OD effort:
Definition

A) There is not bottom line

B) Compare the data to something meaningful

C) Two of the above****