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Theories Final
Questions
104
Psychology
04/15/2011

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Behavior Questions
Definition
Term

 

Operant conditioning was mainly 

developed by B. F. Skinner.

 

Definition
t
Term

 

Behavior therapists look to current

environmental events that maintain

problem behaviors and help clients

produce behavior change by changing

environmental contingencies.

 

Definition
t
Term

 

The emphasis of contemporary behavior

therapy is on evidence-based

treatments.

 

Definition
t
Term

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is based on helping clients control or change unpleasan

sensations and thoughts

Definition
f
Term

Behavioral techniques can be effectively incorporated into a group counseling format.

Definition
t
Term

Typically, the goals of the therapeutic process are determined by the

therapist.

Definition
f
Term

Behavior therapists tend to be active

and directive, and they function

as consultants and problem solvers

Definition
t
Term

Multimodal therapy consists of a

series of techniques that are used

with all clients in much the same

way.

Definition
f
Term

There is a growing trend toward integrating

cognitive and behavioral

methods to help clients manage

their own problems.

Definition
t
Term

A program of behavioral change

should begin with a comprehensive

assessment of the client.

Definition
t
Term

Behavior therapy is grounded on

a. the psychodynamic aspects of a

person.

b. the principles of learning.

c. a philosophical view of the

human condition.

d. the events of the first 5 years of life.

Definition
b
Term

Mindfulness and acceptance-based

approaches

a. have received empirical support

as an effective form of therapy.

b. have no legitimate place in behavior

therapy.

c. have no research evidence to

support the value of the techniques

used.

d. are a pafi of traditional behavior

therapy.

e. have not yet been accepted into

the behavioral tradition.

Definition
a
Term

In behavior therapy it is generally

agreed that

a. the therapist should decide the

treatment goals.

b. the client should decide the

treatment goals.

c. goals of therapy are the same for

all clients.

d. goals are not necessary.

Definition
b
Term

Which is not true as it is applied to

behavior therapy?

a. Insight is necessary for behavior

change to occur.

b. Therapy should focus on behavior

change and not attitude change.

c. Therapy is not complete unless

actions follow verbalizations.

d. A good working relationship between

client and therapist is necessary

for behavior change to occur.

Definition
a
Term

According to most behavior therapists,

a good working relationship

between client and therapist is

a. a necessary and sufficient condition

for behavior change to occur.

b. a necessary but not sufficient,

condition for behavior change to

occur.

c. neither a necessary nor a sufficient

condition for behavior

change to occur.

Definition
b
Term

Applied behavior analysis makes

use of

a. classical conditioning techniques.

b. operant cdnditioning techniques.

c. cognitive behavioral techniques.

d. all of the above.

e. none ofthe above.

Definition
b
Term

Which of the following is not akey

concept of behavior therapy?

a. Behavior is learned through reinforcement.

b. Present behavior is stressed

more than past behavior.

c. Emphasis is on evidence-based

treatment procedures.

d. Emphasis is on action and experimenting

with new behaviors.

e. Emphasis is.on the role of insight

in treatment.

Definition
e
Term

Dialectical behavior therapy

a. has no empirical support for its

validity.

b. is a promising blend of behavioral

and psychoanalytic techniques.

c. is a long-term therapy lor treating

depression.

d. is a form of operant conditioning.

e. is a forrn of classical conditioning.

Definition
b
Term

 

Which is not true of dialectical behavior

therapy (DBT)?

a. DBT was formulated for treating

borderline personality disorders.

b. DBT emphasizes the importance of the client-therapist relatiorship

c. DBT incorporates mindfulness

training and Zen Practices

d. DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques

e. DBT relies on empirical data to

support its effectiveness

 

Definition
d
Term

 

An exposure-based procedure that

involves imaginal f,looding, cognitive

restructuring, and the induction

of rapid, rhYthmic eye movements

aimed at treatment of traumatic experiences

is called

a. flooding.

b. in vivo desensitization.

c. systematic desensitization.

d. relaxation training.

e. eye movement desensitization

and reprocessing.

 

Definition
e
Term

Prolonged/intense exposure-either in

real life or in imagination-to highly

anxiety-evoking stimuli is called

a. self-management training'

b. in vivo desensitization.

c. systematic desensitization'

d. flooding.

e. eye movement desensitization

and reProcessing.

Definition
d
Term

A limitation of traditional behavior

theraPY is its

a. lack of research to evaluate the

effectiveness of techniques'

b. de-emPhasis on the role of feelings

in theraPY'

c. laik of clear concePts on which

to base Practice.

d. disregard for the client-therapist

relationshiP.

e. overemphasis on early bhildhood

experiences.

Definition
b
Term

 

Contemporary behavior therapy

places emPhasis on

 

a.the interplaY between the individual

and the environment.

b.heling clients acquire insight

into the causes of their Problems'

c. a phenomenological aPProach to

understanding the Person'

d. encouraging clients to reexperience

unfinished business with

significant others by role-playing

with them in the Present.

e. working through the transference

relationshiP with the theraPist'

 

Definition
a
Term

Which is not true as it applies to

multimodal theraPY?

a. Therapeutic flexibility and versatility

are valued highlY'

b. TheraPists adjust their Procedures

to effectivelY achieve the

client's goals in theraPY'

c. Great care is taken to fit the client

to a Predetermined tYPe of

treatment.

d. The aPProach encourages technical

eclecticism.

e. The theraPist makes a comprehensive

assessment of the client's

level of functioning at the outset

of theraPY.

Definition
c
Term

 

Which of the following'isrntconsidered

one of the basic characteristics

of contemPorary behavior theraPY?

 

a. Experimentally derived principles

of iearning a6e systematica[y applied

to helP PeoPle change their

maladaPtive behaviors.

b. Emphasis is on using evidencebased

treatment interventions'

c. The focus is on assessing overt

and covert behavior directlY,

identifuing the Problem, and

evaluating change.

d. The theraPY is an exPeriential

and insight-oriented aPProach'

e. There is an atternPt to develoP

culture-sPecific Procedures and

obtain clients'adherence and cooPeration

in a treatment Program'

 

Definition
d
Term
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Definition
Term

REBT makes use of both cognitive

and behavioral techniques, but it

does not use emotive techniques.

Definition
f
Term

REBT stresses the importance of

the therapist demonstrating unconditional

positive regard for the

client.

Definition
t
Term

Cognitive therapy for depression

was developed by Meichenbaum.

Definition
f
Term

REBT is,a form of cognitive behavior

therapy.

Definition
t
Term

Ellis shares Rogers's view of the

client-therapist relationship as a

condition for change to occur within

clients.

Definition
f
Term

Beck developed a procedure known

as stress-inoculation training.

Definition
f
Term

 

According to Ellis, to feel worthwhile,

human beings need love and

acceptance from s ign ifican t others.

 

Definition
f
Term

Ellis maintains that events themselves

do not cause emotional disturbances;

rather it is our evaluation of

and beliefs about these events that

cause our problems.

Definition
t
Term

A difference between Beck's cognitive

therapy and Ellis's REBT is that

Beck places more emphasis on helping

clients discover their misconceptions

for themselves than does Ellis.

Definition
t
Term

According to Beck, people become

disturbed when they label and evaluate

themselves by a set of rules

that are unrealistic.

Definition
t
Term

Rational emotive behavior therapy

stresses

a. support, understanding, warmth,

and empathy.

b. awareness, unfinished business,

impasse, and experiencing.

c. thinking, judging, analyzing, and

doing.

d. subjectivity, existential anxiety,

self-actualization, and being.

e. transference, dream analysis,

uncovering the unconscious, and

early experiences.

Definition
c
Term

 

REBT is based on the philosophical

assumption that human beings are

a. innately striving for selfactualization.

b. determined by strong unconscious

sexual and aggressive

forces.

c. potentially able to think rationally

but have a tendency toward

irrational thinking.

d. trying to deyelop a lifestyle to

overcome feelings of basic inferiority.

e. determined strictly by environmental

conditioning.

 

Definition
c
Term

REBT stresses that human beings

a. think, emote, and behave simultaneously.

b think without emoting.

c. emote without thinking.

d. behave without emoting or

thinking.

Definition
a
Term

REBT views neurosis as the result of

a. inadequate mothering during

infancy.

b. failure to fulfill our existential

needs.

c. excessive feelings.

d. irrational thinking and behaving.

Definition
d
Term

In cognitive behavioral group therapy

a. there is some research thal shows

that this approach is effective

for treating a wide range of emotional

and behavioral problems.

b. the group leader assumes a

blank screen demeanor so as to

enhance transferehe'e feelings of

the members.

c the assumption is that a therapeutic

atmosphere is both necessary

and sufficient for change to occur,

d. the group leader believes that

using techniques interferes with

the group process.

e. the emphasis is on having members

identifii and express feelings.

Definition
a
Term

REBT contends that people

a. have a need to be loved and accepted

by everyone.

b. need to be accepted by most

people.

c. will become emotionally sick if

they are rejected.

d. do not need to be accepted and

loved.

e. need to be accepted and will become

sick if they are rejected.

Definition
d
Term

According to REBT, we develop

emotional disturbances because of

a. a traumatic event.

b. our beliefs about certain events.

c. abandonment by those we depend

on for support.

d. withdrawal of love and acceptance.

Definition
b
Term

According to REBI a personal clienttherapist

relationship is

a. necessary but not sufficient, for

change to occur.

b. necessary and sufficient for

change to occur.

c. neither necessary nor sufficient

for change to occur.

Definition
c
Term

In cognitive therapy the assumption

is that psychological problems stem

from processes such as

a. faulty thinking.

b. making incorrect inferences on

the basis of inadequate or incorrect

information.

c. failing to distinguish between

fantasy and reality.

d. negative automatic thoughts.

e. all ofthe above.

Definition
e
Term

Cognitive therapy is based on the

assumption that

a. our feelings determine our

thoughts.

b. our feelings determine our

actions.

cognitions are the major determinants

of how we feel and act.

the best way to change thinking

is to reexperience past emotional

traumas in the here and now.

insight is essential for any type

of change to occur.

Definition
c
Term

In cognitive therapy techniques are

designed to

a. assist clients in substituting rational

beliefs for irrational beliefs.

b. help clients experience their feelings

more intensely.

c. identifiu and test clients'misconceptions

and faulty assumptions.

d. enable clients to deal with their

existential loneliness.

e. teach clients how to think only

positive thoughts.

Definition
c
Term

The type of cognitive error that involves

thinking and interpreting in

all-or-nothing terms or categorizing

experiences in either-or extremes is

known as

a. magnification and exaggeration.

b. polarized thinking.

c. arbitrary inference.

d. overgeneralization.

e. none ofthe above.

Definition
b
Term

Beck's cognitive therapy differs

from Ellis's REBT in that Beck emphasizes

a. a Socratic dialogue.

b. helping clients discover their

misconceptions by themselves.

c. working with the client in collaborative

ways.

d. more structure in the therapeutic

process.

e. all ofthe above.

Definition
e
Term

Beck's cognitive therapy has been

most widely applied to the treatment

of

a. stress s\Tnptoms.

b. psychosomatic reactions.

c. phobias.

d. depression.

e. cardiovascular disorders.

Definition
d
Term

In Meichenbaum's self-instructional

ther'apy, which of the following is

given primary importance?

a. detecting and debating irrational

thoughts

b. the role of inner speech

c. learning the A-B-C model of

emotional disturbances

d. identifying cognitive errors

e. exploring feelings that are attached

to early decisions

Definition
b
Term
Choice/ Reality Therapy
Definition
Term

What is important is not the way

the real world exists but the way we

perceive the world to exist.

Definition
t
Term

Choice theory is the framework for

the practice of reality therapy.

Definition
t
Term

A good way to change behavior is

for us to be self-critical.

Definition
f
Term

It is important to explore the past as

a way to change current behavior.

Definition
f
Term

One of the therapist's functions is to

make judgments about clients' present

behavior.

Definition
f
Term

The focus of reality therapy is on attitudes

and feelings.

Definition
f
Term

The use of contracts is often part of

reality therapy

Definition
t
Term

Reality therapy is grounded on

some existential concepts.

Definition
t
Term

It is the client's responsibility to decide

on the goals of therapy.

Definition
t
Term

Appropriate punishment is an effective

way to change behavior.

Definition
f
Term

The founder of reality therapy is

a. Albert Ellis.

b. Albert Bandura.

c. Joseph Wolpe.

d. Robert Wubbolding.

e. William Glasser.

Definition
e
Term

According to this approach, insight

a. is necessarybefore behavior

change can occur.

b. is not necessary for producing

behavior change.

c. will come only with changed

attitudes.

d. can be given to the client by the

teachings of the therapist.

e. will be discovered bv the client

alone.

Definition
b
Term

The view of human nature underlying

reality therapy is

a. that we have a need for identity.

b. that we have the need to feel

loved and to love others.

c. that we need to feel worthwhile

to ourselves and others.

d. all ofthe above.

e. none of the above.

Definition
d
Term

Which is not a key concept of reality

therapy?

a. focus on the present

b. unconscious motivation

c. self-evaluations

d. involvement as part of the therapy

process

e. responsibility

Definition
b
Term

Which of the following is not true

of reality therapy?

a. Punishment is eliminated.

b. Clients must make

commitments.

c. Therapists do not accept excuses

or blaming.

d. Therapy is a didactic process.

e. Working through the transference

relationship is essential for

therapy to occur.

Definition
e
Term

Regarding the goals of reality therapy,

a. it is the therapistt responsibility

to decide specific goals for

clients.

b. it is the client's responsibility to

decide goals.

c. the goals oftherapy should be

universal to all clients.

d. society must determine the

proper goals for all clients.

e. both (c) and (d) are true.

Definition
b
Term

Concerning the role and place of making

evaluations in reality therapy,

a. it is the therapistt function to

make an evaluation concerning

the morality of the client's

behavior.

b. clients should make an evaluation

conierning their own

behavior.

c. value judgments should not be a

part of reality therapy.

d. therapist evaluations should be

made only when clients ask for such feedback.

Definition
b
Term

Which statement is not true of reality

therapy?

a. It is based on a personal

relationship.

b. It focuses on attitude change as a

prerequisite for behavior change.

c. Planning is essential.

d. The focus is on the client's

strengths.

Definition
b
Term

Reality therapy was designed originally

for working with

a. elementary school children.

b. youthful offenders in detention

facilities.

c. alcoholics.

d. drug addicts.

e. people with marital conflicts.

Definition
b
Term

Which of the following would not

be used by a reality therapist?

a. analysis of the transference

relationship

b. hypnosis

c. the analysis of dreams

d. the search for causes of current

problems

e. all ofthe above

Definition
e
Term

Which of the following statements is

true as it applies to choice theory?

 

a. Behavior is the result of external

forces.

b. We are controlled by the events

that occur in our lives.

c. We can control the behavior of

others by learning to actively listen

to them,

d. We are motivated completely by

internal forces, and our behavior

is our best attempt to get what

we want.

e. We can control our feelings more

easily than our actions.

Definition
d
Term

According to Glasser, all of the following

are basic psychological needs

except for

a. competition.

b. belonging.

c. power.

d. freedom.

e. fun.

Definition
a
Term

Choice theory tends to focus on

a.feeling and physiology.

b.doing and thinking.

c. coming to a fuller understanding

of the past.

d. the underlying causes for feeling

depressed or anxious.

e. how the family system controls

our decisions.

Definition
b
Term

Sometimes it si:ems as though people

actually choose to be miserable (depressed).

Glasser explains the dynamics

of depressing asbeingbased on

 

a. keeping anger under control.

b. getting others to help us.

c. excusing our unwillingness to do

something more effective.

d. all ofthe above.

. e. none ofthe above.

Definition
d
Term

All of the following are procedures

in reality therapy that are said to

lead to change except for

 

a. exploring wants, needs, and

perceptions.

b. focusing on current behavior.

c. the therapist's evaluating of the

client's behavior.

d. the client's evaluating of his or

her own behavior.

e. the client's committing to a Plan

of action.

Definition
c
Term
Family Systems
Definition
Term

The trend todav is toward reliance on 

a single theory of family therapy rather 

than using an integrative approach.

Definition
f
Term

The emergence of feminist and post- 

modern perspectives has moved the

field of family theraPY toward more egalitarian, collaborative, and coconstructing

relationshiPs.

Definition
t
Term

Experiential familytherapyrelies on

the expert use of directives aimed at

changing dysfunctional Patterns.

Definition
f
Term

A multilensed approach to family 

therapy is best supported by a collaborative

therapist-client relationship.

Definition
t
Term

Conducting an assessment is one of 

the phases of the mutilensed Perspective

in family therapy.

Definition
t
Term

Understanding family process is

almost always facilitated by "how"

questions.

Definition
t
Term

In terms of assessment, it is useful

to inquire about family perspectives

on issues inherent in each of the

lenses.

Definition
t
Term

The multilensed process of family

therapy is similar to the "blueprints

for therapy" as proPosed bY a

metaframeworks model.

Definition
t
Term

The teleological lens is concerned

with the study of final causes, goals,

endpoints, and purposes.

Definition
t
Term

Reframing is the art of putting what

is known in a new, more useful Perspective.

Definition
t
Term

Which of the following family therapy

models makes the most use o[

genograms, dealing with family-oforigin

issues, and detriangulating

relationships?

 

a. Adlerian family therapy

 

b. Bowenian multigenerational

family therapy

 

c. structural family therapy

 

d.strategic therapy

 

e.experiential family therapy

Definition
b
Term

Which of the following approaches

most often employs a co-theraPist

model, makes use of self-disclosure,

uses the therapist's self as change agent, and frequently uses confrontation?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. structural family therapy

d. strategic therapy

e. experiential family therapy

Definition
e
Term

Which of the following is not akey

general movement of the multilensed

approach to family systems therapy?

a. forming a relationship

b. conducting an assessment

c. hypothesizing and sharing

meaning

d. conducting empirical research to

evaluate outcomes

e. facilitating change

Definition
d
Term

Differentiation of the self is the cornerstone

of which theory?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. social constructionism

d. strategic therapy

e. experiential family therapy

Definition
a
Term

Which of the following lenses addresses

these questions: What goals

do you have for yourself and for

other people in the family? What purposes

do you seem to have for how

they behave?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens

Definition
b
Term

What lens raise,s these kinds of

questions: How does a typical day

go? Are there processes and patterns

that characterize-current or past

transitions for the family? What routines

support your daily living?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens

Definition
c
Term

What lens deals with these questions:

Are the parents effective leaders

of the family? How do the children

respond to parental leadership?

Is the process of leadership balanced

or imbalanced? Does it lead to harmony

or conflict?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens

Definition
d
Term

What lens most addresses these questions:

Where is the family in the family

life cycle, and how are they handling

transitions? What relational

processes have been established over

time and how have they changed

through transitional periods?

 

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the developmental lens

e. the multicultural lens

Definition
d
Term

What best defines the focus of family

therapy?

a. Most of the family therapies tend

to be brief.

b. Family therapy tends to be solution-

focused.

c. The focus is on here-and-now interactions

in the family system.

d. Family therapy is generally actionoriented.

' e. all of the above

Definition
e
Term

Which of the following is not one

of the eight lenses of family systems

therapy discussed in this chapter?

a. the gender lens

b. the multicultural lens

c. the cognitive behavioral lens

d. the process lens

e. the developmental lens

Definition
c
Term

Which of the following roles and

functions would be most atypical

for a structural family therapist?

a. joining the family in a position

of leadership

b. giving voice to the therapist's

own impulses and fantasies

c. mapping the underlying structure

of a family

d. intervening in ways designed to

transform an ineffective structure

of a family

e. being a stage director

Definition
b
Term

Which of the following is least associated

with experiential family

therapy?

 

a. It is an interactive process between

a therapist and a family.

b. It focuses on the here and now.

c. Techniques grow out ofthe spontaneous

reactions to the present

situation in therapy.

d. It stresses the subjective needs of

the individual in the family.

e. It is the therapist's task to plan a

strategy for so|ving the problems

of each family member.

Definition
e
Term

Directives and paradoxical procedures

are most likely to be used in

which approach to farnily therapy?

a. strategic family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. multigenerational family therapy

d. experiential family therapy

e. structural family therapy

Definition
a
Term

Which approach to family therapy

stresses the importance of returning

to one's family of origin to extricate

oneself from triangular relationships?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. structural family therapy

d. strategic family therapy

e. experiential family therapy

Definition
a
Term

Which approach to family therapy

stresses unlocking mistaken

goals, investigating birth order

and family constellation, and reeducation?

 

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. structural family therapy

c. Adlerian family therapy

d. strategic family therapy

e. experiential family therapy

Definition
c