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The Muscles Cat and Dog
Chapter 7 Clinical Anatomy
25
Veterinary Medicine
12/10/2011

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Term

 

 

What is a Muscle?

 

 

Definition
One of the four basic tissue types in the body. It is made up of cells that can shorten or contract. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, usally have a thick central portion called the "belly" and have two or more attachment sites, that join them to whatever tissues they move when they contract.
Term

 

 

What are the three types of muscles in the muscular system?

Definition

 

Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth

Term

 

 

What is a skeletal muscle?

Definition

 

Its controlled by the conscious mind and moves the bones of the skeleton so the animal can move around. AKA: voluntary striated muscle.

Term

 

What is a cardiac muscle?

Definition

 

Striated, involuntary muscle that is

found in only one place in the body (The heart) 

Term

 

What is a smooth muscle?

Definition

Non-striated / Doesn't have the striped apperance under the microscope. It is found all over the body in places such as the eyes,  air passage ways, lungs, stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, blood vessles & reproductive tract. It carries out most of

 the unconscious internal movements

Term

 

 

 What are tendons?

Definition

 

Fiborous connective tissue bands

 that connect skeletal muscles to bones.

Term

 

 

What are Aponeuroses?

 

Definition

A broad sheet of fibrous

connective tissue that attaches certain

 muscles to bones or toother muscles.

Most prominent is the

Linea Alba on the ventral midline.

Term

 

 

What is the origin of the muscle?

 

 

Definition

The more stable of the attachment sites of the muscle.

 When a muscle contracts its origin of attachment

 does not move much. It provides stability so

that the insertion of the muscle can move bones

 or other structures.

Term

 

What is the insertion of the muscle?

Definition

 

The site that undergoes most of the

 movement when a muscle contracts.

Term

 

 

What action does a muscle do?

Definition

When stimulated by a nerve impulse, a muscle

 contracts (shortens) By pulling on its attachment

sites (its origin & insertion) the contraction of a muscle

produces movement of bones and other structures.

Term

 

 

What is a prime mover (or agonist) ?

Definition

 

A muscle or muscle group that

directly produces a desired movement.

Term

 

 

What is an antagonist?

Definition

A muscle or muscle group that directly

 opposes the action of a prime mover. Through partial contractions they can help smooth out the

 movements of prime movers or they can

contract forcefully at the same time as the prime mover

Term

 

 

What is a synergist?

Definition

 

A muscle that contracts at the same

 time as a prime mover and assists it in

 carrying out its actions.

Term

 

 

What is a Fixator?

Definition

 

These muscles stabilize a joint

so that other muscles can produce

effective movements of other joints.

Term

 

 

What does the term

"rectus" mean

Definition

 

 

straight

Term

 

 What does the "number of heads"

or "divisons" mean

Definition

 

The number of attachment sites

a muscle has to its origin

Term

 

What does the "cephal" mean 

Definition

 

 

Head

Term

 

 

what does the "cep" stand for

Definition

Number of heads

examples:

bi"cep"= two heads

tri"cep"= three heads

quadri"cep"=four heads

Term

 

 

Cutaneous (skin) muscles

Definition

Thin, broad, and superficial  

"Skin Muscles" thin muscles in the

connective tissue beneath the skin.

When it contracts it causes the

skin to twitch.

Term

 

 

What do the muscles of the head do?

Definition

 

Control facial expression, enable chewing

 (mastication), move sensory structures

such as the eyes or ears.

Term

 

 

What do the muscles of the neck do?

Definition

 

Help support the head and

allow the neck to flex, extend,

 and move the head laterally.

Term

 

 

What is the masseter muscle?

Definition

 

It is located in the cheek area of the skull,

it is the most powerful of the chewing muscles.

 Its main action is to close the jaw.

Term

 

What are the two main muscles

that extend (raise) the head and neck?

Definition

 

Splenius and the trapezius muscles

Located: on the dorsal

 (upper) part of the neck

Term

 

What is the brachiocephalicus muscle?

sounds like   Bray-ke-o-seph-cal-i-cus

Definition

A muscle that extends the head and neck

and also pulls the front leg forward.

 It is fairly large, straplike, that runs from the

 proximal area of the humerus

up to the base of the skull.

Term

 

What is the sternocephalicus muscle?

sounds like

 sterno-sef-al-ic-us

Definition

 

 Smaller straplike muscle that extends

      from the sternum to the base of the skull 

       and acts to flex (or lower) the head and neck.