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Terminology Chapter 6
The Digestive System
102
Veterinary Medicine
10/01/2010

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Term
OR/O & STOMAT/O
Definition
Mouth
Term
Maxilla and Mandible Bones
Definition
Bones that are the boundaries of the oral cavity
Term
GNATH/O
Definition
Jaw
Term
PROGNATHIA
Definition
Elongated Mandible
Term
BRACHYGNATHIA aka Parrot Mouth
Definition
Shortened Mandible
Term
CHEIL/O & LABI/O
Definition
Lips
Term
HARD PALATE
Definition
Forms the bony rostral portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane.
Term
RUGAE
Definition
Irregular folds on the specialized Mucous Membrane of the Hard Palate.
Term
SOFT PALATE
Definition
Forms the flexible caudal portion of the palate
Term
PALAT/O
Definition
Palate
Term
TYPES OF PAPILLAE
Definition
Filiform: Threadlike.
Fungiform: Mushroomliike
Vallate: Cup-shaped
Term
FRENULUM
Definition
Connective tissue that bands the ventral surface of the oral cavity to the tongue.
Term
GLOSS/O & LINGU/O
Definition
Tongue
Term
DENT/O, DENT/I & ODONT/O
Definition
Teeth
Term
DENTITION
Definition
All of the teeth as a whole
Term
DECIDUOUS DENTITION
Definition
Temporary set of teeth in young animals (Baby Teeth)
Term
PERMANENT DENTITION
Definition
The final set of teeth designed to last the lifetime of an animal.
Term
INCISOR
Definition
Front tooth; used for cutting
Term
CANINE TEETH
Definition
Long, pointed bonelike teeth located between the incisors and premolars; also called the Fang and Cuspid
Term
PREMOLAR
Definition
tooth found between the canine and molars; also called the bicuspids.
Term
MOLAR
Definition
Most caudally located permanent cheek tooth; used for grinding food
Term
DENTAL FORMULA
Definition
written formula of the type of tooth and number of each tooth found in the species.
EG. I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2,3
Term
ANATOMY OF A TOOTH
Definition
Enamel, Cementum, Dentin & Pulp
Term
ENAMEL
Definition
The hard white substance covering the outer most region of the tooth.
Term
CEMENTUM
Definition
Bonelike connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth
Term
DENTIN
Definition
The connective tissue surrounding the tooth pulp
Term
PULP
Definition
The nerves, blood vessels and loose connective tissue in the inner most region of the tooth.
Term
PERIODONTIA
Definition
Structures that support the teeth
Term
APICAL FORAMEN
Definition
The hole at the tip of the root where nerves and blood vessels enter the tooth
Term
GINGIV/O
Definition
Gums
Term
GINGIVA
Definition
The mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth and forms the mouth lining; also called the gums.
Term
GINGIVAL SULCUS
Definition
The space that surrounds the tooth; lying against the enamel.
Term
SIALADEN/O & SIAL/O
Definition
Salivary Glands
Term
SELENODONT
Definition
animals with teeth that have crescents on their grinding surfaces; EG. ruminants
Term
LOPHODONT
Definition
animals with teeth that have ridged occlusal surfaces
EG. Equine
Term
BUNODONT
Definition
animals with teeth that have worm, rounded surfaces
EG. Swine
Term
HYPSODONT
Definition
animals with continuously erupting teeth
Term
PLEURODONT
Definition
animals with teeth attached by one side on the inner jaw surface
EG. Lizards
Term
BRACHYDONT
Definition
animals with teeth permanently rooted
Term
PHARYNX
Definition
Also called the throat; the cavity that joins the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.
Term
ESOPHAGUS
Definition
a collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach.
Term
CELI/O & ABDOMIN/O
Definition
Abdomen
Term
PERITONEUM
Definition
The membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavities, and some of the organs in that area
Term
PARIETAL & VISCERAL PERITONEUM
Definition
Parietal is the Peritoneum that lines the abdominal cavity. Visceral is the lining that covers the organs.
Term
MONOGASTRIC
Definition
Animals that have one true, or glandular, stomach.
Term
GLANDULAR STOMACH
Definition
The stomach that produces secretions for digestion.
Term
RUMINANT
Definition
Animals that have one true stomach and three forestomachs
Term
THE NAMES OF THE THREE FORESTOMACHS
Definition
The Rumen, Reticulum, and Omasum.
Term
CARDIA
Definition
Entrance area located nearest the esophagus
Term
FUNDUS
Definition
Base of an organ, which is the cranial rounded part
Term
BODY
Definition
main portion of an organ; also called the corpus
Term
ANTRUM
Definition
Caudal part, which is the constricted part of the stomach that joins the pylorus
Term
PYLORUS
Definition
narrow passage between the stomach and duodenum.
Term
RUGAE
Definition
folds present in the mucosa of the stomach. they contain glads that produce gastric juices that aid in digestion
Term
INTESTINAL FLORA
Definition
Normal microorganisms residing in the intestinal tract
Term
RUMEN
Definition
largest compartment of the ruminant stomach that serves as a fermentation vat; also called the Paunch
Term
RETICULUM
Definition
most cranial compartment of the stomach; also called the honeycomb because it is lined with a mucous membrane that contains numerous intersecting ridges
Term
OMASUM
Definition
third compartment of the ruminant stomach. It has short, blunt papillae that grind food before it enters the abomasum.
Term
ABOMASUM
Definition
fourth compartment of the ruminant stomach; also called the True Stomach. It is the glandular portion that secretes digestive enzymes.
Term
RUMINATION
Definition
The process of bringing up food material from the stomach to the mouth for further chewing. (regurgitation and remastication)
Term
ENTER/O
Definition
Small Intestine
Term
GASTROENTEROLOGY
Definition
The study of the stomach and small intestine
Term
THREE SEGMENTS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
Definition
Duodenum, Jejunum & ileum.
Term
DUODENUM
Definition
First portion of the small intestinal; also known as the most oral portion.
Term
JEJUNUM
Definition
Middle portion of the small intestine.
Term
ILEUM
Definition
most distal (or aboral) portion.
Term
CHYLE
Definition
A milky fluid produces once the food has been digested in the small intestine. It is absorbed through the intestinal wall, where it is passed into veins.
Term
FOUR PARTS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
Definition
Cecum, Colon, Rectum, and Anus
Term
ANORECTAL
Definition
pertaining to the Anus and Rectum
Term
PROCT/O
Definition
the anus and rectum collectively
Term
ANAL SACS
Definition
A pair of pouches in the skin between the internal and external anal sphincters (found in dogs and cats)
Term
ACCESSORY ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
Definition
Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder & Pancreas.
Term
HYPERSIALOSIS
Definition
Excessive production of saliva. Also known as HYPERSALIVATION & PTYALISM
Term
SIAL/O & PTYAL/O
Definition
Saliva
Term
PHAG/O
Definition
Eating or Digestion.
Term
DEGLUTITION
Definition
The process of swallowing
Term
HEPAT/O
Definition
Liver
Term
HYPOGLYCEMIA
Definition
Low blood sugar
Term
HEPATOCYTES
Definition
Liver cells
Term
SINUSOIDS
Definition
Channels of the liver
Term
PARENCHYMA
Definition
Functional elements of a tissue or organ
Term
BILIARY
Definition
pertaining to bile
Term
EMULSIFICATION
Definition
Fat Digestion
Term
GALLBLADDER
Definition
A sac embedded in the liver that stores bile for a later use.
Term
CYST/O
Definition
Cyst, Sac of Fluid, or Urinary Bladder
Term
CHOL/E
Definition
Bile or Gall
Term
DOCH/O
Definition
Receptacle
Term
CHOLECYSTIC
Definition
pertaining to the gallbladder
Term
PANCREAS
Definition
elongated gland that produces juices filled with digestive enzymes.
Term
TRYPSIN, LIPASE & AMYLASE
Definition
TRYPSIN: an enzyme that digests protein
LIPASE: an enzyme that digests fat
AMYLASE: an enzyme that digests starch
(All produced in the Pancreas)
Term
METABOLISM
Definition
The processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
Term
ANABOLISM
Definition
the building of boy cells and substances
Term
CATABOLISM
Definition
the breaking down of body cells and substances
Term
ABSORPTION
Definition
the process of taking in digested nutrients into the circulatory system
Term
NUTRIENT
Definition
a substance that is necessary for normal functioning of the body
Term
VILLI OR VILLUS
Definition
hair like projections in the small intestime
Term
CRYPTS
Definition
Blind sacs, or valleys, in the small intestine. They contain mucous membrane lining.
Term
PREHENSION
Definition
First path of digestion. Means grasping of food, collecting in oral cavity.
Term
MASTICATION
Definition
breaking food into smaller pieces and mixing with saliva (chewing)
Term
DEGLUTITION
Definition
moves broken down food (ingesta) into the Pharynx and esophagus
Term
PERISTALSIS
Definition
a series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscles to move food down the esophagus
Term
ASSIMILATION
Definition
another word for absorption