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TEAS V Science
TEAS V Science
187
Science
08/08/2012

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Cards

Term

Which of the following indicates the number of neutrons and electrons for a neutral isotope of iridium (lr) that

has a mass number of 191?

 

 

 

A) 77 neutrons and 114 electrons

B) 114 neutrons and 77 electrons

C) 191 neutrons and 114 electrons

D) 191 neutrons and 77 electrons

Definition

B Since the mass number represents the total number of protons and neutrons, subtract the number of

protons to find the number of neutrons. The number of protons is known from the atomic number for

Iridium (77) on the periodic table. So, the number of neutrons= 191- 77 = 114. Also, a neutral atom will

have the same number of electrons as protons in this case, 77.

Term

When examining electronegativity values, which of the following atoms will form the least polar bond with

hydrogen (H)?

 

 

 

A) Hydrogen (H)

B) Fluorine (Fl)

C) Chlorine (Cl)

D) Bromine (Br)

Definition

A By looking at the difference between electronegativity values, the combination with the smallest difference

is considered the least polar. While it is true that chlorine and bromine both form covalent bonds with H,

H bonds with itself in the most covalent, or least polar, sense (no difference in electronegativity).

Term

Which of the following elements is the best electrical conductor?

 

 

 

A) Bromine (Br)

B) Arsenic (As)

C) Carbon (C)

D) Potassium (K)

Definition

 

 

 

D Metals are good conductors, but nonmetals are not. Potassium is the only metal of the options listed.

Term

A large saturated hydrocarbon will contain

 

 

A) the same number of hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms.

B) exactly twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms.

C) less than twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms.

D) more than twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms.

Definition

D Since the general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is CnHzn+2, the number of hydrogen atoms must be

more than twice the number of carbon atoms. The number 2n would be exactly twice, but single-bonded

hydrocarbons, called alkanes, will always possess two more than twice the number (2n+2).

Term

__ are at a higher taxonomic level of organization than __ .

Which of the following completes the sentence above?

 

 

 

A) Organs; organ systems

B) Cells; molecules

C) Atoms; molecules

D) Tissues; organs

Definition

B Cells are at a higher level of organization than molecules.

 

 

 

The order from the highest level to lowest

 

Organism             Organ System      Organ

Tissue            Cell               Molecule           Atom

Term

Which of the following is needed for cellular waste recycling?

 

 

 

 

A) Centrosome

B) Lysosome

C) Chromosome

D) Golgi apparatus

Definition

 

 

 

B A lysosome is required for waste processing because it contains the enzymes needed for that process

Term

Which of the following systems includes organs between the mouth and anus?

 

 

 

 

A) Respiratory

B) Digestive

C) Endocrine

D) Skeletal

Definition

 

 

 

 

B The digestive system consists of all the organs between the mouth and anus.

 

Term
A Punnett square is useful for predicting what offspring are _________ and what proportion of the offspring
will have each genotype if there is a very large number of offspring.
Definition
possible
Term
A substance with a pH of 7.0 when dissolved in water is ______
Definition
a neutral substance
Term
_______________ is the by-products of cellular respiration and is used by autotrophs in the production of glucose
Definition
Carbon dioxide
Term
The pancreas is a component of _____________ system
Definition
Endocrine
Term
_______ bonds are primarily responsible for base pairing in complementary strands of DNA
Definition
Hydrogen
Term
A cell uses____________ as the first-line defense against mutations during DNA replication
Definition
DNA polymerase proofreading
Term
After passing through the stomach, food continues into the ____
Definition
Duodenum
Term
Suppose a 2-kilogram mass is traveling at 3 meters/second. Which of the following is the object's kinetic energy
(KE)?

A) 3 Joules
B) 6 Joules
C) 9 Joules
D) 18 Joules
Definition
C Since kinetic energy is calculated by the expression KE = 2 mv2
, we can determine from the given
information that KE = ~ (2 kg)(3 m/s)2 = 9 Joules. The appropriate units are Joules, which match units of kg
and m/s.
Term
the term given to multiple forms of a gene that are produced by mutation
Definition
Allele
Term
_____ of genes form from genetic changes (mutations), which can occur in genes. These mutations modify
the gene and produce a different allele.
Definition
Alleles
Term
During mitosis and cell division, spindle fibers are associated with _____
Definition
Centrosomes
Term
absorption of water primarily occurs in the _______
Definition
Colon
Term
During ________ stage of development individual tissue layers begin to form
Definition
Gastrulation
Term
What number of different cells formed upon completion of meiosis II
Definition
4
Term
a property of base
Definition
The liberation of OH- ions
Term
After meiosis II, ________ cells are produced. After meiosis I, ______ cells are produced
Definition
4 haploid ; diploid
Term
Tasting sour, dissolving in metal,
and turning blue litmus paper red are properties of _________
Definition
acids
Term
_________stage of interphase mRNA is synthesized
Definition
G1
Term
During the G1 portion of interphase, _________ is produced via RNA being decoded by ribosomes
Definition
protein
Term
A harmful example of a catalytic reaction involves the breakdown of ozone by the use of _________
Definition
chlorine ions
Term
Phenotypes are seen due to the production of __ from the genotypic code found in the cell nucleus
Definition
Proteins
Term
Receiving a vaccination against a particular disease results in which of the following types of immunity?
Definition
Active
Term
The veins of the upper part of the body are responsible for transporting blood to which of the following areas
of the heart?
Definition
Superior vena cava
Term
The spleen and thoracic duct are parts of which system?
Definition
Lymphatic
Term
Nucleotides are to DNA as amino acids are to ___
Definition
proteins
Term
List the taxonomic ranks from most broad to most specific
Definition
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Term
For a given substance, the gas phase (compared to the liquid phase) is considered to have ___ intermolecular
attractions and to exist at ____________ temperatures.
Definition
weaker; higher
Term
_____________ pulls air into the body during inspiration
Definition
Diaphragm
Term
What is the chemical formula for octyne
Definition
C8H14
Term
If two gases (A and B) that have detectable odors and the same temperature are released simultaneously on one
side of a room, and the odor of Gas A is noticed 1 minute before that of Gas B, what conclusion can be made?
Definition
Gas B has a higher density than Gas A
Term
A substance that is completely ionized in its solution and has a pH of 2 is a (strong/weak - acid/base)
Definition
Strong acid
Term
Immune cells are produced in the body's _____________
Definition
bone marrow
Term
The heart is located _____________ the sternum
Definition
behind
Term
Although the apex of the heart is located to the ________ of the
sternum, the majority of the heart is covered and protected by the sternum
Definition
left
Term
A research student is determining the pollen count for a 24-hr period in a given location. The student's data
would be most reliable if he decided to count pollen in
Definition
multiple decimeter squares for one morning and one afternoon
Term
Exchange of oxygen occurs in ______
( structure in the respiratory system )
Definition
Alveoli
Term
Fertility rates are ______ in ________________ countries than they are in more-developed countries
Definition
higher ; less-developed
Term
Consider an atom that possesses 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 7 electrons. This atom will have an overall charge of ____ and will have an overall mass of approximately ____ AMU
Definition
+1 ; 17

Since protons are positive, electrons are negative, and neutrons are neutral, the overall charge is
imbalanced in favor of the protons by + 1 (since the neutrons do not contribute to the charge). Since the
mass of a proton and a neutron is nearly the same (and the mass of an electron is negligible compared to
both), the overall mass is largely determined by the number of protons and neutrons
Term
Enzyme activity is driven by ______ internal factor
Definition
Amino-acid structure
Term
A _________ cell lacks a membrane-bound nucleus
Definition
prokaryotic
Term
The changes at the___________ level are seen at the __________ level, such as hair or eye color.
Definition
genotypic ; phenotypic
Term
Mutations in human DNA originate in the ________
Definition
Genotype
Term
In heterotrophs,_________ are the powerhouses of cells
Definition
mitochondria
Term
___________ produces ATP for the cell to use. They are physically similar to chloroplasts.
Definition
mitochondria
Term
Adenine pairs with _______
Definition
thymine
Term
Guanine pairs with ________
Definition
cytosine
Term
The base pairings on the mRNA must be compatibly matched with those of the DNA as follows:
UUA GCG AUA CGC
Definition
UUA GCG AUA CGC
AAT CGC TAT GCG
Term
________ gives rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) its signature rough characteristic
Definition
Ribosomes
Term
DNA is to genes as amino acids are to ____
Definition
Protein
Term
Genes are composed of DNA, and protein is composed of _________
Definition
amino acids
Term
Atoms having __ bonds complete one another by the donation and acceptance of electrons to form stable
outer electron shells.
Definition
Ionic
Term
While _______ bonds require the sharing of electrons, ________ bonds are viewed as having electrons donated
and accepted by atoms to complete the valence structure
Definition
covalent ; ionic
Term
Mutations in ______ can be passed on to future generations
Definition
Germ cells
Term
DNA codons found in genes encode ______ that comprise proteins
Definition
amino acids
Term
During a cell replication cycle, the ______of the cell should be fully and correctly duplicated
Definition
DNA
Term
______ is found only in RNA, ________ only in DNA, and guanine and adenine are found in both RNA and
DNA.
Definition
Uracil ; thymine
Term
Formulating a _______ involves predicting what may happen in a study
Definition
hypothesis
Term
The sum of all the raised numbers (super script) equals the number of __________ found within the neutral atom for that element.
Definition
electrons
Term
For a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of _______
Definition
electrons
Term
The mass number equals the number of ________ and ________.
Definition
protons ; neutrons
Term
______ only occurs in germ cells
Definition
Meiosis
Term
Mitosis occurs in all other cells except ____
Definition
germ cells
Term
The liquid state of a substance is considered to have a ___ shape and a ___ volume
Definition
changing ; fixed
Term
________ will provide the greatest energy for the Earth
Definition
The Sun
Term
Extracurricular involvement influences the exam scores; therefore, it is the ___________ variable
Definition
independent
Term
The automobile has energy of motion (_______ energy) until it stops. To stop, it relies on friction. The
friction generates ________ during the course of braking
Definition
kinetic ; heat
Term
What is the chemical formula for octyne?
Definition
C 8 H 14
Term
Inhibitors affect the reaction rate of an enzyme by
Definition
blocking the active sites of the substrate, causing greatly reduced activity
Term
Water's ___________ bonding results in a _________ ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
Definition
covalent ; 2:1
Term
RNA relays information to the ribosomes by ___________
Definition
Translation
Term
__________ is the process where the message from DNA is transferred to RNA
Definition
Transcription
Term
Urine is stored in the ____
Definition
Bladder
Term
Population B is given a placebo, they are called a _________ group
Definition
Control group
Term
_________ is the process by which the message is relayed from RNA to ribosomes to create proteins.
Definition
Translation
Term
_________ is the process where the message from DNA is transferred to RNA
Definition
Transcription
Term
Doubling the velocity of an object increases the kinetic energy of the object by a factor of _____
Definition
FOUR
Term
Formulation of a ______ involves predicting what may happen in the study.
Definition
hypothesis
Term
___________ produces bile that begins the breakdown of fats
Definition
Liver
Term
Breakdown of ____ begins in the small intestine
Definition
Fats
Term
Breakdown of ________ begins in the mouth
Definition
carbohydrates
Term
Breakdown of ________ begins in the stomach
Definition
protein
Term
A ______ is considered to be a radical change from previous thinking
Definition
Paradigm shift
Term
_________ is the increase of alleles of certain genes from generation to generation that allows a species to
survive and reproduce better.
Definition
Adaptation
Term
The _______ nervous system activates the body's fight-or-flight response.
Definition
Sympathetic
Term
________ is used in quantitative investigation
Definition
Numerical information
Term
List taxonomic ranks from the most general to the most specific
Definition
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Term
Water undergoes relatively minor temperature and phase changes compared to other substances due to both its
Definition
high specific heat and high heat of vaporization
Term
Hydrocarbons containing double bonds
Definition
C 4 H 8
Term
What is the correct order of the scientific process?
Definition
Problem Identification
Question Asking
Hypothesis Development
Data Collection and Experimentation
Analysis
Conclusion
Term
The ________ organ systems supplies the body's cells with oxygen and nutrients
Definition
Cardiovascular
Term
Blood passes though ______ after leaving the right ventricle during contraction of the heart
Definition
Pulmonary artery
Term
The _________ organ systems supplies the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Definition
Respiratory
Term
________ is responsible for the peristalsis that occurs in the digestive tract
Definition
Smooth muscle
Term
A proton should have the following two characteristics when compared to the charge and mass of an
electron
Definition
An opposite charge and a larger mass
Term
The spine is part of the ______ system
Definition
Skeletal
Term
The study of the structure of organs and body systems
Definition
Anatomy
Term
The study of the function of the organs and body systems.
Definition
Physiology
Term
The smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element
Definition
Atoms
Term
Specific molecules combine to form _____
Definition
Cells
Term
The basic unit of all life
Definition
Cells
Term
Cells combine in terms of function and type to form _________
Definition
tissues
Term
Organs work together to perform a task the result is an _________
Definition
organ system
Term
The highest level of organization is the __________
Definition
organism
Term
A standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward
Definition
Anatomical position
Term
Toward the upper end of the body or body structure
Definition
Superior
Term
Toward the lower end of the body or body structure (opposite superior)
Definition
Inferior
Term
Toward the front of the body or body structure
Definition
Anterior
Term
Toward the back of the body or body structure (opposite of anterior)
Definition
Posterior
Term
Toward the middle of the body or body structure
Definition
Medial
Term
Toward the outer sides of the body or body structure (opposite of medial)
Definition
Lateral
Term
Between medial and lateral
Definition
Intermediate
Term
Close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Definition
Proximal
Term
Away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Definition
Distal
Term
Toward or at the body surface
Definition
Superficial
Term
Away from or below the body surface (the opposite of superficial)
Definition
Deep
Term
Cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
Definition
Sagittal section
Term
Sagittal section made down the median of the body
Definition
Midsagittal section
Term
Cut made along a horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions
(cross section)
Definition
Transverse section
Term
Cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions
(coronal section)
Definition
Frontal section
Term
Contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
Definition
Dorsal body cavity
Term
Contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral
cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Definition
Ventral body cavity
Term
Tissue Type: Connective tissue
Human body part:______
Definition
Bone
Term
Tissue Type: Epithelial tissue
Human body part:______
Definition
Skin
Term
Tissue Type: Muscle tissue
Human body part:______
Definition
Heart
Term
Tissue Type: Nervous tissue
Human body part:______
Definition
Brain
Term
This system works as the transportation system for substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the body.
Definition
Circulatory system
Term
This system breaks down food so that the nutrients can be easily passed into the blood and circulated throughout the body.
Definition
Digestive system
Term
This system controls body functions
Definition
Endocrine system
Term
This system protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, helps regulate body temperature. This system also serves as a barrier to foreign substances.
Definition
Integumentary system
Term
This system helps cleanse the blood and houses the white blood cells that are involved in protecting the body from environmental pathogens.
Definition
Lymphatic system
Term
This system produces movement through contractions
Definition
Muscular system
Term
This system acts as the body's control system and is necessary to protect the body from changes in the internal and external environment.
Definition
Nervous system
Term
This system produces offspring
Definition
Reproductive system
Term
This system keeps all the cells in the body supplied with oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide.
Definition
Respiratory system
Term
This system provides support and protection for the body, supplies a framework used to create movement, and serves as storage for minerals, such as calcium.
Definition
Skeletal system
Term
This system helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body, regulates the acid-base balance in the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.
Definition
Urinary system
Term
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, and it serves as the body's control system
Definition
Nervous System
Term
Blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries
Definition
Arteries
Term
Blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart.
Definition
Veins
Term
________ are tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins within the body.
Definition
Capillaries
Term
The sensory-somatic nervous system consists of ____ pairs of cranial nerves and ______ pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia
Definition
12 ; 31
Term
_____ are chemicals that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed through the wall of the intestine into the bloodstream
Definition
Enzymes
Term
Small intestine consists of the _______ , ________ , and _______
Definition
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Term
Rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus
Definition
peristalsis
Term
The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the ______
Definition
mouth
Term
The surface area for absorption in the small intestine is increased as a result of _______ and ______.
Definition
villi and microvilli
Term
______ is involved in the packaging and transport of proteins in the cell
Definition
Golgi apparatus
Term
A basic storage unit of the cell that can hold various compounds
Definition
Vacuole
Term
Contains digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cellular parts
Definition
Lysosome
Term
Functions to rid the body of toxic components, such as hydrogen peroxide
Definition
Peroxisome
Term
The mitochondria is the site of ________ in cells.
Definition
ATP production
Term
_______ is contained in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Definition
Cytoplasm
Term
Prokaryotic (bacterial) cells, the DNA is located in the ____
Definition
nucleoid
Term
Eukaryotic (animal/plant) cells, the DNA is found in the ____ _
Definition
nucleus
Term
In bacteria, which lack nuclei, the large-massed nucleoids are found in the ________
Definition
cytoplasm
Term
In animals and plants, the ______ separates the cytoplasm from the DNA
Definition
nucleus
Term
Chromosomes are large structures of DNA that contain the ______
Definition
genes
Term
Each _____ is a single molecule of DNA
Definition
chromosome
Term
DNA gives rise to RNA, which gives rise to _______
Definition
protein
Term
Three Types Of Stem Cells:
Definition
Totipotent
Pluripotent
Multipotent Cells
Term
The process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
Definition
Mitosis
Term
Occurs among cells of the skin, the liver, and other organs in the digestive system
Definition
Mitosis
Term
The cells that form a new organism via sexual reproduction are called _____
Definition
gametes
Term
Mitosis occurs to replace _____ in all cell types
Definition
old cells
Term
Meiosis occurs in ______ to bring about genetic variation amongst offspring.
Definition
gametes
Term
To determine whether or not this algae is an autotroph, observe for _______
Definition
Chloroplasts
Term
_______ allow an autotroph to use sunlight to produce glucose
Definition
Chloroplasts
Term
Chromosomes contain stretches of DNA called ____
Definition
Genes
Term
Electromagnetic Radiation from long to short wavelengths
Definition
radio waves
microwaves
infrared
visible
ultraviolet
x-ray
gamma ray
Term
Visible forms of electromagnetic radiation from long to short wavelengths
Definition
"ROY G BIV"
red
orange
yellow
green
blue
indigo
violet
Term
Substances that cannot be broken into simpler types of matter are called _____
Definition
elements
Term
Catalysts increase reaction rates by _______ activation energy
Definition
lowering
Term
Within a given family on the periodic table, atomic radii increase while electronegativity _________
Definition
decreases
Term
The groups on the periodic table that contain the most metalloids are
Definition
14, 15, 16
Term
The use of enzymes for rapid reactions is driven by _________ factors such as temperature, pH, and substrate concentration
Definition
external
Term
Saturated hydrocarbons also known as
Definition
alkanes
Term
One double bond are called
Definition
alkenes
Term
Triple bonds are called
Definition
alkynes
Term
_____ is a form of chemical bonding that involves electron sharing between atoms
Definition
Covalent Bond
Term
Suppose a phase transition occurs between a liquid and gas at -196° C. What is the Kelvin temperature?
Definition
The Kelvin temperature is found by adding 273 to the Celsius value. So, -196 + 273 = 77.