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T & L Test 1
N/A
35
Other
02/07/2010

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Term
Behavior theories of learning emphasize
Definition
Observable actions
Term
Rays temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her wits end. Rays mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This is an example of ...
Definition
extinction
Term
Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by
Definition
focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior
Term
My Lynch always uses his mean face to stop undesirable behavior in his first period class. However, even though he looks at Tommy with his mean face each time tommy talks out of turn, tommy is talking out of turn more and more frequently. For tommy the mean face is apparently a...
Definition
Positive reinforcer
Term
removing an aversive stumulus to increase the frequency of a behavior exemplifies
Definition
regative reinforcement
Term
You finally take out the garbage in order to get your father to stop pestering you. Your behavior is being influenced by
Definition
negative reinforcement
Term
Give an example of cueing
Definition
Please remember to put your name on each page
Term
The most effective reprimands are those that are
Definition
soft and private
Term
Which of the following is an example of maturation...
Definition
Gaining weight from age two to age three
Term
All developmental theories have the following general principle in common
Definition
Development is gradual
Term
If john is introduced to the concept of fractions today, he will not be able to start adding and subtracting them tomorrow. What general principle of development is illustrated?
Definition
Development takes place gradually
Term
The last part of the brain to develop fully is
Definition
frontal lobe
Term
According to Piaget, the foundation for development in all humans is supplied by
Definition
maturation
Term
Piagets basic blocks of thinking and memory are
Definition
schemas
Term
Jeannine observed rocks sinking in water and said "I already knew that. All rocks sink" Then she saw a piece of pumice floating on water and was told that pumice is a type of rock. Several days later, she was asked again if rocks sink in water. She replied, well most do. In Piagets terms, what process did Jeannine use to draw this conclusion?
Definition
Accommodation
Term
When we try a particular strategy and it does not work, the discomfort we experience is called
Definition
disequilibrium
Term
According to piaget, people pass through the four stages of cognitive development
Definition
in the same sequence
Term
Michelle covers her own eyes, because she thinks her friends will not see her when playing a game of hide and seek. What stage of Piaget's cognitive theory does this account best illustrate?
Definition
Sensorimotor
Term
In the sensorimotor stage of development, a child begins to develop...
Definition
goal-directed actions
Term
Billy refuses to drink his orange juice from the half full glass that his mother gives to him. He wants her to pour the juice into his favorite cup and watches his mother fill it to the brim. BIlly likes his cup better because he gets more juicy in it. With what cognitive concept in Piagets theory is Billy having trouble?
Definition
conservation
Term
According to Vygotsky, a child's cultural development is
Definition
co-constructed learning and shared experiences
Term
Vygotskys view of cognitive development differs from Piaget in the importance and emphasis place on a persons
Definition
interpersonal interactions
Term
The role of private speech in Vygotskys view is to
Definition
guide ones activities in solving a problem
Term
According to Vygotsky, scaffolding represents
Definition
external support for helping children solve problems on their own
Term
The zone of proximal development is the area where students may solve a problem...
Definition
with support
Term
The period considered to be the most sensitive for language development occurs
Definition
During the preschool years
Term
According to Erikson, if a child fails to resolve a risis at an early stage, the child is apt to
Definition
encounter problems with resolutions of later crises
Term
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the development of self-concept...
Definition
Older children's academic self concept may be quite different than their physical self-concept
Term
Cultural tools
Definition
The computers, scales, numbers, language, graphs, etc that allow people in a society to communicate, think, solve problems, and create knowledge
Term
Accommodation
Definition
Altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
Term
Assimilation
Definition
Fitting new information into existing schemes
Term
Shaping
Definition
Reinforcing each small step of a process toward a desired goal or behavior
Term
Behavior modification
Definition
Systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change actions
Term
Reprimand
Definition
Criticism for misbehavior, rebuke
Term
Learning
Definition
A relatively permanent change in an individuals knowledge or behavior