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Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
Chapter 11
19
Anatomy
03/14/2008

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Term
Cauda Equina
Definition

Part of the spinal cord below the conus medullaris,

(end of the spinal cord)

 

Groups of axons that project inferiorly from the spinal cord like a horses tail

 

 

Term

Dermatome

(2)

Definition

A specific segment of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve.

 

All spinal nerves except of C1 innervate a segment of skin

 

 

Term

Nerve Plexuses - definition

(4)

Definition
  1. A network of interweaving spinal nerves
  2. Split into multiple "named" nerves that innervate various body structures
  3. Web of nerves that exit spinal cord then come together
  4. 4 Plexuses

 

Term
Name the 4 plexuses
Definition
  1. Cervical
  2. Brachial
  3. Lumbar
  4. Sacral
Term
Cervical Plexus
Definition
  1. Innervate Anterior nect and parts of the head and shoulders
  2. Phrenic Nerve -innervates the diaphragm
  3. C3, C4, C5 come together to make Phrenic Nerve
Term
What does the Phrenic Nerve control?
Definition
Diaphragm
Term
Brachial Plexus
Definition
  1. Innervate pectoral girdle and upper limbs
  2. Begins above the shoulders
  3. 5 nerves to know

 

Musculocutaneous nerve

Median Nerve

Axillary nerve

Ulnar nerve

Radial nerve

Term

Lumbar Plexus

(2)

Definition
  1. Innervation of lower limb
  2. Femoral nerve - innervated anterior muscles of thigh
Term
Sacral Plexuses
Definition
  1. Innervation of lower limb
  2. Sciatic nerve

Longest and largest nerve in the body

 

Supplies all of lower limb except anterior and medial regions of the thigh

Term
Name 4 large nerves, one from each of the Plexuses
Definition

Cervical Plexus - Phrenic Nerve

Brachial Plexus - Axillary Nerve

Lumbar Plexus - Femoral Nerve

Sacra Plexus - Sciatic Nerve

 

Term
What are the two divisions of the Sciatic Nerve?
Definition

Common Fibular Division

Tibial Division

Term
Reflexes
Definition
  1. Rapid automatic, involuntary reactions of muscles or glands to a stimulus
  2. All reflexes have similar properties
Term
What are the properties of a Reflex?
Definition
  1. A stimulus - required to initate a response to sensory input
  2. Rapid response requires that few neurons be involved
  3. Synaptic delay must be minimal
  4. An Automatic response occurs the same way every time
Term

Components of a Reflex Arc

(3 explain - 5 steps)

Definition
  • Begins with a receptor - PNS
  • Communicates with CNS
  • Ends - peripheral effector cell - muscle or gland
  1. Receptor
  2. Sensory afferent neuron
  3. association neuron
  4. motor efferent neuron
  5. effector
Term

Two types of Reflexes

Definition
  1. Monosynaptic
  2. Polysynaptic
Term
Monosynaptic Reflexes
Definition
  • Simplies of all reflexes
  • No interneurons
  • senory afferent neuron is synapsed with the motor efferent neuron
  • eg. patellar knee-jerk
Term
Polysynaptic Reflex
Definition
  • More complex neuro pathways
  • A number of synapses w/ interneurons w/i the reflex arc
  • More components= longer delay b/t stimulus and response
  • e.g. Pain reflex
Term
Neural Crest Cells
Definition

Forms Cranial and Spinal nerves

Split off from the developing neiral tube

Term

Where are the White and Gray matter located on the Spinal Cord?

 

Where are the White and Gray matter located in the brain?

 

Twinkie and Hot Dog

 

 

Definition
  1. White matter out side - Gray matter inside, Spinal cord is like a  Hot Dog
  2. Gray matter out side - White matter inside, the brain is like a twinkie.