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Speech
Final
49
Debate/Speech
05/12/2009

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Cards

Term
Language
Definition
System of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate
Term
Symbol
Definition
The word or phrase spoken by the speaker
Term
referent
Definition
The object, the concept or the event the symbol represents
Term
Thought or Reference
Definition
Memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept or event
Term
Concrete Language
Definition
Refers to a tangible object-person,place or thing
Term
Abstract Language
Definition
Refers to ideas or concepts, but not specific objects
Term
idiom
Definition
fixed, distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated
Term
Why we speak in Public
Definition
Creates a community, Audience Centered, Encourages Ethical Dialouge
Term
Audience Centered
Definition
Considerate of the positions, beliefs, values and needs of an audience
Term
Feedback
Definition
the verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker
Term
Speaker
Definition
Person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message
Term
Message
Definition
Information conveyed by the speaker to the audience
Term
Encoding
Definition
Translating words, sounds and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message
Term
Audience
Definition
Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses
Term
channel
Definition
Means by which the message is conveyed
Term
noise
Definition
Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated
Term
Context
Definition
the environment or situation in which a speech occurs
Term
Why We Speak in Public
Definition
Speak on matters of importance, speak about our experiences and expertise, required to speak in class or at work
Term
communication apprehension
Definition
Level of fear or anxiety associated associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons
Term
Trait anxiety
Definition
People who are apprehensive about communicating with others in any situation
Term
State, situational, anxiety
Definition
Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation
Term
Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA)
Definition
Anxiety we feel when we know we have to give a public speech or take a speech course
Term
Overcoming Nervousness
Definition
Be prepared by doing Your Research, Practice Your Speech, Have realistic Expectations about Your Delivery, Practice visualization and affirmations, Find good points of Connection with Your Audience, and Be a good member of an audience yourself.
Term
Visualization
Definition
Process in which you construct a mental image of yourself giving a successful speech
Term
Cognitive Restructuring
Definition
Process that helps reduce anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with positive ones
Term
Affirmation
Definition
Positive, motivating statements that replace negative self-talk
Term
Interference
Definition
Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message
Term
Listenable Speech
Definition
A speech that is considerate and delivered in oral style
Term
Considerate Speeches
Definition
Speech that eases the audience's burden of processing information
Term
Why we fail to Listen
Definition
Interferences, Speaker interference caused by Information, Language, differences
Term
Interference caused by Language
Definition
Formal or technical language, casual language, non-inclusive language, and verbal clutter
Term
Jargon
Definition
Technical Language used by a special group or for a special activity
Term
Slang
Definition
Informal non-standard vocabulary, usually made up of arbitrarily changed words
Term
Colloquialism
Definition
Local or regional informal dialect or expression
Term
Euphemism
Definition
Word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant
Term
Non-inclusive Language
Definition
Words that seem to refer only to certain groups of people
Term
Gender-inclusive language
Definition
Recognizes that both women and men are active participants in the world
Term
Culturally inclusive language
Definition
Recognize the differences among the many cultures of our society
Term
Spot-lighting
Definition
The practice of highlighting a persons race or ethnicity during a speech
Term
Verbal Clutter
Definition
Extra words that pad sentences and claims but don't add meaning
Term
Speaker Interference caused by Differences
Definition
Difference between speaker and audience in appearance, mannerisms, values, or background
Term
careful listener
Definition
Overcomes listener interference to better understand a speakers message
Term
How to listen Carefully
Definition
Listen for the speakers purpose, for the main ideas, listen for supporting evidence and sources, listen for consistency of delivery and content, write down new words, ideas and questions, offer nonverbal feedback and listen for the conclusion.
Term
Critical listeners
Definition
Listen for the accuracy of a speech's content and the implications of a speakers message
Term
Ethical Listeners
Definition
Considers the moral impact of a speakers message on ones self and ones community
Term
Listening Ethically
Definition
Suspend Judgement, Asses Information and Respond to the Speakers Ideas
Term
Speakers as Listeners
Definition
Monitor audience expressions, posture, feedback and level of attention. Use this information to adapt
Term
Speakers and Audiences
Definition
Audiences who are uninterested, distracted or disruptive, distracted by the speaker, confused, plan their responses instead of listen
Term
canon
Definition
authoritative list, an accepted principal or rule (Invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery)