Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Speech
Exam 3
90
Debate/Speech
03/12/2009

Additional Debate/Speech Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

cliche

 

Definition

 

 

an overused expression 

Term

 

 

 

thesaurus 

Definition

 

 

 

 

an alphabtical list of words and their synonyms 

Term

 

 

 

denotation 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the literal meaning of a word 

Term

 

 

 

connotation 

Definition

 

 

the meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experience 

Term

 

 

 

 

ethnic vernacular 

Definition

 

 

 

a variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group 

Term

 

 

 

 

regionalism 

Definition

 

 

a word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country 

Term

 

 

 

jargon 

Definition

 

 

 

 the specialized language

ofa profession 

Term

 

 

 

 

standard U.S. English 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the english taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States 

Term

 

 

 

 

figure of Speech 

Definition

 

 

 

language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable 

Term

 

 

 

metaphor 

Definition

 

 

 

an implied comparison between two things or concepts 

Term

 

 

 

simile 

Definition

 

 

 

a comparison betwen two things that uses the word like or as 

Term

 

 

 

crisis rhetoric 

Definition

 

 

 

language used by speakers during mementous or overwhelming times 

Term

 

 

 

 

personification 

Definition

 

 

 

the attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas 

Term

 

 

 

omission 

Definition

 

 

 

leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear 

Term

 

 

 

 

inversion 

Definition

 

 

 

reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence 

Term

 

 

 

suspension 

Definition

 

 

 

 

witholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence

 

Term

 

 

 

 

parallelism 

Definition

 

 

ues of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences 

Term

 

 

 

anitithesis 

Definition

 

oppostion, such as the used in two-part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first 

Term

 

 

 

repetition 

Definition

 

 

 

use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis 

Term

 

 

 

 

 

alliteration 

Definition

 

 

 

the repitiion of a consonant sound(usually the first consonant) several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence 

Term

 

 

 

nonverbal communication 

Definition

 

 

 

communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning 

Term

 

 

 

nonverbal expectancy theory 

Definition

 

 

 

a communication theory that suggests that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message 

Term

 

 

 

emotional contagoin theory 

Definition

 

 

 

a theory suggesting that people tend to "cathc" the emotions of others 

Term

 

 

 

manuscript speaking 

Definition

 

 

 

reading a speech from a written text 

Term

 

 

 

memorized speaking 

Definition

 

 

 

delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes 

Term

 

 

 

impromptu speaking

 

Definition

 

 

 

 delivering a speech without advance preparation

 

Term

 

 

 

extemporaneous speaking 

Definition

 

speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech 

Term

 

 

 

immediacy 

Definition

 

 

 

the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people 

Term

 

 

 

immediacy behaviors 

Definition

 

 

 

behaviors such as making eye contact, makin appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distance that enhance the quality of the relationship between speaker adn listeners 

Term

 

 

 

 

volume 

Definition

 

 

 

the softness or loudness of a speaker's voice 

Term

 

 

 

articulation 

Definition

 

 

 

the production of clear and distinct speech sounds 

Term

 

 

 

dialect 

Definition

 

 

 

a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region 

Term

 

 

 

pronunciation 

Definition

 

 

 

the use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately 

Term

 

 

 

pitch 

Definition

 

 

 

how high or low your voice sounds 

Term

 

 

 

inflection 

Definition

 

 

 

the variation in the ptich of the voice 

Term

 

 

 

lavaliere microphone 

Definition

 

 

a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around your neck 

Term

 

 

 

boom microphone 

Definition

 

 

 

a microphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in movies and TV 

Term

 

 

 

stationary microphone 

Definition

 

 

 

a microphone attached to a lectern, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor 

Term

 

 

 

presentation iad 

Definition

 

 

 

anything tangible (drawings, charts, graphs, video images, photographs, sounds) that helps communicate an idea to an audience 

Term

 

 

 

 

model 

Definition

 

 

 

 

a small object that represents a larger object 

Term

 

 

 

graph 

Definition

 

 

 

a pictorial representation of statistical data 

Term

 

 

 

bar graph 

Definition

 

 

 

 

a graph in which bars of various lengths represent information 

Term

 

 

 

pie graph 

Definition

 

 

 

a circular graph divided into wedges that show the distribution of data 

Term

 

 

 

 

line graph 

Definition

 

 

 

a graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables 

Term

 

 

 

picture graph 

Definition

 

 

 

a graph that uses images or pictures to symbolize data 

Term

 

 

 

 

chart 

Definition

 

 

 

a display that summarizes information by using words, numbers, or images 

Term

 

 

 

computer-generated graphics 

Definition

 

 

 

images, charts, graphs, and words that are created using a computer program 

Term

 

 

 

clip art 

Definition

 

 

 

images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid 

Term

 

 

 

font 

Definition

 

 

 

a particular style of typeface 

Term

 

 

 

CD-ROM 

Definition

 

 

 

an electronic file of images, words, and sounds on a compact disk 

Term

 

 

 

DVD (digital video disk) 

Definition

 

 

 

AN electronic storage mode similar to a CD-ROM, except that it can store much more information and display it with exceptional clarity and fidelity 

Term

 

 

 

 

persuasion 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior 

Term

 

 

 

elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion 

Definition

 

 

 

the thoery that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals 

Term

 

 

 

 

motivation 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals 

Term

 

 

 

 

cognitive dissonance 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previoiusly oranized thought patterns 

Term

 

 

 

 

self-actualization 

Definition

 

 

 

the need to achieve one's highest potential 

Term

 

 

 

 

social judgment theory 

Definition

 

 

 

theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive messag as in the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of noncommiment 

Term

 

 

 

 

proposition 

Definition

 

 

 

a statement that summarizes the ideas with which a speaker wants an audience to agree 

Term

 

 

 

 

proposition of fact 

Definition

 

 

 

a proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen 

Term

 

 

 

proposition of value 

Definition

 

 

 

calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something 

Term

 

 

 

proposition of policy 

Definition
advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior
Term

 

 

 

 

ethos 

Definition

 

 

 

the term aristotle used to refer to a spearker's credibility 

Term

 

 

 

competence 

Definition

 

 

an aspect of a speaker's credib ility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable 

Term

 

 

trustworthiness 

Definition

 

 

an spect of a speaker's credibility 

Term

 

 

 

dynamism

Definition

 

 

 

an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energentic

Term

 

 

 

 

charisma

Definition

 

 

 

characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker

Term

 

 

 

initial credibility

Definition

 

 

 

the impression of a speaker's credibility that listneers have before the speaker starts a speech

Term

 

 

 

 

derived credibility

Definition

 

 

 

the perception of a speaker's credibility that is formed during a speech

Term

 

 

 

terminal credibility

Definition

 

 

 

the final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes

Term

 

 

 

logos

Definition

 

 

 

literally, "the word"; the term aristotle used to refer to logic- the formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion

Term

 

 

 

inductive reasoning

Definition

 

 

 

reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion

Term

 

 

generalization

Definition

 

 

 

an all-encompassing statement

Term

 

 

 

deductive reasoning

Definition

 

 

 

 

reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to a specific certain conclusion

Term

 

 

 

 

syllogism

Definition

 

 

 

a three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion

Term

 

 

major premise

Definition

 

 

 

a general statement that is the first element of a syllogism

Term

 

 

 

minor premise

 

Definition

 

 

 

a specific statement bout an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism

Term

 

 

 

conclusion

Definition

 

 

 

the logical outcome of a deductie argument, which stems from the major premise and the minor premise

Term

 

 

 

causal reasoning

Definition

 

 

reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude tha tone or more of the events caused the others

Term

 

 

 

example

Definition

 

 

an illustration used to dramatize or clarify a fact

Term

 

 

 

fallacy

Definition

 

false reasoning that occurs when someone atemptes to persuade without adequate evidence or whith argumetns that are irrelevant or inappropriate

Term

 

 

 

causal fallacy

Definition

 

 

 

a faulty cause-and-effect connection btween two things or events

Term

 

 

 

bandwagon fallacy

Definition

 

 

 

reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something thn it ust be valid or correct

Term

 

 

 

eihter/or fallacy

Definition

 

 

 

the oversimplification of an issue into a choice betwn only two outcomes or possibilities

Term

 

 

 

hasty generalization

Definition

 

 

 

a conclustion reached without adequate evidence

Term

 

 

 

ad hominem

Definition

 

 

 

an attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea, rather than on the idea itself

Term

 

 

 

 

red herring

Definition

 

 

 

irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion

Term

 

 

 

appeal to misplaced authority

Definition

 

 

 

use of the testimony of an expert in an given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the approriate credentials or expertise

Term

 

 

 

non sequitur

Definition

 

 

 

latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion

Term

 

 

 

pathos

Definition

 

 

 

term use by aristotle to refer to appeals to human emotion

Term

 

 

myth

Definition

 

 

 

a shared belief based on the underlying values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people