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SOP3004 FSU Test 3
Psychology Test 3
99
Psychology
11/13/2011

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Term
normative influence
Definition
going along with the crowd in order to be liked an accepted
Term
autokinetic effect
Definition
illusion, caused by very slight movements of the eye, that a stationary point of light in a dark room is moving
Term
group norms
Definition
the beliefs or behaviors that a group of people accepts as normal
Term
informational influence
Definition
going along with the crowd because you think the crowd knows more than you do
Term
pluralistic ignorance
Definition
looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you; collective misinterpretation
Term
private acceptance
Definition
a genuine inner belief that others are right
Term
public compliance
Definition
outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private, inner belief that the group is wrong
Term
foot-in-the-door technique
Definition
influence technique based on commitment, in which one starts with a small request in order to gain eventual compliance with a larger request
Term
low-ball technique
Definition
influence technique based on commitment, in which one first gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request and only later reveals hidden additional costs
Term
bait-and-switch
Definition
influence technique based on commitment, in which one draws people in with an attractive offer that is unavailable and then switches them to a less attractive offer that is available
Term
labeling technique
Definition
influence technique based on consistency, in which one assigns a label to an individual and then requests a favor that is available
Term
legitimization-of-paltry-favors-technique
Definition
influence technique in which a requester makes a small amount of aid acceptable
Term
door in the face technique
Definition
influence technique based on reciprocity, in which one starts with an inflated request and then retreats to a smaller request that appears to be a concession
Term
that's not all technique
Definition
influence technique based on reciprocity, in which one first makes an inflated request but, before the person can answer yes or no, sweetens the deal by offering a discount or bonus
Term
limited-number technique
Definition
influence technique based on scarcity, in which one tells people that an item is in short supply
Term
fast-approaching-deadline technique
Definition
influence technique based on scarcity, in which one tells people an item or a price is only available for a limited time
Term
pique technique
Definition
influence technique in which one captures people's attention, as by making a novel request
Term
disrupt-then-reframe technique
Definition
influence technique in which one disrupts critical thinking by introducing and unexpected element, then reframes the message in a positive light
Term
persuasion
Definition
an attempt to change a person's attitude
Term
source
Definition
the individual who delivers a message
Term
sleeper effect
Definition
the finding that, over time, people separate the message from the messenger
Term
expertise
Definition
how much a source knows
Term
trustworthiness
Definition
whether a source will honestly tell you what he or she knows
Term
convert communications
Definition
people perceived as credible sources because they are arguing against their own previously held attitudes and behaviors
Term
halo effect
Definition
the assumption that because people have one desirable trait (e.g. attractiveness), people also possess many other desirable traits (e.g. intelligence)
Term
stealing thunder
Definition
revealing potentially incriminating evidence first to negate its impact
Term
advertisement wear-out
Definition
inattention and irritation that occurs after an audience has encountered the same advertisement too many times
Term
repetition with variation
Definition
repeating the same information, but in a varied format
Term
receptivity
Definition
whether you "get" (pay attention to, understand) the message
Term
yielding
Definition
whether you "accept" the message
Term
need for cognition
Definition
a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful thinking, analysis, and mental problem solving
Term
impressionable years hypothesis
Definition
proposition that adolescents and young adults are more easily persuaded than their elders
Term
elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
Definition
theory that posits two routes to persuasion, via either conscious or automatic processing
Term
heuristic/systematic model
Definition
theory that posits (assume as a fact) two routes to persuasion, via either conscious or automatic processing
Term
central route (systematic processing)
Definition
the route to persuasion that involves careful and thoughtful consideration of the content of the message (conscious processing)
Term
peripheral route (heuristic processing)
Definition
the route to persuasion that involves some simple cue, such as attractiveness of the source (automatic processing)
Term
personal relevance
Definition
degree to which people expect an issue to have significant consequences for their own lives
Term
negative attitude change (boomerang effect)
Definition
doing exactly the opposite of what one is being persuaded to do
Term
prosocial behavior
Definition
doing something that is good for other people or for society as a whole
Term
rule of law
Definition
when members of a society respect and follow its rules
Term
reciprocity
Definition
the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us
Term
norms
Definition
standards established by a society to tell its members what types of behavior are typical or expected
Term
equity
Definition
the idea that each person receives benefits in proportion to what he or she contributes
Term
equality
Definition
the idea that everyone gets the same amount, regardless of what he or she contributes
Term
sensitivity about being the target of a threatening upward comparison
Definition
interpersonal concern about the consequences of outperforming others
Term
underbenefited
Definition
getting less than you deserve
Term
overbenefited
Definition
getting more than you deserve
Term
survivor guilt
Definition
feeling bad for having lived through a terrible experience in which many others died
Term
cooperation
Definition
when each person does his or her part, and together they work toward a common goal
Term
prisoner's dilemma
Definition
a game that forces people to choose between cooperation and competition
Term
non-zero-sum game
Definition
an interaction in which both participants can win (or lose)
Term
zero-sum game
Definition
a situation in which one person's gain is another's loss
Term
forgiveness
Definition
ceasing to feel angry toward or seek retribution against someone who has wronged you
Term
obedience
Definition
following orders from an authority figure
Term
conformity
Definition
going along with the crowd
Term
kin selection
Definition
the evolutionary tendency to help people who have our genes
Term
egotistic helping
Definition
when a helper seeks to increase his or her own welfare by helping another
Term
altruistic helping
Definition
when a helper seeks to increase another's welfare and expects nothing in return (altruistic: selfless concern for the well-being of others)
Term
empathy
Definition
reacting to another person's emotional state by experiencing the same emotional state
Term
empathy-altruism hypothesis
Definition
the idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people's distress, as by helping or conforming
Term
empathy-specific reward hypothesis
Definition
the idea that empathy triggers the need for social reward (e.g. praise, honor, pride) that can be gained by helping)
Term
empathy-specific punishment hypothesis
Definition
the idea that empathy triggers the fear of social punishment (e.g. guilt, shame, censure) that can be avoided by helping)
Term
negative state relief hypothesis
Definition
the idea that people help others in order to relieve their own distress
Term
belief in a just world
Definition
the assumption that life is essentially fair, that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Term
bystander effect
Definition
the finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone
Term
pluralistic ignorance
Definition
looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you; collective misinterpretation
Term
diffusion of responsibility
Definition
the reduction in feeling responsible that occurs when others are present
Term
audience inhibition
Definition
failure to help in front of others for fear of feeling like a fool if one's offer of help is rejected
Term
volunteering
Definition
a planned, long-term, nonimpulsive decision to help others
Term
aggression
Definition
any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid the harm
Term
direct aggression
Definition
any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically present
Term
indirect aggression
Definition
any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically absent
Term
reactive aggression
Definition
"hot," impulsive, angry behavior that is motivated by a desire to harm someone
Term
proactive aggression
Definition
"cold," premeditated, calculated harmful behavior that is a means to some practical or material end
Term
violence
Definition
aggression that has as its goal extreme physical harm, such as injury or death
Term
antisocial behavior
Definition
behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable
Term
instinct
Definition
an innate (inborn, biologically programmed) tendency to seek a particular goal, such as food, water or sex
Term
eros
Definition
in Freudian theory, the constructive, life-giving instinct
Term
thanatos
Definition
in Freudian theory, the destructive, death instinct
Term
modeling
Definition
observing and copying or imitating the behavior of others
Term
frustration-aggression hypothesis
Definition
proposal that "the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration," and "the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression"
Term
frustration
Definition
blockage of or interference with a personal goal
Term
hostile attribution bias
Definition
the tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as aggressive
Term
hostile perception bias
Definition
the tendency to perceive social interactions in general as being aggressive
Term
hostile expectation bias
Definition
the tendency to assume that people will react to potential conflicts with aggression
Term
fight or flight syndrome
Definition
a response to stress that involves aggressing against others or running away
Term
tend and befriend syndrome
Definition
a response to stress that involves nurturing others and making friends
Term
domestic violence (family violence, intimate-partner violence)
Definition
violence that occurs within the home or family, between people who have a close relationship with each other
Term
weapons effect
Definition
the increase in aggression that occurs as a result of the mere presence of a weapon
Term
testosterone
Definition
the male sex hormone, HIGH levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans
Term
serotonin
Definition
the "feel good" neurotransmitter, LOW levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans
Term
running amok
Definition
according to Malaysian culture, refers to the behavior of a young man who becomes "uncontrollably" violent after receiving a blow to his ego
Term
culture of honor
Definition
a society that places high value on individual respect, strength, and virtue, and accepts and justifies violent action in response to threats to one's honor
Term
humiliation
Definition
a state of disgrace or loss of self-respect (or of respect from others)
Term
lying
Definition
not telling the truth
Term
deindividuation
Definition
a sense of anonymity and loss of individuality, as in a large group, making people especially likely to engage in antisocial behaviors such as theft
Term
norms
Definition
social standards that prescribe what people ought to do
Term
injunctive norms
Definition
norms that specify what most others approve or disapprove of
Term
descriptive norms
Definition
norms that specify what most people do