Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Sociology -Henslin - Chapter1
Sociology -Henslin - Chapter1
39
Sociology
01/28/2008

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Auguste Comte

Definition
(1897 - 1857) - founder of sociology proposed positivism.  He stressed that the scientific method should be applied to the study of society, but did not apply to himself
Term
Herbert Spencer
Definition
(1820 - 1903) - second founder of sociology coined the term "survival of the fittest".  He thought helping the poor was wrong, that this merely helped the "less fit" survive.  He promoted the word "social darwinism"
Term
W.E.B. Dubois
Definition
(1868-1963) - first African-American to earn doctorate degree at Harvard is the founder of NAACP and the Hull House.
Term
Jane Addams
Definition
(1860-1935) - a nobel peace winner worked on behalf of the immigrants. Co-founder of the Hull house which became the center to help immigrants in Chicago.  She was the leader of Women's Rights as well as the peace movement of world war 1.
Term
C. Wright Mills
Definition
coined the term "sociological imagination" which is the ability to see how social conditions affect our lives.
Term
Harriett Martineau
Definition
(1806-1876) - english sociologist became the advocate for the abolition of slavery. She translated Comte's ideas to english and she published "Society in America" in which she reported on the new nations custom - family, race, gender, politics and religion.
Term
Social Darwinism
Definition
Herbert Spencer's theory used to promote the idea that white European race was superior to others, therefore, destined to rule the over them. In the simplest form, it follows the mantra of "the strong survive".
Term
Survey Research
Definition
the collection of data by having people answer a seried of questions.
Term
Stratified Random Sample
Definition
a sample from selected sub-groups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research.
Term
Experiment
Definition
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variable to test causation.
Term
Participant observation
Definition
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
Term
Unobstrusive measures
Definition
way of observing people who do not know they are being observed (more accurate sample).
Term
Secondary Analysis (library research)
Definition
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers.
Term

Ethics (code of)

Definition

research biased was introduced in 1972.

Term
Symbolic Interactionism
Definition
a theoretical prospective in which society is viewed as composed symbols that people use to establish meaning develop their views of the world and communicate with one another.
Term
Functionalism (functional analysis)
Definition
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium, also known as functionalism and social functionalism.
Term
Conflict (feminist theory)
Definition
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources.
Term
Manifest Function
Definition
the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
Term
Latent Function
Definition
unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
Term
Micro-level theory
Definition
an examination of small scale patterns of society
Term
Macro-level theory
Definition
an examination of large scale patterns of society.
Term
Independent Variables
Definition

a factor that causes a change in another variable, called independent variable.

Term
Dependent Variables
Definition
the factor that is changed by dependent variables.
Term
Definition
Term
Culture
Definition
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the other.
Term
Norm
Definition
to describe those expections (or rule of behavior) that develop out of a group's values.
Term
Positive Sanctions
Definition

expresses approval for following a norm

Term
Negative Sanctions
Definition
reflects disapproval for breaking norm.
Term
Language
Definition

a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.

- it allows human experience to be cumulative.

- it provides a social or shared past.

- it provides a social or shared future.

Term
Values
Definition
the standard by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
Term
Value Cluster
Definition
values that together form a larger whole.
Term
Value Free
Definition
the view that a sociologist's personal value or biased should not influence social research.
Term
Sociolization
Definition
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group – the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and actions thought appropriate for them.
Term
Definition
Term
Resocialization
Definition
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
Term
Reference Group
Definition

a group that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves.

Term
Agents of Socialization
Definition
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitude, behaviors or other orientations toward life.
Term
Anticipatory socialization
Definition

a social movement that seeks to alter only some specific aspects of people.

Term
Definition