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Sociology Terms
kline: chapter 1
27
Sociology
10/04/2009

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Term
Sociological Perspective
Definition
examines how social context can influence people's lives; especially in relation to broader social context
Term
Social Location
Definition
the group memberships that ppl have because of their location in history and society

ex. jobs, income, gender, education, race

Term
Sociology
Definition
the study of society and human behavior
Term
Social Sciences
Definition
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
Term
Positivism
Definition
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
Term
Auguste Comte
Definition
father of sociology(coined the term) began to analyze the bases of the social order. stressed that the scientific method should be applied to the study of society
Term
Herbert Spencer
Definition
sometimes called the second founder of sociology, coined the term "survival of the fittest." = social darwinism
Term
Karl Marx
Definition
believed that the roots of human misery lay in class conflict. the haves (bourgeoisie) and have-nots (proletariat) are in constant struggle and have-nots overcoming haves is inevitable and necessary
Term
Class Conflict
Definition
Marx's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
Term
Social Integration
Definition
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and together social bonds; also known as social cohesion
Term
Emile Durkheim
Definition
functionalist. contributed the identification of social integration as a key role in society and worked to make sociology a taught academic discipline. how does social integration relate to suicide rates?
Term
Max Weber
Definition
symbolic interactionism? used cross-cultural and historical materials to trace the causes of social change
Term
Value Free
Definition
the view that a sociologist's personal values or biases should not influence social research (weber created ideal)
Term
Values
Definition
the standards by which ppl define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Term
Verstehen
Definition
a German word meaning "to understand" used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as "to have insight into someone's situation"
Term
Subjective Meanings
Definition
the meanings that ppl give their own behavior
Term
Social Facts
Definition
term Durkhiem used meaning the patterns of behavior that characterize a social group
ex. June is the most popular month for weddings
Term
Theory
Definition
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
Term
Symbolic Interactionism
Definition
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed to symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Term
Functional Analysis
Definition
theory that views society as a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together; when fulfilled, contribute to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism/structural functionalism
Term
Manifest Function
Definition
intended to help some part of a system
Term
Latent Function
Definition
unintended positive consequence that helps a system
Term
Latent Dysfunction
Definition
unintended negative consequence that injures a certain system
Term
Conflict Theory
Definition
idea that in each society, some small group controls the means of production and exploits those who are not in control; constant competition for scarce resources
Term
Macro-level Analysis
Definition
an examination of large-scale patterns of society
(often explored by functionalists and conflict theorists)
Term
Micro-level Analysis
Definition
an examination of small-scale patterns of society
(often explored by symbolic interactionists)
Term
Social Interaction
Definition
what ppl do when they are in one another's presence
(often explored by symbolic interactionists)