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Sociology 8th edition
ch 2,3,& 4
44
Sociology
09/29/2010

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Term
the life course
Definition
What are the stages we pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional adulthood, the middle years, and the older years?
Term
social institutions
Definition
What term applies to the mechanisms society develops to meet its basic needs, such as family, religion, education, and medicine?
Term
The degree of individual freedom the parents had on their jobs was the primary factor.
Definition
What did the research of Kohn and Schooler reveal as being the reason for the difference in the goals of working-class parents and middle-class parents in rearing their children?
Term
heredity
Definition
In the "nature vs. nurture" controversy, which of the following terms least applies to nurture?
Term
ascribed statuses
Definition
Cordell Walker is a Texas ranger, a husband, a father, a good friend to many, and a martial artist. Together, what term do sociologists use for the titles that apply to Ranger Walker?
Term
25 to 40
Definition
How many members belonged to each group in the typical hunting and gathering society?
Term
value cluster
Definition
When values coexist, such as hard work, education, and efficiency, what term is used to describe this relationship?
Term
Bob's coach is one of his significant others.
Definition
Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Based on Mead's theory on development, which concept applies most to the relationship between Bob and his coach?
Term
the later middle years
Definition
What is the stage in the life course where individuals begin to reorient their thinking from the time since birth to the time left to live?
Term
a mental hospital
Definition
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
Term
real culture
Definition
What term do sociologists use to describe the norms and values that people actually follow as opposed to those they would follow if they lived in "a perfect world"?
Term
Children were depicted as being miniature adults.
Definition
Between 1000 and 1800 A.D. how were children depicted based on the theories of Philippe Aries?
Term
freedom
Definition
What is the American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?
Term
adolescence
Definition
What term applies to the gap between childhood and adulthood that was first addressed during the Industrial Revolution?
Term
the super ego
Definition
In Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalysis, what is the balancing force between id and the demands of society called?
Term
Our self concept develops from interaction with others.
Definition
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
Term
class; status
Definition
A[n] ________ designates social position while a[n] ________ designates socially expected behavior.
Term
resocialization
Definition
What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?
Term
symbolic interactionist
Definition
To what sociological perspective is Mead's theory of human development most aligned?
Term
their location in the social structure
Definition
What is the primary reason for the differences people have in behavior and attitude?
Term
status inconsistency
Definition
Connie is an 82-year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student?
Term
They comprise a peer group.
Definition
Leo, Matthew, Ryan, Liz, Isabelle, and Francis grew up together, attended the same schools, and share many of the same interests. Sociologically, which concept best describes their relationship?
Term
progress
Definition
Americans cherish the ideal that anyone can rise from the bottom of society to its very top. What value identified by Robin Williams is illustrated by this belief?
Term
Charles Horton Cooley
Definition
Which sociologist developed the concept of looking-glass self?
Term
the team games stage
Definition
In which stage of development would George Herbert Mead indicate a child must learn to take multiple roles?
Term
Isabelle reached an intellectual level normal for her age.
Definition
What effect did two years of intensive language training have on Isabelle, a feral child discovered in Ohio in 1938?
Term
licensed driver
Definition
Of the following, which status least qualifies as a master status?
Term
culture
Definition
What is the term used to describe a group's language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and gestures?
Term
gender socialization
Definition
As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?
Term
an outlaw motorcycle gang
Definition
Which of the following groups is most representative of a counterculture?
Term
symbolic interactionism
Definition
Which sociological perspective focuses on the use of microsociology as its primary level of analysis?
Term
cultural diffusion
Definition
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of ________.
Term
streetcorner men
Definition
What term did Henslin use to describe men who gathered at various community spots with no apparent purpose, doing whatever felt good at the moment?
Term
Sociologists reject the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for behavior.
Definition
Why do sociologists generally object to the Freudian view of psychoanalytic theory?
Term
As society becomes more industrialized, social institutions become more formal.
Definition
As societies become more industrialized, how do their social institutions change?
Term
One's orientation to life is largely the result of environment
Definition
What conclusion can be drawn from a case study of Oskar and Jack, the two identical twins who were raised separately?
Term
the play stage
Definition
Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like the Lone Ranger and pretend to help people in need. According to Mead's theory, what stage best describes Tony's behavior?
Term
ascribed status
Definition
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
Term
They are all achieved statuses.
Definition
What do the concepts of judge, professor, mother, student, soldier, and mechanic have in common?
Term
society
Definition
What term describes people who share a culture and territory?
Term
the conscience
Definition
What is another term for Freud's concept of the superego?
Term
roles
Definition
What are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a position a person occupies in life?
Term
It is a status symbol.
Definition
Chester was recently paroled after serving a prison sentence for child molesting. A condition of parole was that Chester place a state-issued sign in his yard stating, "Warning: A Convicted Sex Offender Lives Here." In view of this, what term best describes the sign Chester has placed is his yard?
Term
academic journals
Definition
Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?