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Social Psychology Final
Chapters 24-31
217
Psychology
04/29/2008

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Aggression

Definition

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

Term

Instrumental aggression

Definition

Aggression that is a means to some other end

Term

Frustration

Definition

The blocking of goal-directed behavior

Term

Displacement

Definition

The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.

Term

Social learning theory

Definition

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.

Term

Crowding

Definition

A subjective feeling that there is not enough space per person

Term

Catharsis

Definition

Emotional release. This view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.

Term

1. According to the text, aggression always

            A)        causes physical pain.

            B)        involves intent to hurt someone.

            C)        involves emotional arousal.

            D)        is committed by someone who has been deliberately provoked.

Definition
            B)        involves intent to hurt someone.
Term

2. Researchers using brain scans have found that convicted murders and men with antisocial personality disorder are more likely than other people to have small

            A)        prefrontal cortexes in their brains.

            B)        connections between the two halves of their brains.

            C)        heads and brains.

            D)        lesions in the amygdala, in the brain core.

Definition
A)        prefrontal cortexes in their brains.
Term

3. Which of the following has research identified as a biological influence upon aggression?

            A)        testosterone

            B)        heredity

            C)        low blood sugar

            D)        all of these

Definition
            D)        all of these
Term

4. Compared to prisoners convicted of nonviolent crimes, those convicted of unprovoked violent crimes tend to

            A)        be first-borns.

            B)        have authoritarian attitudes.

            C)        be older.

            D)        have higher testosterone levels
Definition
            D)        have higher testosterone levels
Term

5. Peggy Jean does not feel angry at her preschool classmate, Jerry Lee, when she pushes him off his wagon. She just wants to use the wagon. Peggy Jean is committing an act of

            A)        genetic aggression.

            B)        hostile aggression.

            C)        instrumental aggression.

            D)        catharsis
Definition
            C)        instrumental aggression.
Term

6. In a revision of frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz theorized that

            A)        frustration produces escape more often than aggression.

            B)        aggression is learned through a modeling effect.

            C)        aggressive cues can release bottled-up anger.

            D)        frustration is instinctive.

Definition
   C)        aggressive cues can release bottled-up anger.
Term

7. Emotional arousal plus anticipated consequences provides the formula for aggression according to

            A)        ethological theory.

            B)        catharsis theory.

            C)        frustration-aggression theory.

            D)        social learning theory.

Definition
            D)        social learning theory.
Term

8. According to Bandura, a social learning theorist,

            A)        frustration plays no role in aggression.

B)        frustration can arouse us emotionally and make us ready for aggression.

            C)        the hydraulic model offers the best explanation for aggression.

            D)        punishment is the best way to reduce aggression.

Definition
B)        frustration can arouse us emotionally and make us ready for aggression.
Term

9. In studying the capacity of electric shock to elicit attack behavior in rats, Nathan Azrin and his colleagues found that

A)        the shocked animals were choosy about their attack targets and would only attack other animals of the same species.

B)        increasing the shock resulted in the rats attempting to escape rather than to attack.

            C)        as soon as rats felt pain they attacked each other.

            D)        all of the above were true.

Definition
C)        as soon as rats felt pain they attacked each other.
Term

10. Living three to a room in a college dorm seems to

            A)        diminish one's sense of control.

            B)        lead to the establishment of stronger friendships.

            C)        lead to more hostile but less instrumental aggression.

            D)        improve grades because students are more likely to study in the library.

Definition
            A)        diminish one's sense of control.
Term

11. According to the text, the fact that people from Hong Kong feel more fearful on their city streets than do people from Toronto may be due to the fact that Hong Kong

            A)        has a higher average temperature.         

            B)        has a lower per capita income.

            C)        has a higher crime rate.

            D)        is more densely populated.

Definition
            D)        is more densely populated.
Term

12. Which of the following is true of findings regarding the catharsis concept?

            A)        catharsis never occurs

            B)        in the long run, expressing anger is more likely to breed anger

            C)        the catharsis hypothesis has been well-supported

            D)        the catharsis hypothesis is valid for adults but not for children

Definition
B)        in the long run, expressing anger is more likely to breed anger
Term

13. According to the text, the statement to a friend, "When you talk like that I feel irritated,"

            A)        is, by definition, an act of angry aggression.

            B)        is best unsaid for it will prove frustrating to the friend and invite retaliation.

            C)        provides an informative, nonaggressive expression of feeling.

            D)        is best unsaid for while it may prove cathartic for you in the short run, it will make you feel more aggressive in the long run.

Definition
C)        provides an informative, nonaggressive expression of feeling.
Term

14. Social learning theory recommends all of the following for reducing aggression EXCEPT     

            A)        rewarding cooperative, nonaggressive behavior.

            B)        reducing the availability of weapons.

            C)        inoculating children against the effects of media violence.

            D)        punishing aggressive behavior.

Definition
            D)        punishing aggressive behavior.
Term

15. Which of the following would be an example of aggression as defined in the text?

A)        a wife deliberately belittles her husband in front of friends after he  burns the pot roast

            B)        a golfer accidentally hits another player with a golf ball

            C)        a nurse gives a penicillin shot to a child

            D)        a salesman tops his previous record by selling 50 cars in one month

Definition
A)        a wife deliberately belittles her husband in front of friends after he  burns the pot roast
Term

16. Lonny kicks the cat after losing a game of checkers. This is an example of

            A)        regression.

            B)        displacement.

            C)        relative frustration.

            D)        the weapons effect.

Definition
            B)        displacement.
Term

17. As part of therapy, a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. The therapist apparently believes in

            A)        social learning theory.

            B)        Parkinson's second law.

            C)        the catharsis hypothesis.

            D)        the adaptation-level phenomenon.

Definition
            C)        the catharsis hypothesis.
Term

18. The role of models in the acquisition of aggression is emphasized most strongly by _________________ theorists.

            A)        psychoanalytic

            B)        catharsis

            C)        social learning

            D)        frustration-aggression

Definition
            C)        social learning
Term

1. Aggression is any behavior that results in harm coming to another person.      

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

2. American cities populated by Southerners have much higher White homicide rates than those populated by Northerners.

            A)        True

            B)        False
Definition
            A)        True
Term

3. Sigmund Freud theorized that human nature has within it a death instinct.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

4. The catharsis hypothesis assumes that aggression is produced by frustration.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

5. Alcohol can diminish restraints on aggression.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

6. Animals of many species have been bred for aggressiveness.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

7. Social learning theory denies that frustration plays any role in aggression.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

8. Research has indicated that violent acts are more likely to occur on hot days.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

9. Countries that ban handguns have lower murder rates than nations where guns are easily available.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

10. Aggressive hockey players--the ones sent most often to the penalty box for rough play--score more goals than nonaggressive players.

            A)        True

            B)        False

 

Definition
            A)        True
Term

Prosocial behavior

Definition

Positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior.

Term

1. Research on violent video games shows that playing them

            A)        increases players' aggressive thinking.

            B)        increases players' prosocial behaviors.

            C)        reduces the heart rates and blood pressure of players.

            D)        improves player's grades
Definition
A)        increases players' aggressive thinking.
Term

2. Correlational research indicates that as pornography has become more widely available, the rate of reported rape has

            A)        increased.

            B)        decreased.

            C)        remained unchanged.

            D)        increased in the short run but decreased in the long run.

Definition
  A)        increased.
Term

3. State sales rates of sexually explicit magazines such as Hustler and Playboy were positively correlated rates of _____ in the same state.

            A)        divorce

            B)        unemployment

            C)        rape

            D)        littering

Definition
            C)        rape
Term

4. Which of the following adolescents is most likely to be involved in negative acts as an adult?

A)        Laura, who is too busy with dance team, friends, and homework to watch TV or play video games

B)        Lou, who spends about three hours a night "gaming," and particularly enjoys "murder-and-mayhem" type games

            C)        Liu, who only watches the Food Network on TV.

            D)        Lakeisha, who spends about an hours a day playing a cooperative role-playing video game that simulates the operation of a small farm.

Definition
B)        Lou, who spends about three hours a night "gaming," and particularly enjoys "murder-and-mayhem" type games
Term

5. Viewing violence may increase aggression by

            A)        producing arousal.

            B)        producing disinhibition.

            C)        evoking imitation.

            D)        all of these.

Definition
            D)        all of these.
Term

6. Social psychologists Gentile and Anderson suggest that violent video games might encourage aggression more than violent television programming because.

            A)        players have a hard time identifying with any of the characters.

            B)        game players are more passive than television viewers.

            C)        players repeat violent behaviors over and over.

            D)        most games cause players to lose points for aggression.

Definition
C)        players repeat violent behaviors over and over.
Term

7. Violent pornographic films often convey a false impression that

            A)        women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

            B)        women are more likely to be rape victims than are men.

            C)        most rapes are never reported to the police,

            D)        most rapes are committed by victims' dates or acquaintances.

Definition
  A)        women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.
Term

8. The idea that watching violent drama enables people to release their pent-up hostilities is suggested by

            A)        social learning theory.

            B)        the disinhibition hypothesis.

            C)        catharsis theory.

            D)        the complementarity hypothesis/

Definition
            C)        catharsis theory.
Term

9. The results of Bandura's Bobo doll experiment indicated that observing aggressive behavior

            A)        lowers children's inhibitions and teaches them ways to aggress.

            B)        serves to release children's pent-up hostilities and in the long run makes them less aggressive.

            C)        increases aggression in males and decreases aggression in females.

            D)        has little effect on children's aggressive behavior.

           

Definition
A)        lowers children's inhibitions and teaches them ways to aggress.
Term

10. Researchers looking for a "hidden third variable" that might explain the difference in aggression between heavy and light TV viewers have been able to explain the difference by statistically controlling for

            A)        income.

            B)        family size.

            C)        intelligence.

            D)        No third variables tested yet have been able to explain the difference.

Definition
D)        No third variables tested yet have been able to explain the difference.
Term

11. Research indicates that when and where television is introduced, there are subsequent increases in

            A)        heart attacks.

            B)        alcohol use.

            C)        unemployment.

            D)        murder rates.

Definition
            D)        murder rates.
Term

12. Children who regularly viewed Mister Rogers' Neighborhood were subsequently more        

            A)        aggressive.

            B)        helpful and cooperative.

            C)        confused about the difference between reality and make-believe.

            D)        sarcastic.

Definition
            B)        helpful and cooperative.
Term

13. Research on television viewing indicates that

            A)        98 percent of American households have a TV set.

            B)        the TV is on seven hours a day in the average American home.

            C)        two of three programs contain violence.

            D)        all of these are true.

Definition
            D)        all of these are true.
Term

14. Controlled experiments on the effects of exposure to violent pornography indicate that it

            A)        has little effect on the viewer.

            B)        increases punitive behavior toward women.

            C)        results in catharsis and thus, in the long run, a lower rate of violent rape.

            D)        increases the rate of non-violent, but not violent, crime
Definition
B)        increases punitive behavior toward women.
Term

15. The violence viewing effect is strongest when an __________ person commits ____________ violence.

            A)        unattractive; unjustified

            B)        unattractive; justified

            C)        attractive; unjustified

            D)        attractive; justified
Definition
            D)        attractive; justified
Term

1. Psychologists believe that, because they are more involving and provoke identification with the characters, violent video games are even more potent models of aggression than television.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

2. In one survey of prison inmates, 4 out of 10 said they had attempted specific crimes they had seen on television.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

3. Correlational studies but not laboratory experiments indicate that viewing aggression leads to aggression.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

4. Research has indicated that viewing of violence at age 8 is a predictor of serious criminal offense by age 30.

            A)        True

            B)        False

           

Definition
            A)        True
Term

5. Modeling prosocial behavior on TV has no effect on children.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

6. Social psychologists agree that the best answer to the negative effects of portraying sexual violence is increased censorship.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

7. Controlled experiments reveal that exposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior toward women.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

8. Sales of sexually explicit magazines show no relationship to rape rates.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

9. Those who regularly watch TV violence tend to exaggerate the frequency of violence in the real world.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

10. Murder rates increase when and where television is introduced.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

Proximity

Definition

Geographical nearness. This (more precisely, “functional distance”) powerfully predicts liking.

Term

Mere-exposure effect

Definition

The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them.

Term

Matching phenomenon

Definition

The tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and other traits.

Term

Physical-attractiveness stereotype

Definition

The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.

Term

Complimentarity

Definition

The popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing of the other.

Term

Need to belong

Definition

A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions.

Term

1. Reward theory states that

            A)        rewards foster romantic but not companionate love.

            B)        companionate love is fostered by long periods of separation.

            C)        flattery always leads to increased skeptism.

            D)        we like those people who are associated with rewarding events.

Definition

            D)        we like those people who are associated with rewarding events.

Term

2. Which of the following is supported by the research on social attraction?

            A)        Familiarity breeds fondness.

            B)        Familiarity breeds contempt.

            C)        Beauty times brains equals a constant.

            D)        What is beautiful is frivolous.

Definition
            A)        Familiarity breeds fondness.
Term

3. The mere-exposure effect provides one possible explanation for

            A)        why proximity leads to liking.

            B)        why similarity leads to liking.

            C)        if it is structured to convey equal status

            D)        the equity phenomenon
Definition
            A)        why proximity leads to liking.
Term

4. Based on research presented in the text, if you go out on a blind date you would be most influenced by your date's

            A)        open-mindedness.

            B)        sense of humor.

            C)        physical attractiveness.

            D)        sincerity.

Definition
            C)        physical attractiveness.
Term

5. The finding that people pair off with others who are about as attractive as themselves is known as

            A)        the matching phenomenon.

            B)        complementarity.

            C)        the reciprocity effect.

            D)        Gause's law.

Definition
            A)        the matching phenomenon.
Term

6. When shown a picture of an average young woman, men who had been watching three beautiful women on television's Charlie's Angels rated her as ___________________________ than did men who had not been watching the program.

            A)        more attractive

            B)        less attractive

            C)        more intelligent

            D)        less intelligent

Definition
            B)        less attractive
Term

7. French students' least favorite letter among the letters of the alphabet is

            A)        the hardest letter to pronounce.

            B)        the hardest letter to draw.

            C)        the last letter of the alphabet.

            D)        the least frequent letter in the French language.

           

Definition
D)        the least frequent letter in the French language.
Term

8. Theodore Newcomb's study of unacquainted male transfer students who roomed together in a university boarding house indicated that

            A)        those whose attitudes and interests were initially most similar were most likely to form close friendships.

            B)        those whose attitudes and interests were initially complementary were most likely to form close friendships.

            C)        "similar" students formed friendships initially but, as the weeks passed, "complementary" students began to form friendships that turned out to be the most lasting.

            D)        friendships were initially formed within the boarding house, but as time passed, these dissolved and were replaced by more lasting relationships with students living elsewhere.

Definition
  A)        those whose attitudes and interests were initially most similar were most likely to form close friendships.
Term

9. The idea that we are attracted to people who are in some ways different from ourselves is an essential aspect of the

            A)        companionate love hypothesis.

            B)        matching phenomenon.

            C)        complementarity hypothesis.

            D)        reward theory of attraction.

Definition
            C)        complementarity hypothesis.
Term

10. Tom, who tends to be extroverted, has just moved into the dormitory at Big State University. He is most likely to make friends with

            A)        Bill, his next-door neighbor.

            B)        John, a chemistry major who lives across campus.

            C)        Michael, an introvert who lives on the next floor.

            D)        Stuart, a student who lives off campus and who loves dogs
Definition
            A)        Bill, his next-door neighbor.
Term

11. Mary, who is attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status marries Tom, who is also attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status. Their relationship is best understood as an example of

            A)        the ingratiation effect.

            B)        complementarity

            C)        the mere-exposure effect.

            D)        the matching phenomenon.

           

Definition
            D)        the matching phenomenon.
Term

12. Some years ago, a mysterious student enveloped in a big, black bag began attending a speech class at a state university. Although the teacher knew the "Black Bag's" identity, the other students did not. As the semester progressed, the students' attitude toward the Black Bag changed from hostility to curiosity to friendship. This change in attitude is best explained by the research finding that

            A)        exposure breeds liking.

            B)        stress produces affiliation.

            C)        boredom breeds a liking for the novel.

            D)        similarity attracts.

Definition
            A)        exposure breeds liking.
Term

13. Mary, a talkative, extroverted, young woman, is strongly attracted to Ronald, a quiet, introverted, middle-aged man. Mary's attraction to Ronald would be best explained by

            A)        exchange theory.

            B)        the matching phenomenon.

            C)        the equity principle.

            D)        the complementarity hypothesis
Definition
            D)        the complementarity hypothesis
Term

14. You overhear a casual acquaintance express approval of you in the coffee shop. You are most likely to think well of that acquaintance if

            A)        you had learned an hour earlier that you had received an average grade on a history test.

            B)        you had learned an hour earlier that you had failed a chemistry test.

            C)        the acquaintance is unattractive.

            D)        the acquaintance is engaged to be married.

           

Definition

            B)        you had learned an hour earlier that you had failed a chemistry test.

Term

15. A stranger rides the same bus you do to school every day. According to the "mere-exposure effect," as the days pass you will come to view the stranger

            A)        as merely another student.

            B)        more unfavorably.

            C)        more critically.

            D)        more favorably.

Definition
            D)        more favorably.
Term

16. Elaine Hatfield and her colleagues found that the best predictor of whether dating partners at a "Welcome Week" computer dance liked each other was

            A)        physical attractiveness.

            B)        similarity of values.

            C)        similarity of interests.

            D)        similarity in intelligence.

Definition
            A)        physical attractiveness.
Term

17. Which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by the research reported in this module of your textbook?

            A)        You always love what you can't have.

            B)        Opposites attract.

            C)        Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

            D)        Birds of a feather flock together.

Definition
            D)        Birds of a feather flock together.
Term

1. Cognitive dissonance theory provides the most popular theory of social attraction.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

2. One of the most powerful predictors of whether any two people are friends is their sheer proximity to one another.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

3. Novel stimuli are rated more negatively after being shown repeatedly.

            A)        True

            B)        False
Definition
            B)        False
Term

4. Women more than men worry about their physical appearance, and they constitute 90 percent of cosmetic surgery patients.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

5. Most people rate physically attractive men and women as colder, less intelligent, and less moral than plainer people.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

6. Evidence strongly supports the complementarity hypothesis.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

7. The more similar someone's attitudes are to our own, the more we like the person.

            A)        True

            B)        False

           

Definition
            A)        True
Term

8. Viewing pornographic films simulating passionate sex tends to increase satisfaction with one's own partner.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

9. Physically attractive people tend to be more outgoing and more gender-typed.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

10. Those told that certain others like them feel a reciprocal affection.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

Conflict

Definition

A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals

Term

Non-zero-sum games

Definition

Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose.

Term

Mirror-image perceptions

Definition

Reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for examples, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.

Term

1. The tragedy of the commons illustrates how

            A)        individual irrationality results in group rationality.

            B)        the pursuit of short-term individual gain leads to long-term collective costs.

            C)        a non-zero-sum game can degenerate into a zero-sum game.

            D)        superordinate goals may fail to produce cooperation in capitalistic societies.

Definition
B)        the pursuit of short-term individual gain leads to long-term collective costs.
Term

2. In non-zero-sum games,

            A)        one player always wins and the other always loses.

            B)        one player's winnings equal the other player's losses.

            C)        both players may win, both may lose, or one may win and the other may lose.

            D)        the players' combined outcomes can never equal zero.

Definition
C)        both players may win, both may lose, or one may win and the other may lose.
Term

3. The __________________ the commons, the _____________________ responsibility each person feels for it.

            A)        smaller; more

            B)        larger; more

            C)        more important; more

            D)        more important; less

           

Definition
A)        smaller; more
Term

4. Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated when

            A)        one person is always cooperative.

            B)        the opponents can communicate with one another.

            C)        the game is changed into a zero-sum game.

            D)        All of the above are effective in facilitating mutual cooperation
Definition
   B)        the opponents can communicate with one another.
Term

5. Appeals to altruistic norms have been slow to

            A)        be helpful in reducing social dilemmas.

            B)        work in resolving small-scale, but not large-scale, dilemmas.

            C)        create reactance and make people more competitive

            D)        provoke a sense of injustice on the part of highly altruistic individuals.

Definition
A)        be helpful in reducing social dilemmas.
Term

6. Sherif's experiments in a boys' summer camp demonstrated how

            A)        appeals to altruistic norms create reactance and thus more conflict.

            B)        conflict can be reduced through regulation.

            C)        conflict can be reduced by dividing a commons into smaller territories.

            D)        competition can produce conflict.

Definition
            D)        competition can produce conflict.
Term

7. When one person's outcomes are equal to another person's outcomes, the relationship is

            A)        just.

            B)        equitable.

            C)        both just and equitable.

            D)        not necessarily either just or equitable.

Definition
D)        not necessarily either just or equitable.
Term

8. Many conflicts contain a small core of truly incompatible ___________________________ surrounded by a larger exterior of ___________________________.

            A)        individuals; cooperative motives

            B)        actions; incompatible values         

            C)        goals; misperceptions

            D)        perceptions; incompatible actions

Definition
D)        perceptions; incompatible actions
Term

9. In playing Prisoner's Dilemma, a person's outcome from ANY given decision will be better if he or she

            A)        cooperates.

            B)        does not cooperate.

            C)        cooperates only if the other person cooperates.

            D)        cooperates only if the other person does not cooperate.

Definition
            B)        does not cooperate.
Term

10. Two gas station owners in Roseville both cut their gas prices, each hoping to capture a portion of the other station's business. However, neither gained any of the other's customers and, in the long run, both operated at a loss. This outcome best illustrates the dynamics of

            A)        a social dilemma.

            B)        the GRIT strategy.

            C)        an inequitable relationship.

            D)        mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
            A)        a social dilemma.
Term

11. Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of

            A)        an inequitable relationship.

            B)        the tragedy of the commons.

            C)        a zero-sum relationship.

            D)        mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
            A)        an inequitable relationship.
Term

12. John believes he is hard-working, but his wife, Rachel, is lazy. Rachel believes she is hard-working but John is lazy. This is an example of

            A)        an inequitable relationship.

            B)        mirror-image perceptions.

            C)        a superordinate conflict.

            D)        a social trap.

Definition
            B)        mirror-image perceptions.
Term

13. What does the text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?

            A)        Equity for strangers, equality for friends.

            B)        An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

            C)        Do unto others as they do unto you.

            D)        Whoever has the gold, makes the rules.

Definition
D)        Whoever has the gold, makes the rules.
Term

14. All of the following are cited in your textbook as misperceptions that can cause conflict except

            A)        the self-serving bias.

            B)        the fundamental attribution error.

            C)        the naturalistic fallacy.

            D)        groupthink.

Definition
            C)        the naturalistic fallacy.
Term

15. In the tragedy of the commons, the "commons" refers to

            A)        disputed border territory.

            B)        stolen goods or winnings.

            C)        any shared and limited resource.

            D)        any individual's private property.

Definition
            C)        any shared and limited resource.
Term

16. When they were fighting with each other about how to divide up the space in their dorm room, Wanda thought Sondra was a "selfish shrew." Now that they have resolved the space conflict, and getting along again, Wanda is more likely to think Sondra is

            A)        a shelfish shrew.

            B)        a cheerful friend.

            C)        a miserly ratfink.

            D)        a grasping gopher.

Definition
            B)        a cheerful friend.
Term

1. Conflict is a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

2. In the Prisoner's Dilemma, a person always receives the best payoff on a particular trial if he or she cooperates.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

3. Some forms of cooperation are extremely unlikely to occur, unless they are required by law.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
          A)        True
Term

4. The "tragedy of the commons" refers to the loss of one's personal property when it is taken over by the government.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

5. The Prisoner's Dilemma is an example of a non-zero-sum game.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

6. Sherif's experiments in a boys' summer camp demonstrated how competition can produce social conflict.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

7. Equity involves the distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals' needs.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

8. Conflicts often contain only a small number of truly incompatible goals.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

9. The more competent and worthy people feel, the more they will perceive injustice in a relationship.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

10. A sign that conflict has been resolved is when the parties begin to hold mirror-image perceptions of one another.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

Equal-status contact

Definition

Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should be between persons equal in status.

Term

Superordinate goal

Definition

A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people’s differences from one another.

Term

Bargaining

Definition

Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties.

Term

Mediation

Definition

An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions

Term

Arbitration

Definition

Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement.

Term

Integrative agreements

Definition

Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.

Term

GRIT

Definition

Acronym for “graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction”—a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions.

Term

1. Shared goals that necessitate cooperative effort are said to be

            A)        reciprocal.

            B)        superordinate.

            C)        equitable.

            D)        companionate.

Definition
            B)        superordinate.
Term

2. What has been the influence of school desegregation on racial attitudes in the United States?

            A)        neither positive nor negative changes have prevailed.

            B)        hostility has increased.

            C)        hostility has decreased.

            D)        hostility has increased in the South but decreased in the North.

Definition
A)        neither positive nor negative changes have prevailed.
Term

3. Contact between opposing racial groups reduces hostility

            A)        if it occurs in a competitive situation where parties are likely to communicate with each other.

            B)        if the minority group is given superior status.

            C)        if it is structured to convey equal status.

            D)        between younger members of the respective groups but not between older members.

Definition
C)        if it is structured to convey equal status.
Term

. Conflict between groups promotes _______________________ within groups.

            A)        unity

            B)        conflict

            C)        concern for equity

            D)        role confusion

Definition
A)        unity
Term

5. Studies of the use of cooperative learning strategies in the schools have shown that such strategies can

            A)        lower self-esteem.

            B)        lower motivation.

            C)        improve race relations.

            D)        do all of the above.

Definition
C)        improve race relations.
Term

6. Bargaining tough is likely to backfire

            A)        when the conflict is over a pie of fixed size.

            B)        when the conflict is over a pie that can shrink.

            C)        when females bargain tough with males.

            D)        in virtually every situation.

Definition
B)        when the conflict is over a pie that can shrink.
Term

7. The GRIT strategy was formulated as a plan

            A)        for reversing conflict through conciliation.

            B)        for decreasing interracial tensions in desegregated schools.

            C)        to demonstrate how conflict in general can be reduced through arbitration.

            D)        to demonstrate how regulation can alleviate social dilemmas
Definition
A)        for reversing conflict through conciliation.
Term

8. Compared to compromises, integrative agreements are

            A)        more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships.

            B)        only reached through mediation or arbitration.

            C)        only possible when perceived injustice is the cause of conflict.

            D)        less likely to lead to a permanent settlement.

Definition
A)        more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships.
Term

9. According to the text, third-party mediators may be helpful in resolving conflicts by

            A)        imposing a settlement after hearing both sides of the issue.

            B)        introducing a common external threat.

            C)        using the GRIT strategy.

            D)        facilitating constructive communication.

Definition
D)        facilitating constructive communication.
Term

10. In "final-offer arbitration," the third party settles a conflict by

            A)        introducing a superordinate goal.

            B)        compromising between the final offers made by each side.

            C)        providing an integrative agreement based on final offers from each side.

            D)        choosing between the final offers made by each side.

Definition
D)        choosing between the final offers made by each side.
Term

11. A key factor in determining whether people will communicate constructively and thereby correct misperceptions is

            A)        their trust that the opposing side is well-intentioned.

            B)        their verbal fluency.

            C)        if each party sticks to statements of fact and refrains from stating how they feel about the other's actions.

            D)        if information which contradicts the other party's misperceptions is given bit by bit and not all at once.

Definition
A)        their trust that the opposing side is well-intentioned.
Term

12. The "Kennedy experiment" was an application of ___________________________ to international tension reduction.

            A)        equal status contact

            B)        the jigsaw technique

            C)        the GRIT model

            D)        arbitration

Definition
  C)        the GRIT model
Term

13. Which of the following best illustrates a superordinate goal?

            A)        a college student who has been failing English gets an "A" on a paper

            B)        a woman beats her husband at tennis

            C)        apartment dwellers install a television antenna they can all use

            D)        an obese person loses 20 pounds in two weeks

Definition
C)        apartment dwellers install a television antenna they can all use
Term

14. According to the text, contact between two conflicting racial groups can often improve relationships and correct misperceptions. Which kind of contact is, however, least likely to have that effect?

            A)        placing Black and White athletes on the same baseball team

            B)        having Black and White employees work together in small groups in an industrial plant

            C)        placing White policemen on duty in predominantly Black residential neighborhoods

            D)        having Blacks and Whites move into the same apartment building

Definition
C)        placing White policemen on duty in predominantly Black residential neighborhoods
Term

15. Sherif's studies of conflict in summer camp should lead one to suggest which of the following to a couple having marital difficulties?

            A)        play poker, keeping a cumulative score

            B)        work together on something

            C)        encounter each other: express your true feelings

            D)        take separate vacations

Definition
            B)        work together on something
Term

16. Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of conflict they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through

            A)        bargaining.

            B)        arbitration.

            C)        mediation.

            D)        conciliation.

Definition
            B)        arbitration.
Term

17. The GRIT model could be applied to the reduction of conflict between

            A)        individuals.

            B)        groups.

            C)        nations.

            D)        all of these.

           

Definition
            D)        all of these.
Term

18. Kevin and Joel, two teenage brothers, are fighting over the evening newspaper. Knowing Kevin only wants the sports section and Joel only wants the latest stock quotations, their mother takes the paper and gives each boy the section containing the news of interest. In this case the mother arrived at a(n)

            A)        mutual compromise.

            B)        cooperative settlement.

            C)        enlightened consensus.

            D)        integrative agreement.

Definition
            D)        integrative agreement.
Term

19. Which of the following is NOT one of the four C's of peacemaking?

            A)        contact

            B)        control

            C)        cooperation

            D)        conciliation

Definition
            B)        control
Term

20. Social psychologist Morton Deutsch captures the spirit of GRIT in advising negotiators to be

            A)        strong-willed and sober.

            B)        poker-faced and stoic.

            C)        firm, fair, and friendly.

            D)        soft, smiling, and sympathetic.

 

Definition
            C)        firm, fair, and friendly.
Term

1. Integrative agreements are win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

2. Results of school desegregation studies have shown that interracial contact consistently reduces prejudice.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

3. Sherif used arbitration to reduce conflict in the boys' summer camp.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

4. Cooperative learning strategies have been shown to improve race relations in desegregated schools.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

5. Mediation involves resolution of a conflict by a third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

6. The Kennedy experiment demonstrates how arbitration can reduce conflict.

            A)        True

            B)        False
Definition
            B)        False
Term

7. GRIT uses conciliation to reduce conflict.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

8. In laboratory games, those who are 100 percent cooperative are rarely exploited.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

9. When two parties mistrust each other, engaging a third-party mediator in the conflict usually further deteriorates the situation.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

10. Just being reminded of an outgroup can strengthen cohesiveness among ingroup members.

            A)        True

            B)        False

 

Definition
            A)        True
Term

Altruism

Definition

A motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interest

Term

Social-exchange theory

Definition

The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs

Term

Reciprocity norm

Definition

An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.

Term

Social-responsibility norm

Definition

An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

Term

Bystander effect

Definition

The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.

Term

1. According to the text, the classic illustration of altruism is provided by

            A)        the Kitty Genovese case.

            B)        the parable of the Good Samaritan.

            C)        the parable of the Prodigal Son.

            D)        President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

           

Definition
            B)        the parable of the Good Samaritan.
Term

2. According to social-exchange theory we will help when

            A)        the benefits are external and the costs are internal.

            B)        the benefits are greater than the costs.

            C)        the benefits and costs are proportional.

            D)        the benefits are smaller than the costs.

Definition
B)        the benefits are greater than the costs.
Term

3. The social-responsibility norm is an expectation that people will

            A)        help those who really need it.

            B)        help those who have helped them.

            C)        assume responsibility for helping their parents.

            D)        assume responsibility for correcting past mistakes.

Definition
            A)        help those who really need it.
Term

4. Latane and Darley attempted to explain people's failure to intervene in cases like that of Kitty Genovese in terms of

            A)        situational influences.

            B)        personality traits.

            C)        mood factors.

            D)        selfish genes.

Definition
            A)        situational influences.
Term

5. Researchers had participants fill out a questionnaire in a room either by themselves or with two strangers. When the experimenters pumped smoke through a wall vent, solitary participants were more likely than those in a group to

            A)        quickly notice the smoke .

            B)        misinterpret the smoke as being truth gas.

            C)        delay going to seek help.

            D)        do all of these.

Definition
            A)        quickly notice the smoke .
Term

6. What is meant by the term "bystander effect"?

            A)        People are likely to gather at the scene of a serious accident.

            B)        People who gather at the scene of a fire frequently hamper firefighters’ operations.

            C)        People are more likely to provide aid when there are helping models present.

            D)        People are less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.

Definition
D)        People are less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
Term

7. Darley and Latane's studies of bystander effects showed that as the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, people become less likely to

            A)        notice the incident.

            B)        interpret the incident as an emergency.

            C)        assume responsibility for intervening.

            D)        do all of these.

Definition
            D)        do all of these.
Term

8. Students who listened over an intercom to a victim lapse into an epileptic seizure were most likely to help if they believed

            A)        they were the only listeners.

            B)        two others also overheard the victim.

            C)        four others also overheard the victim.

            D)        the experimenter also overheard the victim.
Definition
            A)        they were the only listeners.
Term

9. When participants in Darley and Latane's seizure experiment were interviewed after debriefing from the experiment, they all said they thought the deception used by the experimenters __________ justified and that they __________ be willing to take part in future similar experiments.

            A)        was; would not

            B)        was not; would

            C)        was not; would not

            D)        was; would

           

Definition
            D)        was; would
Term

10. Research has indicated that when students have been informed through a lecture of how bystanders can affect one's reactions to an emergency,

            A)        the students are subsequently more likely to help someone in need.

            B)        their willingness to help is unchanged, for they refuse to believe they can be influenced by other people.

            C)        their willingness to help is increased for a few hours following the lecture, but for no longer.

            D)        their willingness to help actually decreases, due to psychological reactance.

Definition
  A)        the students are subsequently more likely to help someone in need.
Term

11. The ability to understand and feel what another feels constitutes

            A)        altruism.

            B)        moral exclusivity.

            C)        reciprocity.

            D)        empathy.

Definition
            D)        empathy.
Term

12. The statement, "There is no duty more indispensable than that of returning a kindness," reflects the __________________ norm.

            A)        restitution

            B)        reciprocity

            C)        social-responsibility

            D)        equity

Definition
            B)        reciprocity
Term

13. Tanika escaped from an abusive relationship. Now, she is most likely to contribute to a fundraising appeal for

            A)        helping abused women leave abusive relationships.

            B)        counseling distressed abusers.

            C)        flower baskets to decorate neighborhood streets.

            D)        grants to senior-citizen artists.

Definition
A)        helping abused women leave abusive relationships.
Term

14. Rodney is on the bus when another passenger suddenly clutches her chest and falls over unconscious. Rodney is most likely to try to help if

            A)        it is rush hour and he is late for work.

            B)        he has just broken up with his girlfriend and cannot keep his mind off his sorrows.

            C)        the bus is crowded.

            D)        he watched a TV show last night called on "everyday heroes," profiling people who stopped to help when it was needed.

Definition
D)        he watched a TV show last night called on "everyday heroes," profiling people who stopped to help when it was needed.
Term

15. We interpret ambiguous situation by checking to see what other people around us are doing, a process of

            A)        self-serving comparison.

            B)        bystander intervention.

            C)        informational influence.

            D)        false consensus.

Definition
C)        informational influence.
Term

1. According to social-exchange theory, we are by nature altruistic.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

2. According to social norms theory, we use a "minimax" strategy in relating to others.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

3. The social-responsibility norm is an expectation that people will help those who have helped them.

            A)        True

            B)        False

           

Definition
            B)        False
Term

4. Religious commitment is correlated with charitable giving and volunteerism.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

5. As the number of bystanders increases, any given bystander is less likely to interpret an incident as an emergency.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

6. Latane and Darley's research showed that choosing what form assistance should take is the step in decision-making that prevents most people from giving any sort of aid at all.

            A)        True

            B)        False

           

Definition
            B)        False
Term

7. When we feel guilty we are more likely to help those around us.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

8. Empathy often produces helping only when the help-giver believes the victim will actually receive the needed help.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

9. Participants in bystander experiments readily realize that the presence of others is influencing their reactions.

            A)        True

            B)        False
Definition
            B)        False
Term

10. When questioned, most participants in bystander experiments express resentment over being deceived.

            A)        True

            B)        False

 

Definition
            B)        False
Term

Adaptation-level phenomenon

Definition

The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level

Term

Social comparison

Definition

Evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others.

Term

1. Increasing population and increasing consumption have combined to overshoot the earth's ecological

            A)        materialism.

            B)        economic growth.

            C)        carrying capacity.

            D)        affluence.

Definition
            C)        carrying capacity.
Term

2. Since the 1950s, the percentage of American who say they are "very happy" has

            A)        more than doubled.

            B)        increased slightly

            C)        fallen to nearly zero.

            D)        decreased slightly.

Definition
            D)        decreased slightly.
Term

3. Solving the pending global crisis will require

            A)        increased technical efficiency.

            B)        increased agricultural efficiency.

            C)        modifying our human behavior.

            D)        all of these.

Definition
            D)        all of these.
Term

4. Among nations whose economic levels have reached a level sufficient for survival, increasing affluence predicts

            A)        proportional increases in happiness.

            B)        large increases in happiness.

            C)        nothing about happiness.

            D)        increases in anxiety and social unrest.

Definition
            C)        nothing about happiness.
Term

5. People who seek intimacy, personal growth, and contribution to the community experience greater

            A)        materialism

            B)        quality of life.

            C)        environmentalism.

            D)        sustainability.

           

Definition
            B)        quality of life.
Term

6. According to one national poll found most __________ would like to be rich.

            A)        of the 100 wealthiest Americans

            B)        people earning over $75,000 per year

            C)        social workers

            D)        all of these

Definition
B)        people earning over $75,000 per year
Term

7. Economist Robert Frank used the principles of social psychology to develop a proposal to limit consumption by implementing

            A)        universal flow training.

            B)        affluence rollbacks.

            C)        consumption taxes.

            D)        materialism deprogramming.

Definition
            C)        consumption taxes.
Term

8. Global problems stemming from increases in production and consumption include

            A)        climate warming.

            B)        overfishing.

            C)        depleted forest resources.

            D)        all of these.

Definition
            D)        all of these.
Term

9. Which of the following best demonstrates the phenomenon your textbook author refers to as the "American paradox?"

            A)        reduced rights and weakened civility

            B)        low incomes and high morale

            C)        high incomes and low morale

            D)        celebrating prosperity while having purpose

Definition
            C)        high incomes and low morale
Term

10. Compared to those with a less material orientation, people who identify themselves with expensive possessions experience fewer

            A)        episodes of adaptation.

            B)        moments of self-doubt.

            C)        unmet financial desires.

            D)        good moods.

Definition
            D)        good moods.
Term

11. The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level is known as

            A)        the adaptation-level phenomenon.

            B)        social comparison.

            C)        the American paradox.

            D)        the availability heuristic
Definition
            A)        the adaptation-level phenomenon.
Term

12. Tom just received his grade for the last psychology exam. With which of his classmates is he most likely to compare grades, according to research on social comparison?

            A)        Todd, who never studies or does very well

            B)        Tim, who got sick during the exam and had to leave without finishing

            C)        Terri, the top student in the class

            D)        Tina, who dropped out of the class at midterm

Definition
            C)        Terri, the top student in the class
Term

13. Your textbook author predicts that a shift to post-materialist values will gain momentum as people

            A)        face the implications of population and consumption growth.

            B)        realize that materialist values result in happier lives.

            C)        appreciate that economic growth breeds increased well-being.

            D)        begin seeking a state of flow.

Definition
A)        face the implications of population and consumption growth.
Term

14. Lana just received a prestigious prize for her investigative reporting and, as a result, the newspaper she works for gave her a raise. Compared to how happy she was at her old salary, Lana's level of happiness with her new salary is likely to be

            A)        permanently higher.

            B)        higher for a while, and then decline to normal levels.

            C)        exactly the same.

            D)        permanently lower.

Definition
B)        higher for a while, and then decline to normal levels.
Term

15. As a participant in a psychology experiment, Jennifer just supplied five different answers to complete the sentence, "I'm glad I'm not a . . ." Meanwhile, Rachel supplied five different answers to the sentence, "I wish I were a . . . " According to research summarized in your textbook, which woman will now feel more satisfied with her life?

            A)        Jennifer

            B)        Rachel

            C)        Both will be equally satisfied.

            D)        Both will experience decreased life satisfaction.

Definition
    A)        Jennifer
Term

1. The warmest 23 years on record all occurred prior to 1975.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

2. The earth cannot support our present consumption indefinitely.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

3. Compared to the 1970s, more college students today believe that raising a family and developing a meaning philosophy of life are more important than being financially well-off.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

4. There is no correlation between national wealth and well-being.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

5. The super rich—the Forbes 100 wealthiest Americans—report only slightly greater than average levels of happiness.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

6. Daily showers have gone from being a luxury unavailable to most Americans in the 1950s to being a necessity for the majority of Americans today.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

7. It is impossible to create a social paradise.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True
Term

8. When engaging in social comparison, we tend to compare downward.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

9. Satisfying the need to belong does not affect our well-being.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            B)        False
Term

10. Individuals in a state of flow, lose awareness of time and self.

            A)        True

            B)        False

Definition
            A)        True