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Social Psychology Exam 4
Conformity - Influencing Behavior
70
Psychology
03/16/2011

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Term
Conformity
Definition
a change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of others
Term
Informational Social Influence
Definition
-we conform because we believe that others’ interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action

-occurs because we see other people as a source of information.
Term
Autokinetic Effect
Definition
the illusion that a still point of light in an otherwise dark visual field moves
Term
Private Acceptance
Definition
Conforming to other people’s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right

SHERIF's experiment: Autokinetic effect
Term
Public Compliance
Definition
Conforming to other people’s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying
Term
How do administrators combat binge drinking in college students?
Definition
SOCIAL NORMS METHOD

-students receive accurate information about the drinking levels on their campus, which are typically lower than students believe them to be
Term
Baron, Vandello, & Brunsman

eyewitness task
Definition
-showed them picture of perpetrator and then had them pick that person out of a lineup

-Lineup was only flashed for a second and the perpetrator was wearing different clothes than in the picture: AMBIGUOUS

-3 confederates gave the wrong answers. participants were more influenced by the confederate's answers when the task was more important (informational social influence)
Term
Contagion
Definition
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
Term
Mass Psychogenic Illness
Definition
The occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
Term
3 conditions for people to conform to Informational Social Influence
Definition
1. When the situation is ambiguous

2. When the situation is a crisis - crisises leave us limited time to act, which may increase panic. turn to other panicked people for information

3. When other people are experts - the more expertise someone has, the more people will turn to them as a guide in an ambiguous situation. Experts are not always reliable sources of information
Term
How to resist informational influence
Definition
-Consider whether or not other people know more about what is going on than you do and whether the actions of the other people or experts seem sensible
Term
Social norms
Definition
The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members
Term
Normative social influence
Definition
The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them

-this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group’s beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors
Term
Asch Line Judgment Studies
Definition
-used a clearly defined situation, not ambiguous

-Participants were presented with a series of three lines of differing lengths and were asked to match a target line to one of the three; the answer was OBVIOUS.

-7 confederates, 1 normal participant
--2/3 of the trials: confederates conformed to the wrong answer

--RESULTS
-76% conformed at least once

--People conformed on about 1/3 of the trials where the confederates gave the wrong answer
Term
Twist of Asch's experiment: Writing answers on paper
Definition
-Conformity dropped dramatically

-demonstrates the power of social disapproval in the original study in shaping a person's behavior
Term
Baron et. al study: given easy eyewitness identification task
Definition
-shown participants the lineup for 5 seconds and let them view each pair of slides twice

--Control subjects got 97% correct on these conditions, demonstrating that this task was indeed unambiguous and analogous to the Asch line judgment situation

-people find it difficult to risk social approval, even when the answer is blatantly wrong
Term
What happens when people resist normative group influence?
Definition
Other group members start paying attention to the deviant and try to convince them to conform. if they dont, they will be rejected
Term
Social Impact Theory
Definition
conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group’s importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group
Term
Schacter: demonstrated how groups respond to an individual who ignores the group's normative influence
Definition
-Groups read about "Johnny Rocco," a juvenile delinquent.

-An accomplice in the group was instructed to disagree with the group's recommendations. The deviant received most of the communication from the other group members. group members began to ignore the deviant and then recommended that the deviant be eliminated from the further group discussions
Term
Anderson et al.

Social Influence and Women's Body image
Definition
-analyzed 54 diff cultures' perception of the ideal female body. heavy female bodies were considered the most beautiful in cultures with little food. slender body viewed in cultures that had a lot of food.
Term
Crandall: examined normative social influences on bulimia in 2 college sororities
Definition
-each sorority had its own norm for the "right" amount of binge eating and that popularity within the sorority was associated with adherence to this norm.
Term
Pope: found changes in the masculature of GI Joe dolls, and in % of ads portraying men
Definition
-more muscle is ideal

--men are accurate at perceiving amount of body mass, but their ideal muscle mass is more
Term
Social Impact theory: What does conforming to normative pressures depend on? (3)
Definition
1. Strength (personal importance)

2. Immediacy (physical proximity)

3. Number of other people in group
Term
Factors of conformity (5)
Definition
1. Group size

2. When the group is important - normative pressures are stronger when they come from people that like each other. highly cohesive

3. when one has no allies in the group: group unanimity increases

4. When the group's culture is collectivistic: higher conformity in collectivist societies (Norway, Zimbabwe, etc).

5. low self-esteem: people are more likely to conform
Term
How to resist normative social influence (2)
Definition
1. become aware that we are doing it

2. find a friend that thinks like you do
Term
Idiosyncrasy credits
Definition
give you the right to deviate occasionally without serious consequences, because you conform to group norms most of the time
Term
Minority influence
Definition
minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority

caused by consistency over time and between members of the minority
Term
Wood: minorities + majorities --> types of influence?
Definition
Minorities: cause private acceptance because of informational social influence

Majorities: Cause public compliance because of normative social influence
Term
Injunctive Norms
Definition
People’s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others
Term
Descriptive norms
Definition
People’s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others
Term
Reno: the role of injuctive and descriptive norms
Definition
CONCLUSIONS: injuctive norms are more powerful than descriptive norms in producing desired behavior

-participants were exposed either to a confederate walking by (control group), a confederate walking by and dropping fast food bag (descrip. norm condition), or a confederate picking up a littered fast food bag (injuctive norm condition)

-occurred in either clean or dirty parking lot

RESULTS:

-Control group: 38% littered in both parking lots

-Descriptive norm condition: littering = reduced in clean lot condition, becayse confederate reminded people of the norm for cleanliness

-Injuctive norm: littered least of all
Term
Arendt: obedience to authority
Definition
-holocause occurred because participants were ordinary people bowing to extraordinary social pressures, not because they were crazy
Term
Milgram's experiment
Definition
-paired associates task, delivered electric shock for incorrect answers

-62.5% of the participants gave 450 volts shock
Term
Why did 62.5% continue with Milgram's experiment to 450 volts? (3)
Definition
1. Self justification: dissonance reductionl rationalization provided the basis for escalating shocks

2. Loss of personal responsibility: experimenter was authority figure, so he was responsible. "just following orders"

3. Social pressure
Term
Group
Definition
Two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
Term
Why do people join groups? (3)
Definition
1. evolution: substantial survival advantage of groups.

2. innate need to belong.

3. Services: provide information, help us define identity, establish social norms for behavior
Term
social roles
Definition
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
Term
What are the costs of social roles? (2)
Definition
1. people can temporarily lose their personal identities. (ex: prison guards become more aggressive, prisoners become more passive and depressed)

2. cost to acting inconsistently with roles (ex: conflict between traditional woman's roles and job roles)
Term
Group cohesiveness
Definition
• Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
Term
social facilitation
Definition
• ) The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
Term
Zajonc: explanation of mere presence effect (social facilitation)
Definition
-presense of others increases physiological arousal, which facilitates dominant, well-learned responses... but inhibits performance on more difficult tasks
Term
Why the presense of others causes arousal (3)
Definition
1. presense of others makes us more alert

2. presense of others makes us concerned for what others think of us (evaluation apprehension)

3. others distract us
Term
Social loafing
Definition
-individual efforts are less easily observed

-performance is impaired on simple tasks, and enhanced on complex ones when individual performance cannot be evaluated
Term
Social Loafing - who slacks off the most?
Definition
social loafing is more common in men. stronger in western than asian cultures
Term
Deindividuation
Definition
The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified (such as when they are in a crowd), leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts
Term
Mullen: deindividuation in crowds
Definition
-larger mobs = more savagery
Term
why does deindividuation make people feel less accountable?
Definition
-less likely that any individual will be singled out and blamed

-increases obedience to group norms
Term
process loss
Definition
-when group interactions inhibit problem solving

-occurs because groups do not try hard enough to find out who is the most competent member, or communication problems
Term
Transactive memory
Definition
The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual
Term
Groupthink
Definition
A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
Term
When is groupthink most likely to occur? (4)
Definition
1. when a group is highly cohesive

2. isolated from contrary options

3. ruled by a directive leader who makes his or her wishes known

4. using poor decision-making procedures in a high stress situation
Term
Symptoms of groupthink (7)
Definition
1. illusion of invulnerability

2. belief in the moral correctness of the group

3. stereotyped views of the outgroup

4. self-censorship

5. direct pressure on dissenters to conform

6. mindguards are appointed to protect the leader from contrary viewpoints

7. illusion of unanimity
Term
How to avoid groupthink (4)
Definition
1. leaders who strive to remain impartial

2. soliciting outside opinion

3. breaking the group into subgroups that meet separately and then convene

4. the use of secret ballots
Term
group polarization
Definition
• The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
Term
The choice dilemmas questionnaire
Definition
used to study group decision making

conservative groups make less risks when together. predispositioned to risk, then make more risks together. GROUP POLARIZATION
Term
great person theory
Definition
• The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
Term
What attributes display a modest association with leadership success?
Definition
intelligence, motivation for power, charisma and social skills, adaptability, and confidence in leadership abilities
Term
What characteristics of presidents correlated with presidential effectiveness?
Definition
height, family size, number of books published before taking office
Term
Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership
Definition
leadership effectiveness depends on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
Term
forms of prejudice against women as leaders
Definition
1. if women fulfill their societal gender role by conforming, they are perceived as having less leadership potential. once women become leaders, they are evaluated more negatively than men who exhibit similar behavior
Term
transactional leaders
Definition
Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
Term
transformational leaders
Definition
Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
Term
task-oriented leader
Definition
A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers’ feelings and relationships
Term
relationship-oriented leader
Definition
A leader who is concerned primarily with workers’ feelings and relationships
Term
social dilemma
Definition
• A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
Term
tit-for-tat strategy
Definition
A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or competitively) on the previous trial
Term
public goods dilemma
Definition
A social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
Term
commons dilemma
Definition
A social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation but will disappear if overused
Term
negotiation
Definition
A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
Term
integrative solution
Definition
A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests; each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side