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Social and cross-cultural psychology
Chapter 8 Social influence
26
Psychology
11/21/2012

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Term
Social facilitation
Definition
The presence of others leads to improved performance
Term
Evaluation apprehension
Definition
A learned response to the presence of others when performing a task, whereby the performer experiences arousal when anticipating evaluation by these others (can affect social facilitation, and also helping behavior)
Term
Social influence
Definition
Change of attitudes, beliefs, opinions, values, and behavior as a result of being exposed to other individuals' attitudes, beliefs, opinions, values, and behavior
Term
norms
Definition
belief systems about how (not) to behave, that guide behavior but without the force of laws, and reflect group members' shared expectations about typical or desirable activities
Term
Autokinetic effect
Definition
Perceptual illusion, whereby, in the absence of reference points, a stationary light appears to move
Term
Deindividuation
Definition
A state in which individuals are deprived of their sense of individual identity, and are more likely to behave in an extreme manner, often antisocially and violating norms
Term
Normative influence
Definition
Influence based on conforming to the positive expectations of others; people avoid behaving in ways that will lead to social punishment or dissaproval
Term
Informational influence
Definition
Influence based on accepting the information obtained from others as evidence about reality
Term
Compliance
Definition
A response whereby the target of influence acquiesces to a request from the influence source (also refers to change in behavior to match a norm without change on a private level)
Term
Door-in-the-face technique (or reciprocal concessions procedure)
Definition
Compliance technique in which the requester begins with an extreme request that is almost always refused, then retreats to a more moderate request, which he or she had in mind all along
Term
Foot-in-the-door technique
Definition
Compliance technique in which the requester first asks for a small favour that is almost certain to be granted, then follows this up with a request for a larger, related favour
Term
Lowballing technique
Definition
Compliance to an initial attempt is followed by a more costly and less beneficial version of the same request
Term
majority influence (Conformity)
Definition
Social influence resulting from the exposure to the opinions of a majority, or the majority of one's group
Term
Minority influence (innovation)
Definition
Situation in which either an individual or a group in a numerical minority can influence the majority
Term
Leader in the field: Solomon Ash
Definition
Famous experiments on confirmity - 3 Lines, with different lenghts...
Term
Consistency
Definition
A behavioral style indicating that the same position is maintained across time; seen as central to minority influence
Term
Conversion
Definition
A change in private response after exposure to influence by others; internalized change; a change in the way one structures an aspect of reality
Term
Leader in the field: Charlan Jeanne Nemeth
Definition
Conflict explanation of majority-minority influence; convergent-divergent theory
Term
Self-categorization theory
Definition
Explains how the process of categorizing oneself as a group member forms social identity and brings about various forms of both group (e.g. polarization, influence) and intergroup (e.g. discrimination) behaviors.
Term
Referent informational influence
Definition
Individuals identify with a particular group and conform to a prototypical group position
Term
Leader in the field: Serge Moscovici
Definition
Group polarization and minority influence - one of the founding fathers of social psychology, giant in europe
Term
Group polarization
Definition
Tendency to make decisions that are more extreme than the average of group member's initial positions, in the direction already favoured by the group
Term
Group think
Definition
A syndrome of poor group decision-making in which members of a cohesive ingroup strive for unanimity at the expense of a realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
Term
Obedience to authority
Definition
Complying with orders from a person of higher social status within a defined hierarchy or chain of command
Term
Leader in the field: Stanley Milgram
Definition
Research in obedience to authority
Term
Whistle blowing
Definition
A specific form of disobedience in which people report corruption or unethical practice within an organization