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Soc. Ch. 7
Soc. Ch. 7
33
Sociology
03/11/2012

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Term
Gang
Definition
A group of people, usually young
Term
Cliques
Definition
Friendship circles, whose members identify one another as mutually connected.
Term
Deviance
Definition
Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group which it occurs.
Term
Crime
Definition
Behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions
Term
Juvenile Delinquency
Definition
A violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.
Term
Social Control
Definition
Refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws to discourage deviance.
Term
Criminology
Definition
The systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons.
Term
Anomie
Definition
A social condition in which people experience a sense of futility because social norms are weak, absent, or conflicting.
Term
What was Emile Durkheim's perspective on devianc (Functionalists)?
Definition
Believed that deviance was rooted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people. Believed that the less social integration we had, the more deviance and crime. Deviance is a natural and inevitable thing.
Term
Strain Theory
Definition
Robert Merton's term for when people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
Term
What are Merton's ways in which people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them?
Definition
Conformity, innovation, retreatism, ritualism, and rebellion
Term
conformity
Definition
Merton. Occurs when people accept culturally approved goals and pursue them through approved means.
Term
innovation
Definition
Merton. occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means of achieving them. For example--theft and drug dealing.
Term
ritualism
Definition
Merton. occurs when people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means of achieving them.
Term
Retreatism
Definition
Merton. occurs when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved mean of achieving them. for example -- skid-row alcoholics and drug addicts.
Term
Rebellion
Definition
Merton. occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved meas for achieving them, and advocate an alternative set of goals or means. violence.
Term
Illegitimate Opportunity Structures
Definition
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin -- Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
Term
Criminal Gang
Definition
devoted to theft, extortion, and other illegal means of securing an income.
Term
Conflict Gang
Definition
emerge in communities that do not provide either legitimate or illegitimate opportunities.
Term
Retreatist Gangs
Definition
unable to gain success through legitimate means and are unwilling to do so through illegal ones.
Term
Social Dynamite
Definition
Persons who have been marginalized.
Term
Social Junk
Definition
Members of stigmatized groups.
Term
Differential Association Theory
Definition
States that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
Term
Differential Reinforcement Theory
Definition
Suggests that both deviant behavior and conventional behavior are learned through the same social processes.
Term
Rational Choice Theory of Deviance
Definition
Deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions.
Term
Social Bond Theory
Definition
The proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken.
Term
Labeling Theory
Definition
THe proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
Term
Primary Deviance
Definition
refers to the initial act of rule breaking.
Term
Secondary Deviance
Definition
OCcurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
Term
Tertiary Deviance
Definition
Occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
Term
Felony
Definition
Major crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault.
Term
Misdemeanor
Definition
Minor crime that is typically punished by less than one year in jail.
Term
Violent Crime
Definition
Consists of actions-murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault-involving force or the threat of force against others.