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soc exam #2
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Sociology
04/13/2009

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
social stratification
Definition
system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, prestige, and power.
Term
slavery
Definition
some individuals own other people. This has taken place in Israel and the Romans, Africans, and Greeks were apart of this as well.
Term
caste
Definition
determined by birth and is life long. It takes place in India and South Africa
Term
estate
Definition
first estate was made up of nobility or wealth, the second estate consisted of the clergy, and the third estate consisted of the commoners. This took place during the middle- ages in Europe.
Term
class
Definition
based primarily on money or material possessions, which can be acquired. A class system also allows social mobility, which is movement up or down the social class ladder.
Term
karl Marx (stratification)
Definition
believed that social class depends on one single factor, which were peoples’ relationships to the means of production-the tools, factories, land and investment capital used to produce wealth. He also believed that the distinctions people made among themselves such as clothing, speech, education, and the car they drive were superficial matters.
Term
Max Weber (stratification)
Definition
argued that property is only party of the picture and that social class consisted of property, prestige, and power.
Term
functionalists (stratification)
Definition
views included that society must make certain that its positions are filled, that positions are more important than others, that the more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people, and that to motivate these people, society must offer them greater rewards. An example would be that a college president position is more important than the students because they control a large amount of people and their decisions affect many people.
Term
conflict theorist (stratification)
Definition
would say that no society can exist unless it is organized, leadership requires inequalities of power, and human nature is self-centered.
Term
how elite groups maintain stratification
Definition
People in the higher social classes maintain their class by controlling information. They manipulate the media by selectively releasing information and by withholding information “in the interest of national security.” They also influence heavily the way people think.
Term
characteristics of industrialized nations
Definition
Most industrialized nations are very developed and they include The United States and Canada, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand (16% of the World’s people).
Term
characteristics of industrializing nations
Definition
include most of the nations of the former Soviet Union and its former satellites in Eastern Europe (20% of the World’s people).
Term
least industrialized nations
Definition
The least industrialized nations are very poor, have large families, and can barely survive, for example, parts of Cambodia (49%).
Term
colonialism
Definition
countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world.
Term
neocolonialism
Definition
most industrialized nations turned to the international markets as a way of controlling the least industrialized nations.
Term
world system theory
Definition
industrialization led to four groups of nations. These include core nations which are the countries that industrialized first, the semi periphery which grew dependent on trade with the core nations, the fringe nations which developed even less and the external areas which were left out of the development of capitalism altogether.

Term
globalization of capatalism
Definition
adoption of capitalism around the world has created extensive ties among the world’s nations.
Term
culture of poverty
Definition
a way of life that perpetuates one generation to the next.
Term
multinational corporations
Definition
companies that operate across many national boundaries and also help to maintain the global dominance of the most industrialized nations.

Term
biology vs culture arguments for gender stratification (sociologists)
Definition
is that social factors within our culture, not biology, are the reasons we behave the way we do. Although, we are born with certain characteristics that make, for example, women more nurturing than men.
Term
sex typing of work
Definition
every society associates certain activities with one sex or the other (George Murdock).
Term
origins of patriarchy
Definition
men dominating society. Men needed to take on tasks that were too difficult for women therefore, men become dominant.

Term
1st wave of feminism
Definition
radical branch that wanted to reform all the institutions of society and a conservative branch whose concern was to win the vote for women.
Term
2nd wave of feminism
Definition
more women took jobs and began to regard them as careers, however they began to compare their working conditions to men.
Term
3rd wave of feminism
Definition
still emerging…greater focus on the problems of women in the least industrialized nations and the criticism of the values that dominate work and society.

Term
gender inequality in health care
Definition
men physicans used to ignore women’s need for help when they were in pain. As more women become physicians, they will order more pap smears and mamograms and subconsciously lose discrimination. Gender inequality in education: until 1832, women were not allowed to attend college with men and when they were allowed to college, they had to remain silent. Today, men have fallen behind women in college enrollment. Gender inequality in everyday life: women are still not taken as seriously as men and are considered to be more emotional and needy. Inequality in the workplace: today, one of two women women work for wages outside their home. However, there is still a huge pay gap between men and women.
Term
sex
Definition
biological characteristics that distinguish males and females
Term
gender
Definition
whatever behaviors and attitudes a group considers proper for its males and females
Term
gender stratification
Definition
males and females unequal access to property, power, and prestige
Patriarchy- men dominating society
Term
feminism
Definition
view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted
Term
glass ceiling
Definition
the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of work
Term
mommy track
Definition
women who chose to leave the workplace in order to have a baby
Term
honor killing
Definition
a male kills a female member of the family for tarnishing the families image
Term
sexual harrassment
Definition
the abuse of ones position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone
Term
 

Major Types of societies:

Definition

 

  • Hunting and gathering society- a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for survival
  • Pastoral and horticultural societies-a society based on the pasturing of animals and cultivating plants by use of hand tools
  • Agricultural societies- a society based on large-scale agriculture: plows drawn by animals are the source of food production
  • Industrial societies- a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels
  • Postindustrial societies- a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials manufacturing
  • Biotech societies- a society whose economy increasingly centers around the application of genetics- human genetics for medicine, and plant and animal genetics for the production of food and materials
Term

The technical “revolutions” associated with each major transformation in societies:

 

Definition

  • Domestication revolution- the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies
  • Agricultural revolution- the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies
  • Industrial revolution- the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power

 

Term

Major types of groups

 

Definition

 

Primary vs. secondary

  • Primary- a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association
  • Secondary- a larger, more relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity.  Its members are likely to interact on the basis on specific statuses

In-group vs. out-group

  • In-group– groups toward which we feel loyalty
  • Out-group- groups toward which we feel antagonism

Reference groups

  • A group that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves. Examples: family, neighbors, teachers, classmates
Term

Basic leadership styles:

 

Definition

  • Authoritarian leader- an individual who leads by giving orders
  • Democratic leader- an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
  • Laissez-faire leader- and individual who leads by being highly permissive

 

Term

Milgrim’s “Shock” experiment

 

Definition

 

  • Many of the people in the experiment continued to shock the person even when they knew they were being hurt
  • The power of authority is very strong
Term

Groupthink and its effects:

 

Definition

  • A narrowing of though by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; to even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty
  • This can cause people to put aside moral judgments and disregard risk

 

Term
Social network:
Definition
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
Term
  Group Dynamics
Definition

 

the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals

Term

 

Dyad:

Definition

 

the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons

Term
race
Definition
a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group. Race is a myth. The first myth is the idea that any race is superior to others (adolf hitler), The second myth is that "pure" races exist.
Term
Coalition:
Definition

the alignment of some members of a group against others

 

Term

Transformation from traditional to rational societies:

 

Definition

 

  • Traditional orientation- the idea that the past is the best guide for the present; characterizes tribal, peasant, and feudal societies
  • Rationalization of society- a widespread acceptance of rationality(using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs) and social organizations that are built largely around this idea
Term

Weber: explanation for the rationalization of society:

 

Definition

 

  • Religion broke tradition
  • A changed way of thinking produced capitalism and capitalism demands rationalization
Term
discrimination
Definition
is an action-unfair treatment directed against someone
Term
self-fulfilling prophecy
Definition
when people expect you to act some way so you act that way (not giving a black person a job because they are lazy, but they are lazy because they are denied jobs)
Term

“Ideal” vs. “real” bureaucracy:

 

Definition

 

  • Ideal- a composite of characteristics based on specific examples, favored
  • Real- informal power, what people actually do
Term
stereotype
Definition
a simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in common by members of a group
Term

Voluntary organizations and their functions:

 

Definition

  • A group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest
    1. Voluntary organizations advance particular interests
    2. Voluntary groups offer people an identity
    3. Voluntary associations help govern the nation and maintain social order
    4. Some voluntary groups mediate between the government and the individual
    5. By providing training in organizational skills, some groups help individuals climb the occupational ladder
    6. Other groups help bring people into the political mainstream
    7. Some voluntary associations pave the way to social change

 

Term

Humanizing the workplace: objectives and practices: critique by conflict theorists

 

Definition

  • Organizing a workplace in such a way that it develops rather than impedes human potential
  • More flexible rules, are more open in decision making, distribute power more equally, and offer more uniform access to opportunities
  • Humanizing the work setting is an attempt to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation; it is intended to conceal the capitalists’ goal of exploiting workers.

 

Term
Bureaucracy:
Definition
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, an impersonality of positions, and an emphasis on written rules, communications, and records
Term
Peter Principle:
Definition

 

a tongue-in-cheek observation that the members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence; there they cease to be promoted, remaining at the level at which they can no longer do work

Term
Iron law of oligarchy:
Definition

 

Robert Michels’ term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite

Term
Authoritarian personality
Definition
Theodor Adorno's term for people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors
Term

 

Quality circles:

Definition
team based management, people on the top level might not have the knowledge of the people of lower levels, get both management and lower quality workers to work together and make the company better
Term
“Hidden” corporate culture:  
Definition

Norms that aren’t stated, disadvantage- men have access to team sports, not explicitly discussed (playing golf with your boss)

 

Term
functionalist theories of prejudice
Definition
prejudice is functional and is shaped by the social environment
Term
conflict theory of prejudice
Definition
they analyze how groups are pitted against one another, and how this arrangement benefits those with power.
Term
symbolic interactionist theory of prejudice
Definition
they stress that the labels we learn affect the way we see people
Term
latinos (hispanics)
Definition
hold 5% of the seats in the House of representatives, make up 14.4% of the US population, have less income, higher unemployment, and more poverty, less likely to own homes.
Term
african americans
Definition
hold 10% in the house of representatives, half of the african families make more than $35,000 a year, more unemployment and poverty, and less likely to own their own home or go to college
Term
Asian Americans
Definition
average income is high, high rate of college graduation, most financially successful.
Term
native americans
Definition
half live in rural areas, only 14% graduate from college, 3 million in the u.s.
Term
race vs class argument regarding African-American life chances
Definition
social class has become more important than race in determining the life chances of Africans. They are stuck in poverty, attend poor schools, and have dead end jobs, welfare, and no chance to succeed.
Term
prejudice
Definition
an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way
Term
discrimination
Definition
an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
Term
ethnic group
Definition
a group of people with the same race
Term
ethnic work
Definition
activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identification
Term
minority group
Definition
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
Term
split-labor market
Definition
workers split along racial, ethnic, gender, age, or any other lines; this split is exploited by owners to weaken the bargaining power of workers
Term
reserve labor force
Definition
the unemployed
Term
selective perception
Definition
seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
Term
population transfer
Definition
forcing a minority group to move
Term
ethnic cleansing
Definition
a policy of population elimination, including forcible expulsion and genocide
Term
internal colonialism
Definition
the policy of economically exploiting minority groups
Term
segregation
Definition
the policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart
Term
assimilation
Definition
the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture
Term
pluralism
Definition
a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic difference
Term
affirmative action
Definition
goals based on race and sex are used in hiring, promotion, and college admission
Term
Relativity of deviance
Definition
  because different groups have different norms, what is deviant to some, is not deviant to others
Term

Psychological vs. sociological explanations of deviance:

 

Definition

  • Psychologists focus on abnormalities within the individual, their supposition is that deviating individuals have deviating personalities and that subconscious motives drive people to deviate
  • Sociologists search for factors outside the individual, they look for social influences that recruit people to break norms

 

Term

Positive functions of deviance:

 

Definition

    1. Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms
    2. Deviance promotes social unity
    3. Deviance promotes social change

 

Term
Differential Association:
Definition

Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an “excess of definitions” of deviance, and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant

 

Term

Conflict vs. functionalist vs. symbolic interactionist perspectives:

 

Definition

  • Conflict- they believe that power and social inequality are the main characteristics of society, the power elite that runs societies controls the criminal justice system, most fundamental division in capitalists society are those who own means of production and cell labor
  • Functionalist- Emile Durkheim said that deviance is functional for a society, include three functions (positive functions of deviance) criminal is a natural part of society, believe that mainstream values generate crime
  • Symbolic interactionist- believe that deviance is learned, people are destined to think and act as their group membership dictates, we produce our own orientations to life

 

Term
Merton’s Strain Theory:
Definition
people who experience strain are likely to feel anomie (sense of normlessness), because mainstream norms such as working hard or pursuing higher education don’t seem to be getting them anywhere, people who experience strain find it hard to identify with these norms
Term

 

Labeling Theory:

Definition
comes from symbolic interaction, idea is that they deal with several levels of deviance, primary deviance (breaking the norm), many people commit primary deviance, secondary deviance, when people recognize your deviance and you get labeled for it
Term
Control Theory:
Definition

 

symbolic interactionists, Walter Reckless, two control systems work against our motivations to deviate, inner controls include internalized morality( consciousness and religious principles), outer controls consist of people (family, friends and police) who influence us not to deviate

Term

Financial costs of lower-class vs. white-collar crime:

 

Definition

We are more afraid of blue collar crime however white-collar crimes are much more expensive for the society, but it punished less

 

Term
Medicalization of deviance and Szasz’s opposition:
Definition
 deviance including crime is a sign of mental sickness (rape, murder, and stealing) are external disorders of a tortured mind.  Szasz’s says that mental illnesses are neither mental or illnesses they are problem behaviors
Term
Deviance:
Definition

 

any violation of norms

Term
Stigma:
Definition

 

refers to characteristics that discredit people (blindness, obesity or deafness)

Term
Illegitimate opportunity structures:
Definition

opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life. Example: in urban slums robbery, burglary and drug dealing is typical

 

Term
White-collar crime:
Definition
refers to crimes that people of respectable and high social status commit in the course of their occupations
Term
Police discretion:
Definition
: the decision of whether to arrest someone or to ignore a matter is a routine part of police work
Term
Recidivism rates
Definition

a percentage of former prisoners that are rearrested

 

Term

Characteristics on the main dimensions of social class:

 

Definition

 

  • Wealth- add up the person’s property and subtract their debt
  • Power- ability to carry out your will
  • Prestige- respect or regard, people want others to knowledge their prestige, primary factor in deciding which college to attend, deals with status symbols