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SOC Exam 2
Sociology Exam 2 flash cards
24
Sociology
10/21/2009

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Term
stratification
Definition
A structured ranking of categories of people in terms of economic rewards and power
Term
slavery
Definition
closed system
Term
caste
Definition
closed system
Term
social class
Definition
Open system (USA)
Term
race
Definition
A category of people socially defined on the basis of physical characteristics,
Ascribed status,
White, Black, Asian, American Indian/Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
Term
ethnicity
Definition
A shared cultural heritage (language, customs, religion),
Ascribed or achieved status,
Hispanic, Mexican, Chinese, Jewish, Navajo, Arab, African-American
Term
prejudice
Definition
Negative attitude toward an entire category of people
Term
stereotype
Definition
An overgeneralization applied to an entire category of people
Term
racism
Definition
The belief that one race or ethnic group is innately superior or inferior to another
Term
discrimination
Definition
Unequal treatment of various categories of people
Term
individual discrimination
Definition
unequal treatment of an individual.
Term
individual discrimination
Definition
unequal treatment of an individual.
Term
institutional discrimination
Definition
Practices of organizations and social institutions (education, government, economy) that have a harmful effect on a category of people in society
Term
assimilation
Definition
A process whereby diverse people groups gradually become integrated into a common culture and social system (a boiling pot where everything becomes one)
Term
pluralism
Definition
Racial and ethnic groups are distinct but have relative equality in society (a salad bowl where many things come together)
Term
contact hypothesis
Definition
Interracial contact can cause people to become less prejudiced and to abandon previous stereotypes
Term
sex
Definition
The biological distinction between females and males
Term
gender
Definition
Socially constructed differences between females and males
Term
gender roles
Definition
• Expectation regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
• Male Roles
o Assertive, Macho, Dominant, Aggressive, Rational
• Female Roles
o Sensitive, Gentle, Submissive, Passive, Emotional
• U.S. Core Values (very close to male roles)
o Achievement, Success, Material comfort, Activity, Science/Technology
Term
sexism
Definition
The belief that one sex is superior to the other
Term
double jeopardy
Definition
Race + Gender
Term
triple jeopardy
Definition
Race + Gender + Class
Term
feminism
Definition
o Support of social equality for men and women
o Variations of Feminism
• Liberal feminism
• Socialist feminism
• Radical feminism
Term
gender socialization
Definition
socialization of gender roles