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Sex Gender and Society
review for test 1
73
Sociology
10/06/2010

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Term
social imagination
Definition
the ability to distinguish a relationship between the actions of an individual and large-scale social forces
Term
private troubles
Definition
a direct effect on the individual
ex. Alex cant afford health care
Term
public issues
Definition
an effect to many or society ex. the general public doesn't have access to good health care
Term
agency and structure
Definition
ability to act and make choices vs. pattern of social arrangements that form society ex institutions, rules, organizations
Term
constrained choices
Definition
people have ability to choose but they are strained by structures/norms and don't have equal access to make the same choice
Term
sex
Definition
biological=genitalia
anatomical=muscles(boy), boobs(girl)
hormones=huge variation in levels
Term
gender
Definition
set of attributes imposed on sexed bodies
always changing
central way in which we organize society
Term
sociobiology
Definition
the cycle of genes and environment
sex and gender not differentiated
- Martin article: passive egg/woman(depends on sperm)
sperm has velocity(independent)
Term
evolutionary psychology
Definition
adaptations to environment define men and women ex. women are monogamous because they have one egg whereas men can give many sperm
Term
hormone and brain research
Definition
the more testosterone the more aggression but the rise and fall of of testosterone is due to social experiences. brain: whites had big/best brain, size=ability(supposedly), jim fallon: killer brain has low activity in orbital cortex
Term
amplification and suppression
Definition
amp: small biological difference gets enlarged by social factors ex men more biologically capable to grow muscles hense better athletes, higher pay in sports sup: biological influences get overpowered by social factors ex. desire to smoke genetic norms is women dont smoke
Term
social construction of gender
Definition
society gives meaning to gender: 1. across culture(country to country) 2. over time in one culture(100 years ago) 3. across the lifetime(little girl wants to be princess) 4. within gender at the same time(CEO man, construction man) kessler: parents need to know if boy or girl to treat them as such
Term
the gender system
Definition
3 levels individual, interaction and institutional, gender can't be isolated to one but is played into by a variety
Term
individual level
Definition
one's biology and psychology
-taking apart nature vs. nuture
Term
interaction level
Definition
interactions in social situations (1+), gender is a performance
Term
institutional level
Definition
how institutions are gendered or expect gender ex. family-woman, work-men
Term
biological essentialism
Definition
biological differences create gender differences. the power of framing something as natural= no accountability
Term
inequalities that lead to difference
Definition
expectations between men and women create variation amongst gender
Term
biology as a justification for inequality
Definition
theres a visible difference in pay between men and women and they use biology to explain that men are more athletic which creates a more exciting game, therefore being a justification of the difference in pay.
(WNBA vs. NBA) Lorber
Term
socialization
Definition
the process through which individuals take on gendered qualities and characteristics acquiring a sense of self
Term
target and agents of socialization
Definition
target: younger than adult
agents: anything that can be an influence on a target
Term
gender as an important way to organize and interpret behavior
Definition
we use gender to organize people into groups and also to understand why they act the way they do. acceptable default
Term
social learning
Definition
reinforcement: positive: encouragement
negative: punishment
observation and modeling: mommy-makeup daddy-mows the lawn
kids have no agency, no bad intentions
clearfield and nelson article: mother played with boy(freedom/explanations) and girl(?s) diff.
Term
cognitive
Definition
kids learn gender meanings: being a man or woman is important to their identity
critique: before the label? gender is only organized tool?
Term
psychoanalytic
Definition
frued: unconscious. based on relationship with caregiver(mom in u.s.)
critique: how to study? all moms the same?
Term
gender crossing and power
Definition
girls acting boyish= okay
boys acting girly= not okay
gives boys the power
Term
internalized gender messages
Definition
rose petal cottage reinforces idea that girls should work in the home
Term
status characteristics theory
Definition
we associate traits(gender) with status expectations about other people, helps "smooth" interactions
Term
homophilly approach
Definition
"birds of a feather flock together" groups of similar people hangout together, being different is difficult
Term
doing gender
Definition
interaction, gender is a performance, gives accountability/agency, "normative conceptions" how time and situations have affected how gender is played out
Term
hegemonic masculinity
Definition
"dominant" varies across society, time, history. what is hegemonic at the time appears as dominant or subordinate
-aggressive
-limited emotion
-heterosexual
-contrasts with all things feminine
Term
girls/boys and gender non-conformity
Definition
-generally viewed as positive for girls, negative for boys
-degrees (cant be TOO boyish)
-boys should know how to care for child/be empathetic
Term
icons of femininity
Definition
overly emotional and passive. parents are afraid when boys take any interest in icons
Term
homophobia and masculinity
Definition
fathers fear homophobia because it reflects their own sexuality
Term
parents and doing gender
Definition
-Kane: parents force expectations on boy/girl, in the performance they are the prop manager
Term
organizations vs. institutions
Definition
org: has specific goals
has boundaries to distinguish
has rules, procedures
specific ways of communicating
inst:organized established pattern
features of social life that seem so regular, ongoing and permanent that are accepted as "just way things are"
Term
the hidden curriculum
Definition
the unstated lessons that students learn in school: subtext: teachers communicate behavior norms and individual status in the school culture
Term
border-work (ex and def.)
Definition
boy areas and girl areas interacting across the boundary, 2 genders interacting reinforces gender differences
Term
invasions, aggression, play and power
Definition
Thorn: starts a pattern where its ok for boys to invade girls space, connected to power, is legitimized.
Term
the boy crisis
Definition
classroom styles favor girls
boys more likely to:
drop out of school
get in fights
ADD
lower grades on standardized tests
commit suicide
not go to college
lower class rank
Term
deceptive distinctions
Definition
class and race really make the difference instead of gender
Term
intersectionality
Definition
individuals are multiple identities not just what society says
Term
interlocking hierarchies
Definition
ranking of traits as viewed by society over individual: race,gender,class
Term
invisibility and privilege
Definition
whites dont have race, heterosexuals dont have sexuality. creates a privilege
Term
myth of meritocracy
Definition
assumes that we get where we are based on how hard we work/try when in reality your traits do play a role in how well you succeed.
Term
violent masculinity as American identity
Definition
broader than hip hop
-Historically, American men turned to guns to expand West and protect their families
-Guns became a symbol of power and essential to define masculinity
Term
hip hop as a response to systematic violence
Definition
neighborhoods destroyed by ignorant city planners, violence errupted; state of anomie (no solid identity), results: violent new york.
Term
access to power and bodies
Definition
limited access to oppurtunities, use their bodies for identity and power
Term
women sexuality and mens' desires
Definition
not their own but as men's object only purpose is to please men.
youth have been socialized to internalize this message
Term
white voyeurism and black culture as a commodity
Definition
white people consume black culture
Term
systematic inequality in the hip hop industry
Definition
white record makers: choose what to produce/sell, black artists, consumed by white people (blacks to please whites)
Term
cultural stories
Definition
women choose to be in the videos that portray them as "hoes"
Term
the dreamworld
Definition
its the straight adolescent males' dream.
they have the money they're willing to spend on the dream.
women engage in the men's dream world but men do not engage in women's
Term
female sexuality as a commodity
Definition
female sexuality is something to be bought. when women fulfill what men want it has consequences.
Term
femininity in the dreamworld
Definition
women are always available/ want to party.
emotionally dependent on a strong man.
act diligent in duties as: nurse, stripper, teacher.
identity is defined by how pretty they are
Term
pornographic imagination
Definition
women are seen as body parts: only pieces, their boobs, butt, legs
creates an idea that women want to be watched and desired
Term
masculinity and control
Definition
women=passive and submissive
men= power, intimidation, force
when is it a game, when is it real?
Term
male entitlement
Definition
men feel entitled to do what they want to women: creates stalkers and domestic abuse
where is the line drawn between reality & fantasy?
Term
the fag discourse
Definition
a way adolescent boys talk about the world, “Fag” doesn’t always mean “gay”… can be used to emasculate heterosexuals
-more connected with masculine incompetence than sexuality
Term
non-static identities
Definition
this is internalized by young boys, creates strain for actual homosexuals. social construction of gender
Term
gendered homophobia
Definition
concept that homophobia is not actually based on sexuality but gender. lesbianism is more acceptable because it fulfills a man's fantasy. Gay is seen as not masculine.
Term
importance of relationships to girls' identity
Definition
girls often define themselves based on their relationship status
Term
girls as responsible for sexuality
Definition
guys are oversexed, its the girls job to say no
Term
missing discourse of desire
Definition
women don't know how to talk about their sexuality due to lack in society for tools and skills. attention is on looks not feelings
Term
slut as a policing term
Definition
either a slut"bad" or a virgin"good" keeps girls worried about their reputation, more controlling/damaging
Term
class as a performance
Definition
belief that you get where you are based on how hard you work. -clothes -peers -how you speak(accents,vocab)
Term
badges of dignity
Definition
things that demonstrate accomplishment or capability: either grades, going to college, praise from teachers (preps) OR sexuality (working class)
Term
cultural capital
Definition
what knowledge you have about popular culture to get ahead in society. ex. cup is to saucer as ___ is to ____. must be exposed to this aka upper class only
Term
heteronomative
Definition
rituals about youth based on heterosexuality. this assumption is damaging to their comfort in developing their own sexuality
Term
adultism
Definition
adults think teens dont know what love is, which invalidates experiences
Term
the public side of sexuality
Definition
public display of sexuality can have consequences, most often is suppressed by social norms
Term
limitations on youth sexuality
Definition
youth have limited access to resources: need parental notification or consent for most things sexual. ex. abortion, rated R movies, explicit CDs
Term
effects of abstinence-only education
Definition
limited because of who can marry. makes the institution heterosexually biased.