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Sex and Gender Test/Midterm
1st in class test
200
Psychology
03/10/2009

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Term
what are the sex chromosomes? How do the X and Y chromosomes differ?
Definition
the 23rd pair of chromosomes in a human cell are the sex chromosomes. If the human is a female, the sex chromosomes are represented as XX. If the human is a male, its xy. Only males carry a y chromosome, which is very small (about 1/6 the size of the x) and contains the genetic material. However, it does apparently carry a gene that acts as a switch for maleness: the sex-determining region.
Term
What is X linkage? How does it relate to greater male vulnerability.
Definition
It is when a particular trait's genes are carried partially or totally on one of the X chromosomes. The presense of x-linked genes accounts for the greater male than female susceptibility to certain genetic disorders. Over 300 hereditery disorders are xlinked. A father with these diseases can only pass them on to his daughter, not his son. the mother can pass it to her son or daughter.
Term
How often do Y-carrying sperm fertilize the egg and what is the ration of males to females by age 2? Why?
Definition
Twice as often. The ratio is 2:1
Term
What are the gonads?
Definition
The gonads are the ovaries and testes
Term
What are the sex steroid hormones? What structures secrete them?
Definition
androgens, estrogens, and progestins. They are secreted by the adrenal glands.
Term
What are the differences between the XX and XY embryos prior to the 6th-->8th week? From what structures do the internal reproductive structures and the external genitalia differentiate?
Definition
They are identical before 8 weeks. The differences come form the primordial gonad, and the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts.
Term
What is the typical sequence of male internal development? Female?
Definition
For males, the SRY genes, the primordial gonad becomes testes. The testes secrete androgens and the androgens stimulate the development of Wolffian ducts. The testes also secrete Mullerian inhibiting hormone(MIH) and the mullerian ducts degenerate. For females, the primodial gonads become ovaries. The ovaries secrete estrogen and progesterone. The Mullerian ducts develop, the Woffian ducts degenerate.
Term
What seems to be the major factor involved in whether male or female external genitalia develop?
Definition
the amount of testosterone
Term
how is the brain influenced by our enviroments? Can experience change our brains?
Definition
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Term
can one eliminate enviromental influences on animal behavior?
Definition
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Term
are the brains of human females and males more similar or different? Are they different at birth?
Definition
The brains are more similar than different. It is unkown when these differences occur.
Term
Do males or females clearly have larger brains if body size is taken into account? How well does brain size predict intelligence?
Definition
brain size has little or nothing to do with intelligence.
Term
Are women more left-brained and men more right brained? Are male brains consistently found to be more lateralized or specialized than female brains?
Definition
Yes, women are more left brained and men are more right brained. Male brains ARE NOT consistently found to be more lateralized or specialized than female brains
Term
are brain differences due to prenatal hormones?
Definition
no , there is no difference prenatally
Term
what is the relationship between testosterone and aggression? What other factors have been linked to testosterone?
Definition
there is very little of a relationship between testosterone and aggression
Term
what is meant by intersexed and how common are intersexed conditions within the US?
Definition
intersex people are born with ambiguous genitalia. This occurs in about 1 to 4 percent of the US population. 1 in 10000 have genitalia so ambiguous that their sex cannot be determined. Exposure to testosterone or synthetic estrogen can make a female fetus masculine.
Term
What is CAH?
Definition
Cognetial Adrenal Hyperplasia. Genetic and affects 1 in 10,000 people. The adrenal glands secrete abnormally high levels of androgens. The external genitalia of female fetuses is masculinized. So, internally the person is still female and is usually reared as a female. For treatment, cortisone is used to decrease secretion and hyperactive signals from the adrenal glands. Surgery is not reccomended anymore.
Term
What is the most consistently found behavioral difference between females with CAH and unaffected females? What problem does cortisone treatment present in interpreting the behavioral effects of CAH? How does exposure to additional prenatal androgens affect boys?
Definition
The most consistently found behavioral difference in females with CAH is rough and tumble play. The cortisone might cause hyperactivity or it might just be that these women are more hyperactive which is the problem presented in cortisone treatment. Exposure to additional prenatal androgens does not affect boys that much.
Term
What is AIS? when is it typically diagnosed? Do females with AIS differ from other females?
Definition
AIS is angrogen-insensitivity syndrome. They are genetically male but the receptors for testosterone dont work. The bodies are unresponsive. If it is completely unresponsive, they will come out as girls. No one will know that they are a boy until they dont menstruate. They do hae testes. They feel feminine in behavior, identity, and sexuality. They may be extra feminine. It is undetected until puberty. The females with AIS do not seem to differ from other females.
Term
What are guevedoces?
Definition
This disorder is much more common in some places such as the Dominican Republic. The baby is born looking female or unambiguous an at age 12 they SPROUT a penis. They lack a 5-alpha-recuctase-surge of testosterone at puberty and about 60% switch and live as males
Term
How is the outcome of accidental penis destruction in infancy affected by the age of reassignment?
Definition
The early gender is reassigned in life the better chance of there being a positive outcome.
Term
Do studies of intersex individuals indicate that hormones or chromosomes determine gender identity?
Definition
Neither hormones or chromosomes seem to determine gender identity. If hormones did, CAH females would be more masculine and if chromosomes did, males with AIS would be masculine. Gender identity is developed consistent with rearing and assigned early.
Term
What is meant by the terms transexual, transgendered and transvestite?
Definition
transexual: people who feel like they are the opposite gender so they get surgery to make their body match their gender identity.
transvestite: dress up as opposite sex but do NOT feel trapped, just do it for fun or it could be a sexual fetish.
transgendered: people who live some or all time as opposite gender but are not seeking surgery.
Term
Do sex, gender, gender-role behaviors, and sexual orientation always match?
Definition
No.
Term
What is gender identity disorder? Gender dysphoria?
Definition
It is when people feel trapped in the wrong body. It often involves persistent gender atypical behavior and rejection of things associated with their own gender. Gender dysphoria is unhappiness with what your body looks like, feeling like something else.
Term
Do most gay/lesbian individuals have gender dysphoria or gender identity confusion
Definition
NO
Term
How effective is gender reassignment surgery for treating gender dysphoria? Are there any other effective treatments available?
Definition
Gender reassignment surgery usually has a positive outcome, but there is a very long process to get the surgery done. Taking the hormone pill is helpful and dressing like the opposite sex also helps.
Term
What is meta analysis?
Definition
The use of statistical methods to combine the findings of a large number of different studies of the same behavior to evaluate the overall pattern of findings.
Term
What are the benefits of meta-analysis?
Definition
IT is the most useful tool researchers have found for combining the results of many studies of a particular male-female difference. IT can provide information about the average strength of the relationship between gender and a particular behavior and can tell the researcher what other variables such as age or situational effects may be affecting the relationship.
Term
What are the problems of meta-analysis?
Definition
The results are only as good as the sample of studies. IF a complete sample of studies is not included or if the studies included have an accurate result due to bias or sloppy data collection, the meta-analysis can tell us little of value. Also, if the sample of studies used is over-representative of biased situations, the results will result the same bias.
Term
Effect size
Definition
is the amount of variation in the results that is attributable to gender.
Term
stereotypes
Definition
a widely held image or idea of a certain person or thing
Term
prejudice
Definition
the negative evaluation of a persons or their activities because they belong to a particular group
Term
discrimination
Definition
the unjust treatment of different people or things, on the grounds of race, sex, age
Term
What function do stereotypes often serve? How are dominant and non-dominant groups often stereotyped?
Definition
Stereotypes are knowledge structures that guide the way individuals process information: what they notice, what they remember, what kinds of information they seek out, and how they explain and make sense of what they see. Dominant groups are stereotyped ???????????????
Term
sexism
Definition
prejudice on people based on their sexual category
Term
What is meant when stereotypes are said to be descriptive and prescriptive?
Definition
Descriptive stereotypes are the constellations for traits and attributes that are thought to uniquely describe men and women are. Applied to individuals that one encounters in work settings, and becomes basis for inferring internal, stable characteristics.
Term
prescriptive stereotype
Definition
the set of attributes and characteristics that describe how men and women "should be." Appropriate and inappropriate behavior within gender categories.
Term
Schema
Definition
a cognitive structure that guides and organizes the way an individual processes and makes sense of information. When a person encounters someone in a category, a schema is automatically activated, shaping the way information about the new person is processed.
Term
How do schemas influence our thinking?
Definition
When a person encounters someone in a category, a schema is automatically activated, shaping the way information about this new person is processed.
Term
What are illusory coorelations?
Definition
The phenomenon of seeing the relationship one expects in a set of data even when no such relationship exists. When people tend to overestimate a link between two variables.
Term
How do we make attributions in ways that maintain our beliefs?
Definition
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Term
What is the difference between explicit and implicit stereotypes? What are the characteristics of implicit stereotypes?
Definition
Explicit stereotype-blatant and factual stereotypical opinions about something.
Implicit stereotypes: implied and often unconscious belief. You might never be aware of these opinions.
Term
What is the IAT and how does it work?
Definition
Implicit Association Test
It tests unconscious levels of prejudice, age, gender, race and self-esteem ect.
Term
How do peoples judgements about others on one dimensions of gender stereotypes affect their judgement about the person regarding other aspects of the stereotype?
Definition
Labeling an individual as female or male has a powerful impact on others perception of and reactions to that individual. When we categorize people by sex, we tend to assume that we have also categorized them according to the set of cultural expectations for the sex.
Term
If males and females evidence the same behavior and qualifications, are they judged differently? How do stereotypes create self-fufilling prophecies?
Definition
People are extremely sensitive to the expectations of others. People sense others expectations of them and in the interest of smooth interactions act in such a way to fufill these expecations.
Term
What is a stereotype threat and in what circumstances might it appear?
Definition
Stereotype threat- an individual's awareness that he/she might be judged or may fufill negative stereotypes about her/his gender or ethnic group. This can appear when people are made aware of the steeotype that affects their gender or racial group.
Term
On what assumptions was Terman's AIAS developed?
Definition
AIAS was developed on the assumption that "real" mental differences between the sexes were in non-intellectual mental traits. Feminine traits were more weak while masculine traits were more strong, male/female traits are static and do not change from an early age, the idea that homosexual men and feminine women will give equal responses and the belief that the gender norms of the mid20th century America were universal and fixed rather than linked to changing social, economic and political conditions.
Term
How was the masculinity/femininity scale for the MMPI developed?
Definition
picking the items on which males and females answered differently.
Term
How did the BSRI and PAQ differ from earlier assessments of femininity and masculinity? what type is associated with good adjustment and flexibility?
Definition
BSRI treated masculinity and feminity as two separete and independent dimensions. Items for the male/female scales were developed not by using the old appraoach of picking the items on which males and females answered differently, but by picking the items that a pool of male and female respondents rated as most desirable for an American man or woman. Based on responses, they can be classified in one of four ways: masculine, feminine, androgynous (high on both masculine and feminine qualities) and undifferentiated )low on both masculine and feminine qualities).
Term
How do agentic, instrumental, expressive, and communal relate to masculinity and feminity?
Definition
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Term
Have male or female gender roles changed over the past 20 years?
Definition
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Term
What is Pleck's conceptualization of gender-role strain? What strains are reportedly the hardest for males?
Definition
The behavior expected of males can be dysfunctional, causing problems for the males even when they conform to their masculinities role. Gender-role strain may be especially important for men because violating gender roles often has more sever consequences for males than for females. The simultaneous demands on modern men to be both sensitive and tough and contradictory and inconsistent.
Term
What are the major types of sexism and what beliefs do they entail? Are they related or are they mutually exclusive?
Definition
Old-fashioned sexism openly endorses stereotypic judgements about and differential treatment of wmen and men. Modern sexism/neosexism is sutle and characterized by a denial that women are still targets of discrimination. Hostile sexism is directed against women and includes dominance-oriented paternalism, derogatory beliefs about women, and heterosexual hostility. When directed against men, includes resentment of paternalism, derogatory beliefs about men and heterosexual hostility. Benevolent sexism is when it is directed against women, it includes protective paternalism, idealization of woman, and desire for intimate relations. When directed against men it includes maternalism, idealization of men and desire for intimate relations. All are interrelated. A person can simultaneously exhibit many different types of sexism.
Term
How might benevolent sexism perpetuate oppression
Definition
it still acts as a justification for keeping women in subordinate positions and traditional roles.
Term
How do sexist beliefs relate to gender equality in a society? What is sexual objectification?
Definition
set of attitudes that define female bodies in terms of ideals of beauty and sexual attractiveness.
Term
How do sexist events make people feel?
Definition
For both men and women, the experience of sexist incidents was related to feeling angry, anxious, and depressed and to reporting lower social self-esteem.
Term
How might confrontation be good?
Definition
Confrontation serves the potentially valuable purpose of raising awareness that certain kinds of behavior are not acceptable.
Term
What is role conflict?
Definition
Role conflict is a special form of social conflict that takes place when one is forced to take on two different and incompatible roles at the same time. Often, two or more roles collide in certain situations. Take for example, a father who is the coach of his son's baseball team. The man takes on both the role of father and coach. If hte boy makes a bad play in the game a father would be inclined to support and comfort and his son, but a coach would be inclined to show the boy exactly what he did wrong. This collision represents role conflict where two roles in an individual's role cannot cooperate in a specific social situation
Term
What is sex
Definition
Sex refers to a person's biological maleness or femaleness.
Term
What is gender?
Definition
Gender refers to the nonphysiological aspects of being female or male -- the cultural expectations for femininity and masculinity. Gender guides behavior and interpretations of behavior.
Term
what are gender roles?
Definition
gender roles refer to the set of behaviors socially defined as appropriate for one's sex.
Term
what is meant when we say that gender is culturally constructed?
Definition
Different cultures place different emphasis on gender. Cultures have different gender-role expectations an some have more than two genders. Some cultures may also transcend gender constraints.
Term
Do all cultures only have 2 genders?
Definition
Some have more
Term
Do all cultures have the same expectations for females and maes?
Definition
No, different cultures have different gender-roles expectations. These roles are continually changing as more females are represented within the workforce and the dominant image of males is not observed in every other culture.
Term
Do those who enjoy privileges within a society usually realize that they have privilege?
Definition
No, we are not always aware of how social category influences our lives. Dominant groups are often unaware of the privileges they enjoy. Those who lack privileges are often very unaware.
Term
Why are anecdotal observations not as reliable as scientific methodology?
Definition
Casual/anecdotal observation is often biased: we notice and remember what agrees with our stereotypes. Scientific methodology is better than casual observations, yet not without bias. The popular media misrepresents information by distorting and amplifying findings in order to report what gets attention.
Term
How do stereotypes influence our thinking?
Definition
we tend to notice and remember what agrees with out stereotypes. we tend to disregard or distort information that differs from ours stereotypes.
Term
What is the relationship between brain size and intelligence? Does the evidence indicate that males or females tend to have larger brains on average?
Definition
In the past, through searching for biological bias for the superiority of men, brain size was used as proof. However, when taken into account women's smaller overall bodies, there seemed to be no difference in brain size. There is no relationship between brain size and intelligence.
Term
Overall, how large and consistent are the gender differences found by research? How much of an influence does context and situation have on the appearance of sex differences in a study?
Definition
gender differences found by research are very miniscule and inconsistent between studies. Alpha bias by scientists exaggerates these biological and social differences. Acoording to the social role view, social situation has much to do with the appearance of sex differences in a study. This social context has a large influence on the results.
Term
What are some of the issues associated with focusing on gender differences?
Definition
Focusing on gender differences results in complex and contradictory results, yet most differences are small (even though the beliefs that males and females are opposites persists) Gender differences may perpetuate gender stereotypes, legitimize discrimination, and may lead to misunderstanding and misapplication of results. On the postitive end, these studies may provide people with more of an understanding of the genders and may alter social aspects.
Term
What is a major problem with quantitive research(i.e. reducing observations to numerical representations?)
Definition
The major problem with quantitive research is that observations are reduced to numerical representations upon which statistical analyses can be performed. Numbers dont necessarily equal precision.
Term
What is the major benefit of experimental research designs over other types of research? What are some problems with the experimental method?
Definition
The major benefit of the experimental research designs over the types of research is that they can yield cause-and -effect information. It is the most controlled way to test a theory. Some problems include the inability to control all other variables and so studies may create artificial conditions in which limit generalizability. Random assignment is also required yet gender/sexual orientation cannot serve as independent variables since they cannot be manipulated, which leads to coorelational research.
Term
Why cant such variables such as gender and sexual orientation be studied using experiments? What type of data does most research on gender yield?
Definition
Gender and sexual orientation cannot be studied using experiments because they cannot be randomly assigned. Most research on gender yield coorelational data.
Term
What are some problems with gathering data survey method?
Definition
Some problems with gathering data using survey method include tendency for people to lie or misremember, the fact that attitudes don't always correspond to actual behavior, researchers need representative samples which rarely occur, and the slight changes in wording of questions have dramatic effects. The results are always coorelational.
Term
What type of information does coorelational research yield?
Definition
Coorelation research yields whether variables are related and how they are related. It does not indicate that one variable is causing the other.
Term
Are the social sciences the only arenas in which bias and assumptions can affect the research process?
Definition
the social sciences are not the only arenas in which bias and assumptions can affect the research process. Objectivity may be impossible in many other settings containing cultural influences and assumptions. Bias is often unintentional.
Term
What did our coverage of fertilization illustrate regarding bias in the scientific process?
Definition
Our coverage of fertilization shows how cultural assumptions and language can have a huge biasing effect in the scientific process. The notion of competitive sperm displays the common androcentrism of cultural images with its macho represtentation obscuring reality and actually reversing what is really observed (The aggressive egg)
Term
How are research findings that support prevailing cultural beliefs treated as opposed to research findings that dont?
Definition
Results that fit with and justify widelt-helf belifs are readily accepted. Results that don't fit are more likely to be challenged and scrutinized.
Term
Ho does bias enter into the various steps of the research process.
Definition
there may be bias in choosing a topic and formulating a hypothesis, bias in research design through variables and control groups, bias in data collection through setting, experimenter effects and participant effects and bias in data analysis through choice of statistics, bias in data interpretation through labels and generalizing and bias in publication within the publication of findings in the media.
Term
How are the studies affected by the setting in which they take place. (lab vs. naturalistic)
Definition
Males and females tend to be treated more similarly in lab settings and studies in labs contain the problem of artificiality in terms of replicating a naturalistic observation and the generalization of the outside world (External validity).
Term
what are sex of experimenter effects?
Definition
sex of experimenter effects are that people react differently to females and males. There is also a difference between the interactions of the same sex and opposite sex experimenters an subjects. The researcher may unintentionally elicit behaviors he/she is looking for.
Term
What is the difference between statistical significance and practical significance?
Definition
Statistical significance of results occurs if they would occur only by chance less than 5 % of the time. IT does not necessarily mean results are important are that differences are large. Practical significance asks if the results are meaningful and important in every day life.
Term
What are androcentric norms?
Definition
Androcentric norms are the tendency to see male behavior as standard. When females differ, they are interpreted as inferior or abnormal.
Term
What is anthropomorphism? What is problems with taking terms applied to humans and applying them to animals?
Definition
Anthropomorphism is interpreting animal behavior as if it were human. The problem with this is that it creates confusion and gives the wrong impression. Also, it is not necessarily correct to call the behavior of animals/insects rape or the existence of primate harems.
Term
What is major bias in the publishing of scientific results (file-drawer problem)
Definition
A major bias in the publishing of scientific results is that studies are more likely to be published f differences are found(file-drawer problem in which similarities are often ignored.) Usually, differences are magnified and similarities are obscured, which is considered alpha bias. Beta bias is the opposite.
Term
Are nature and nurture separable influences?
Definition
Nature and nurture are inseperable influences that continually interacts with each other. Behavior has multiple causes and social context has a large influence while sex/gender is always confounded with social/enviromental factors. We are always influenced by both personal and cultural environments.
Term
Can conclusions about a phenomenon be based on one study?
Definition
conclusions about a phenomenon cannot be based on one study since only one is not definitive. A meta-analysis combines the results of many studies on the same phenomenon to find an overall pattern. Its quality depends on the selection of studies included. Most of these analyses indicate gender-related differences are small or nonexistent.
Term
How does appearance, race, ethnicity, social class, age, sexual orientation, and disability relate to gender stereotypes? Do people tend to apply stereotypes to others or to themselves?
Definition
Morel likely to apply stereotypes to others than themselves
Term
What is the shifting standard.
Definition
hold the same behavior to different standards.
Term
what is the backlash effect?
Definition
penalized for counter-stereotypical behavior.
Term
What is a theory? What are the characteristics of a good theory?
Definition
Comprehensive explanation supported by scientific evidence.
Term
Characteristics of a good theory
Definition
internal coherence (parts of the the theory do not contradict each other)
simplicity- (Occam's razor - if all else equal, simplest theory preferred)
generates testable predictions/hypotheses.
*falsifiable. ( must be able to contruct experiments that could possibly yield evidence that dissproves the theory.)
*the theory must predict things that would and wouldn't happen if the theory were true
Term
Who are our closest primate relatives?
Definition
bonobos, chimps, gorillas
Term
What ecological factors influence primate social structure?
Definition
primate behvaviore is influnced by the area that they line in ex. Arboreal
primates smaller, less dimorphic,
gorillas: more dimorphic, terrestrial
Term
How does dimorphism coorelate to social structure?
Definition
The more dimorphism in a group the more likely that the group is polygamous. If there is a big male then he is more likely to travel in a group of females but no other males. If male and females are the same size they tend to either remain in pairs or travel in groups. There is more fluidity in groups taht are social (travel and interact with one another like the bonobos). More group equalityy the closer species in size.
Term
When do bonobos have sex?
Definition
all the time for any reason - it resolves conflicts, also upon meeting one another to SAY HELLO
Term
can species have social groups with different social structures?
Definition
yes, she used an example in class in which the male bonoboons that joined groups with the females had adopted a "nicer" personality and every male that joined the group became less aggressive as he was initiatied into the said group.
Term
What factors influence the status of males and females within a society?
Definition
size, fertility (ability to produce) age.??????????????????????
Term
In what type of society do humans spend 95%-->98% of their history?
Definition
hunter-getherers/foraging societies.
Term
What are the general characteristics of hunter/gatherer societies?
Definition
96-->98 percent human history, egalitarian, both males and females make major contributions to subsistence, sexually unrepressed.
Term
What characterizes argarian societies?
Definition
plow, physical strength required, land/animal ownership, accumulation of wealth, paternity issues, more pregnancies.
Term
What characterizes industrial societies?
Definition
from home to factory, factory enviroment incompatible with childcare.
Term
What is evolutionary psychology? How might its predictions conflict with human history (general traits of hunter-gatherers/foragers)?
Definition
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Term
How might promiscuity be beneficial for females and monogamy beneficial for males?
Definition
females would optimize their chances at having offspring and amles would not have to care for multiple offspring with multiple women-defending his resources. ?????????????
Term
What are some problems with the evolutionary psych idea that males prefer youthful partners?
Definition
in chimps we see that males prefer older females- they are more experiencesd and better mothers.
Term
What are some problems with the evolutionary explanation of more male interest in casual sex and multiple partners?
Definition
female promiscuity common. not men beause there would be too many kids for him to take care of or desire with multiple partners.
Term
What does the production of lots of sperm indicate regarding promiscuity of males and females in species?
Definition
It was once believed that males had an endless supply of sperm and that they should be promiscous to maximize the probability of having the maximum number of offspring possible,but it is now believed that males have an limited amount of sperm and that is why they desire to be monogamous.
Term
What is sperm competition?
Definition
the more sperm the better chance there is that the male's sperm will make a baby.
Term
What do some postulate regarding the structure of the human penis?
Definition
large testicles in humans . fall beteween chimps and gorillas as far as body size vs. testicle design of human penis. anatomically similar to a squegee to move sperm around in order to fertilize
Term
What do some postulate regarding the structure of the human penis?
Definition
large testicles in humans . fall beteween chimps and gorillas as far as body size vs. testicle design of human penis. anatomically similar to a squegee to move sperm around in order to fertilize
Term
Are females of most species monogamous?
Definition
no, baboons initiate sex with multiple males, sex during non-fertile times with different men in gibbons and lots of sex with bonobos.
Term
Do human males and females tend to prefer long-term or short-term relationships?
Definition
men have more favorable view of casual sex, report more partners, single people over age of 30 report greater desire to marry than do females. OVERALL BOTH PREFER LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP
Term
what are some problems with the evolutionary psychology prediction that females prefer older men?
Definition
older father are not necesarily good fathers, child is likely to have problems or miscarriage. Death of father - mother is alone and young wives more likely to be murdered and they are more fertile so morel likely to attract rival males, and one less person to have babies with.
Term
Are there large differences in the qualities males and females look for in a long-term partner?
Definition
Females and males simliar as regards to what qualities they want in a mate relationshiip between gender and inequality in society and desire for resources/youth.
Term
In what societies is there a larger difference in what females and males look for in a mate?
Definition
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Term
Do stronger, more aggressive, more intelligent, more economically successful men father moree children across societies?
Definition
there is no evidence that more aggressive men father more children.
Term
Male preferences in general:
Definition
birds of a feather, similar tend to flock together, age and background, not opposites attract, no evidence that physcially attaactive women more likely to be paired with financially well-off man, internal valued over external, intelligence, intelligent women can fend for themselves, men more aggressive bc had to comete for sexual access?, bad because women would not want the more aggressive male. Evidence: women at greater risk of being murdered when trying to end a relationship. Young wives are more likely to be murdered bc they are more fertile and more likely to attract rival males and one less person to have babies with.
Term
Genes code for
Definition
proteins
Term
What is behavior flexibility? How flexible are humans and how does flexibility relate to biological control of behavior?
Definition
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Term
Does evolutionary psychology generally make specific predictions or might one use the theory to predict the opposite? Why would this be a problem?
Definition
theory predicts one thing and its opposite. Ignoring contradictory evidence and alternative explanations. Cross-cultural similarities do not necessarily represent evolved tendencies.
Term
does bio determine behavior in humans?
Definition
no not alone, enviroment plays a role as well but biology does not dictate human behavior.
Term
1. What types of toys tend to be rated as having the highest educational value?
Definition
Gender neutral toys tend to be the most educational,
Term
2. How do parents play differently with sons and daughters
Definition
Gentle vs. Active: Dads play more physically with boys than with girls, moms are gentler with girls and are not as much physically active. Assertive vs polite: Parents more assertive with boys and parents use more polite suggestion with girls. Noisy vs quiet: boys more loudly play and able to venture out girls more quiet play and stay close to home or in home.
Term
3. How do parents related differently to their daughters and sons in terms of communication, dependency, punishment, emotion, and the importance of relationships versus achievement?
Definition
Interaction: Talking (parents engage in more conversation with daughters and not with sons), Dependency (boys are looked down upon if dependent but it is ok with girls), Punishment (boys are more punished than girls and more harshly usually). Emotion: Discuss (more emotion words and emotion with daughters, tend to talk about different types of emotions with boys and girls, more likely to focus on sad aspects with girls and equally likely to focus on good aspects with boys and girls), positive vs negative emotions (more likely to focus on negative emotions with girls and positive emotions with boys), concealing vs expressing (later on in life females tend to ruminate and talk about negative things and boys don’t talk about it much and try to distract themselves, with daughters react alright to being sad but with sons don’t like), anger and aggression (tend to be more accepting of anger more in their sons than their daughters, more likely to point out consequences for anger to their daughters and point out needing to think about other peoples feelings in daughters, sons they want to express their anger and aggression), relationships vs achievement (daughters are taught relationships are very important for girls and to form a lot, boys taught to be more dependent and achievement oriented
Term
4. What do parents tend to believe as regards the ability of their kids in English and math and the relative importance of these subjects?
Definition
Math vs English (daughters math ability is less competent than their sons ability even if their grades are the same, but believe daughters more competent in English, math is more important for boys and English more important for girls). It is more important for girls to be better at English than math and for boys to be better at math than English, boys professions tend to deal with math and girls with English.
Term
5. How do parents feel regarding the grades of their sons and daughters?
Definition
Grade satisfaction (parents tend to be more satisfied with girls grades than boys even if girls grades are not that good, they do not tend to be as positive with boys even if they make same grades as girls).
Term
6. How do parents differentially encourage persistence?
Definition
Persistence (teachers and parents encourage boys to keep trying and not get assistance they must get it on their own, while girls they encourage to receive help if they cannot get the subject they are working on), hard work vs ability (when girls are more good at math parents and teachers tend to attribute it to working hard and with boys tend to attribute it to ability).
Term
7. How do parental attributions regarding math performance differ for sons and daughters?
Definition
They differ by the fact that parents are understanding and do not care about their daughters doing poorly in math, while sons they are hard on and expect to do well and if the sons do no do well they are looked down upon and pushed to excel. Even if daughters and sons get the same grade in math boys are thought to do better and need to do well in math.
Term
8. What characterizes the children of women who work outside the home?
Definition
Role flexibility (both boys and girls tend to show this), egalitarian attitudes, career choice and aspirations (sons and daughters tend to think about different possibilities and girls tend to have more aspirations for a career and going far).
Term
How do peers reinforce adherence to gender-roles?
Definition
Gender police (ages 6 and 7 are very strict about what is right for each gender, get on each other if do something different). Gender segregation (ages 2-3 tend to play in same sex groups tend to spend 60% of time in same sex groups, not really seen in hunter-gatherer society or not seen that way).
Term
How does the play of males and females tend to differ?
Definition
Characteristics of play: group size (girls smaller groups, boys bigger), interaction styles (boys are more aggressive and tell what to do, girls suggest politely and not aggressive), Activities (boys more likely to go and do something, girls sometimes just get together to talk and not go somewhere).
Term
11. How do friendships change in adolescence? What factors are associated with status in adolescence?
Definition
Intimacy (in girls a lot more often and more important with girls, boys also want intimacy and friendships but more intimate friendships with girls especially as teenagers). sexuality and dating (girls more important for having a boyfriend, boys it is important but have other things like sports and intelligence. By adolescence these are what are taught: boys focus on sexual expression and careers, girls domesticity and physical appearance). status and approval (approval and status based on these types of appearances, sexuality and dating, and athletic ability), appearance and athletic ability (physical appearance with girls, athletic ability with guys, girls feel like they must attract boys so they become more obsessed with interactions and approval).
Term
12. How does the media serve as a gender-role socialization force? Why might kids be more vulnerable to media messages?
Definition
It is very influential: it shapes values about what is desirable and attractive (girls talk too much and guys don’t want to hear it, guys just want sex and have appearances, girls should not be too sexual), perpetuates stereotypes, inaccurate, biased, provides standard that we feel pressured to live up to about what is normal and good, provides scripts on how to behave, influences the way we think about and judge ourselves and others, kids especially vulnerable – unable to think critically, correlational and experimental studies find that exposure to media stereotypes increases stereotyped beliefs in kids and adults.
Term
13. Are males more commonly featured than females in media? What message does this send?
Definition
Males more common in all types of media (especially white males)..This sends out a message that men are more important, powerful, and hold the control in lives, women are inferior and are not meant to be powerful.
Term
14. In what roles are males and females typically portrayed in the media? How are they often portrayed?
Definition
Females and minorities in supporting roles or background (usually in domestic types of roles), men are usually in high control and powerful types of roles, businessmen, workers, CEOS, etc. and women are housewives, secretaries, flight attendants, etc.
Term
15. In studies of kids, how is self-esteem and persistence affected by hearing stories featuring a same-gender character? Who do they choose as their favorite TV characters?
Definition
Self-esteem and main character (increase in self-esteem when the same gender defeats the dragon in the study talked about). They choose the hero of the story, which wins and in the stories that have the same gender it is a boy for boys and a girl for girls.
Term
16. How are teen girls and boys typically portrayed in the media?
Definition
For girls they are portrayed as needing help, very superficial (as in makeup, clothes, shopping, sexuality, dating, etc. ) that is what should be most important to teen girls the media thinks so they use this. Boys are athletic, strong, smart, powerful, attractive, and not needing help (the media wants boys to want to be extremely attractive, sports oriented, smart, etc.).
Term
17. What messages does the media send regarding appearance and sexuality?
Definition
Females especially (for the use of sexuality in the media), message – looks count more than anything else, health and beauty commercials (women show up in them way more than males), females on TV more attractive and fit than male counterparts, attractive = thin for females: who eats and why and effects on self-perception (females in certain societies feel pressure to be extremely thin and have to look like the models and women that are shown in the media which is not a normal look and healthy way).
Term
18. What is faceism and bodyism? How does it affect perceptions?
Definition
Faceism and bodyism (more focus on the males face (faceism and more focus on the females body (bodyism, even if the same position and type of ad, tend to give more good feedback if focused on the face, white male face black male same position more on the body, males larger and closer to the camera and he is looking at the camera and above or on top more in control of females in the ads, females can be above but usually in a pose and not in control, females shown in weird awkward positions especially reclining or laying down or something else which shows vulnerability). Shows what the perception of genders are in the community
Term
19. What message does positioning and body-chopping in ads send regarding males and females?
Definition
? Positioning in ads: larger, closer, above, on top, in control (men), slouching, reclining, awkward positions (women). Body parts and dismemberment: separates body from mind and emotion, who cares who she is, only thing important is beauty, all other characteristics erased, apparently unimportant. Sexual objectification and race (white women more often black women, but when black women are they tend to be different).
Term
20. What is the masculine generic and is it truly generic?
Definition
It is he. produces thoughts of males much more than females, most kids unaware that masculine generic includes females (much more likely to think of males than of females when masculine generic is used), used selectively (when he or she is used or they it seems that things are more attractive to the sex it is using, a lot of kids re not aware that he refers to he and she and same with mankind), ignores females, labeled as special cases (if he is used to refer to everybody, men are more suitable), learn that typical person is male
Term
21. How does familiarity and interest affect memory performance?
Definition
When differences are found for memory between girls and boys usually because of familiarity and interest, if one is more interested and/or familiar with a certain subject then they are able to do better on memory performance.
Term
22. How do males and females compare regarding general intelligence? What do people tend to believe about the relative intelligence of males and females?
Definition
Average scores (do not differ between males and females), school achievement (very little difference, when there is females tend to do slightly better than males in school really grades), perceptions of intelligence (both males and females tend to view the intelligence of females are lower than males), Weschler tests (average score does not differ, but there are differences between the subtests, females tend to do somewhat better on the verbal subtest and males tend to do better on the performance subtest), verbal - factual knowledge, vocabulary, math, repeating series of digits, understanding similarities between objects, understanding social conventions, performance - arranging pictures into sensible story, duplicating designs with blocks, completing pictures that have a part missing, assembling things like jigsaw puzzles, learning and applying symbol codes.
Term
23. What gender differences are seen on the Weschler subtests?
Definition
Average score does not differ, but there are differences between the subtests, females tend to do somewhat better on the verbal subtest and males tend to do better on the performance subtest
Term
24. Are females better at all verbal tasks?
Definition
No, they are better at writing, verbal fluency and anagrams. Males do better on verbal analogies and SAT verbal scores.
Term
25. How substantial is the difference in verbal abilities between males and females?
Definition
Meta-analysis (differences are very small): very similar scores, 1% of variance (gender only accounted for this much in 1981), Shrinking (differences are shrinking). More likely to be observed on Achievement/Assessment Tests, especially the SAT, and on Visual-Spatial Performance.
Term
26. How substantial are differences in math performance? Are there differences in childhood?
Definition
Math – spatial skills and verbal skills (hard to test many of these abilities because of experience and other things, differences have decreased over time.): shrinking, 1-5% of variance, No gender differences until teens, Specific areas: quantitative performance (boys exceed girls by about 1%, usually shows up later), math computation (girls tends to be a little bit better than boys), problem solving (boys tend to be a little better than girls, this usually does not show up until 12th grade).

Term
How do males and females compare as regards grades in math classes and performance on math achievement and assessment tests? Do all tests show a male advantage?
Definition
the difference between math (spatial and verbal) performance between males and females is shrinking. There is only a 15 percent difference, and the difference does not come about until teens. By twelfth grade boys seem to exceed girls by 1 percent in quantitative abilities. Girls are somewhat better at math computation and boys are somewhat better at problem solving. In math classes females get higher grades than males.
*it is surprising that females get better grades in math classes than males.
*The performance depends on the test that the student is taking. On the SAT math portion, the test under predicts female performance and over predicts male performance (meaning that females do better in math courses in college than there score on the SAT would of predicted and males do worse in college math classes than there score on the SAT would of predicted). In gender neutral societies boys and girls do equal on standardized tests. The U.S. falls midway on the gender equality/neutrality scale.
Term
How do males and females compare on the math section of the SAT?
Definition
*as mentioned above, the SAT math portion under predicts female performance and over predicts male performance. The difference between boys and girls is larger than in other tests.
Term
What gender differences were found among high ability 7-8th graders in the Benbow and Stanley study? How do the results vary from one year to the next
Definition
*considerable interest in gender differences in mathematical ability was aroused by Benbow and Stanley. These researchers examined scores on the SAT-M for 50,0000 7th and 8th graders identified by Johns Hopkins National Talent Search. To be included in this sample, a child had to score in the top 3 percent nationally on a standardized achievement test. They found a mean difference in performance of 30 points favoring boys. Although this difference is statistically significant, it represents only 3/8 of the size of the combined standard deviations for males/females in the sample. There most striking finding was that the ration of boys to girls among the highest scorers was greater and greater the higher the score.
*500: 2:1 (those scoring over 500 boys were 2 to 1 girl
*600: 4:1( “ “)
*700: 13:1(“ “)
*the research provided a lot of useful information but it also does not represent the common population (only the gifted). Also, based on sample of girls and boys more mathematically talented than the average. Also , they were volunteers and therefore self selected for motivation and interest.
*this test underpredicted later math performance for woman relative to men: girls and boys with the same score go on to perform differently in college math classes (girls with better grades).
*also, variability among males was consistently greater than among females. In one year 19 percent of boys outperformed highest-scoring girl in the sample and in another year the highest-scoring girl did better than all but 0.1% of the boys. Thus the gender differences in mathematical performance remains a matter of debate.

Term
On what types of tests do males and females tend to do better?
Definition
females do better on: math computation
*starting in childhood females do better on tests that require fast, accurate processing of info
*males do better on: problem solving
*men more visually sensitive to changes in light intensity, better at speed of mental rotation, some reports of superior male performance on tests of spatiotemporal ability.
Term
How does culture relate to math performance?
Definition
Culture relates to math performance because in gender neutral societies boys and girls do equally well on standardized tests in mathematics.
Term
Do tests measure innate ability?
Definition
Tests DO NOT measure innate ability because of the fact that they are multiple choice, standardized, and timed.
Term
What do visual-spatial abilities entail? How much does gender account for the variance in performance? When are the differences most apparent? Are males both faster and more accurate?
Definition
– Entails mental pictures, variety of assessments, more consistent differences
– Gender only accounts for 5% of variance
– No difference until teens
– And the difference is Shrinking
– *speed vs. accuracy: ???? ( if one of you finds this out, email it to me please )
Term
In what visual-spatial domain are differences most pronounced? Why?
Definition
• -most pronounced differences in MENTAL ROTATION. Mental Rotation is the visualization of objects rotated in space. Males are faster at all ages with a 16% of variability and this is possibly due to very slow speed of a few females.
Term
How do experimental manipulations influence performance on visual-spatial tasks?
Definition
-experimental manipulations influence performance on visual-spatial tasks because :
----- Rod and frame test – no difference in results or females did better if labeled as empathy test and rod replaced with human
----- Piaget’s water level test and mental rotation – training and experience
----- Embedded figure test – relabeled as empathy test
Term
Do males outperform females on all spatial tasks?
Definition
NO, FEMALES HAVE THE ADVANTAGE WITH SPATIAL TASKS.
Term
How do males and females tend to differ in regards navigation strategies?
Definition
Males are better at coordinates.
Females are better at landmarks.
Term
What is the greater male variability hypothesis? Why might males of low intelligence be more often identified than females? How are females more variable than males?
Definition
The Greater Male Variability Hypothesis states that there are more males at the highest and lowest levels of intelligence and that males outnumber females 50 percent in mental retardation . Learning disorders are also more likely to be identified in boys because girls internalize, while boys externalize and act out. Females are more variable than males BIOLOGICALLY.
Term
How do testosterone levels in males and females relate to spatial performance? Is this a large influence?\
Definition
High testosterone levels in females cause females to test higher on spatial performance tests and low testosterone in males cause males to test lower on spatial performance tests. The influence/effects are very small, and have little to do with every day life.
Term
Are males clearly more lateralized for all mental functions? How is lateralization affected by environment?
Definition
Males are not more lateralized for all mental functions! Results are inconclusive on this subject and overall there are similar patterns in both males and females. Lateralization is affected by environment because language exposure affects lateralization.
Term
What does the shrinking of differences over time indicate about gender differences in cognition?
Definition
What does the shrinking of differences over time indicate about gender differences in cognition
Term
What does the shrinking of differences over time indicate about gender differences in cognition
Definition
The shrinking of differences over time and the fact that differences more often found in older students shows that it is not biological.
Term
Is the same pattern of cognitive differences found in all cultures? within different groups within the US?
Definition
The same pattern of cognitive differences IS NOT found in all cultures. Within the US gender differences are greater among White Americans. In China and Japan there is no gender difference in mathematical ability.
Term
How does training and experience relate to verbal skills? to spatial skills?
Definition
Training and experience: For both sexes there is a positive relationship between experience and performance on VISUAL-SPATIAL tasks, VERBAL tasks, and quantitative tasks.
*it is important to remember that even when males and females are in the same classroom they might not necessarily receive the same training.
Term
How do parental beliefs and expectations about their child’s aptitude in math influence the attitude of their children?
Definition
• -A study of elementary school students in Taiwan, Japan and the US found that as early as first grade children and their mothers believe boys are better at math and girls are better at reading. Parental expectations and encouragement predicts child’s attitude toward math more than past performance and predicts enrollment in advanced math classes .
Term
How does perceived gender-appropriateness of a task influence performance and interest? What role does sex of teacher play?
Definition
• The perceived gender-appropriateness of a task influences a child to work longer and harder and is correlated with math achievement
• A great deal of research shows that students express more interest in and perform better in realms that they have learned are “appropriate” for their gender.

The sex of teachers: The gender appropriateness of a particular academic subject may be conveyed through the gender of the teacher. Beginning in junior high school more math teachers are male and more English teachers are female. This displays the notion that math is for boys and English is for females. By the time the student reaches the college level, courses in math, science and engineering are far more likely to be taught by males than female professors and to be dominated by male students. Female students often feel excluded and out of place.
Term
What is the importance of role models?
Definition
Role models: look at sex of teacher paragraph
Term
What is the nature of the role conflict faced by girls regarding achievement?
Definition
There could also be role conflict
• In elementary school girls feel like they cannot be smart and social.
• Girls in early teens feel success has negative consequences.
Term
How do males and females differ regarding academic confidence? How is confidence affected by performance in females and males?
Definition
Males and females differ in regards to academic confidence in that males overestimate performance and females underestimate performance even when performance is the same. There is a decline in academic confidence in girls in adolescence even when getting good grades (decline in attitude, interest, and achievement.)
Both males and females display more confidence and better performance on tests which they think their own gender group usually does better
Stereotype threat can affect performance whenever there is a well-known stereotype, even when that stereotype is not made explicit.
Term
How are males and females treated differently in the classroom?
Definition
• Males and females are treated differently in the classroom. There are lower expectations for female and the teacher interacts more with the males and asks higher-level questions, more individual instruction and encouragement to the males. None of this is due to differences in student behavior.
• Sense of control vs helplessness
Term
How do girls differ from boys regarding distress, self-worth, anxiety, persistence, and reaction to feedback?
Definition
• Girls differ from boys regarding distress, self-worth, anxiety, persistence and reaction to feedback because get distressed more easily and have more anxiety, they are quick to give up, and are punished for academic mistakes. Boys, on the other hand think effort makes a difference and whatever problems they have they see as merely challenges.
Term
How do males and females make different attributions for success and failure?
Definition
– -Males and females make different attributions for success and failure
– Males see success attributed to ability
– females see failures attributed to ability
Term
Can we use gender to predict the performance of individuals?
Definition
-None of the research discussed in this chapter provides any justification whatsoever for sex discrimination in education, employment, the law, or any of our social institutions or for the segregation of jobs according to gender. The finding that gender differences in abilities are so few in number and so small in size indicates clearly that individual differences rather than gender differences are the ones to be kept in mind when deciding what educational programs are best suited to various people, what roles each spouse should play in a martial relationship, or who is the best person for a particular type of job.
-There is so much overlap so CAN’T predict individual performance based on gender!!
Term
Do the observed differences in verbal, math, and spatial performance explain the percentage of women and men in occupations that require these abilities?
Definition
• Cognitive differences cannot account for shortage of women and men in particular professions
– fewer women enter math and engineering that who have the ability to do so
Term
What is sexual orientation? What causes it – (what is the role of environment, hormones, genes?
Definition
Sexual orientation is a person’s attraction to and preference for sexual partners of the same or other sex. There is a ‘genetic influence’ on sexual orientation, but this can be ‘turned on or off’ by environment.
Term
What is the older-brother effect?
Definition
The more older brother a boy has, the more likely he is to be homosexual…15% increase in likelihood per older brother….if the boy in question is right handed….
Term
Around when does puberty start for girls and boys?
Definition
Onset of puberty: 8-10 yrs old for girls, 10-11 for boys
Term
What is PMS? What are the most common symptoms? How do hormone levels change just prior to menstruation?
Definition
Premenstrual Syndrome….most common symptoms include high tension, depression, irritability and assorted physical symptoms…Right before menstruation levels of estrogen and progesterone drop sharply
Term
How consistent are the findings of studies on the existence of PMS?
Definition
Not at all consistent…in some studies women report more hostility, anxiety and depression during premenstrual and menstrual periods, other studies have found no relationship b/w mood and menstrual cycle and some have found results contradictory to those expected….the inconsistencies remain unexplained
Term
Do men and women show similar mood variations over time?
Definition
Yes- a study of both men and women found that 2/3 of both genders showed cycles in their moods….suggesting that it’s ‘normal’ for a person-man or woman- to have a regular pattern of emotional ups and downs
Term
Who is most likely to have PMS?
Definition
Metabolite of progesterone enhances GABA, women with PMS have lower levels of this metabolite
Individual sensitivity
Most women not
significantly impaired
Term
What is PMDD? How is it associated with depression?
Definition
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (formal diagnosis for PMS) Symptoms include depression….
Term
Are there any physiological differences in women with PMS (progesterone, GABA)
Definition
Metabolite of progesterone enhances GABA, women with PMS have lower levels of this metabolite
Term
Do studies generally find cognitive/performance impairments associated with hormonal changes over the menstrual cycle?
Definition
No. Most objective measures do not show any general impairment in cognitive tasks, work and academic performance or perceptual-motor performance associated with the menstrual cycle. However, studies show that women believe their performance is lower during premenstrual and menstrual phases.
Term
What is dysmenorrheal?
Definition
Painful menstruation
Most common menstrual problem
Prostaglandins
Term
What is the effect of castration/lack of testosterone in human males? What is the effect of testosterone administration in human males?
Definition
Testosterone administered to normal men does not increase sex drive
No correlation between testosterone levels and sex drive
Term
What is the effect of ovariectomy on human female sex drive? What hormone is related to sex drive in human females?
Definition
Ovariectomy – little or no effect on sex drive
Androgen levels and sex drive
Term
Do males evidence hormone changes similar to those of their pregnant partners?
Definition
Yes. In one study both men and women showed changes in hormone levels that were specific to pregnancy stage.
Term
How common is postpartum depression? What is the most common form? Is it seen cross-culturally?
Definition
There are 3 kinds of Postpartum depression and are classified by severity: 1) the “blues”: emotionality and readiness to cry 2) “neurotic” P.D.: feelings of depression, loss of appetite, insomnia 3) postpartum psychosis: lack of ability to cope…50-80% of women report experiencing the “blues”; 10-30% experience neurotic; <1% experience psychosis. Rates of P.D. vary widely across cultures…the prevalence of P.D. across 40 different countries range from 0 to nearly 60%.....
Term
When do most abortions occur (pregnancy stage)? Why might someone need a late-term abortion?
Definition
90% occur in first trimester, 1% after 20 weeks
fetus usually viable by 27th week
late-term abortions almost always occur as result of medical emergency of severe deformity
can’t do amniocentesis safely until 18-20 weeks
Term
What emotions are most commonly reported by women who have an abortion?
Definition
Psychological and physical risks of abortion less than pregnancy and birth
guilt and relief
Most people have ambivalent
feelings regarding abortion
Term
What is menopause? Do most women have serious symptoms? Do women in all cultures have negative emotional reactions during menopause?
Is there a male menopause?
Definition
Menopause is when a woman has had no menstrual periods for one year….There is debate about the proportion of women who experience symptoms…..most common symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, urinary problems and bone thinning…Great cultural variance in prevalence of hot flashes, ex: no term among Japanese women for this at all…There is no evidence for a general increase in depression or other emotional symptoms….In other cultures, women gain status as they age, so there is no negative emotion associated with menopause.
Male Menopause: Psychological “mid-life” crisis, much more social than physical
Andropause: when men experience thinning of ejaculate, reduction of ejaculatory pressure, and decrease in some hormone levels, gradual drop in libido (occurs in men 70-80 yrs old)
Term
How did males and females generally respond to the idea of waking up as the other gender?
Definition
Girls – rules, freedom, career options, appearance, dads
Boys – quiet, less active, restricted, appearance, safety, dads
Term
How does gender knowledge develop? When do kids generally develop gender constancy?
Definition
Categorize early
Faces
Gender-typical behaviors
Use of gender words
Gender constancy
Stereotyping and gender flexibility
Changes with age
Term
Gender constancy acquired b/w ages of 3 and 5
Gender knowledge develops through: 1)Awareness that two sexes exist and of belonging to one of them followed by 2) understanding that gender does not change over time, followed finally by 3) awareness that gender remains unchanged over situations and behavior
Definition
Term
How does gender role stereotyping change over childhood?
Definition
As early as 3rd grade, boys predict more success for themselves in certain tasks than do girls
Term
Do parents treat their children differently based on gender? Do they think they treat their kids differently?
Definition
Yes. Parents have higher achievement expectations for their sons than daughters. Parents are more satisfied with their daughters’ grades than sons’ even if there is no actual difference.
Term
How do parents tend to describe their male and female newborns?
How might the toys parents provide for their daughters and sons influence cognition and behavior?
Definition
Girls’ toys more domestic and static: dolls, kitchens etc stresses importance of maternity, domesticity, nurturing….Boys’ toys are more active/sporty which helps with spatial ability ie throwing a ball