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SB Anaemia
Veterinary anaemia
45
Veterinary Medicine
01/24/2012

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Cards

Term
RBC Life in a dog
Definition
100-120 days
Term
RBC Life in a cat
Definition
70-80 days
Term
Where does normal haematopoeisis occur
Definition
bone marrow
Term
Where does extramedullary hematopoeisis occur
Definition
spleen and liver mainly
Term
What signals haematopoeisis
Definition
Renal Hypoxia
Term
Name 6 causes of renal hypoxia
Definition
Reduced renal blood flow
Cardiopulmonary disease
Haemorrhage
Hypotension
High altitude
Reduced Haemoglobin concentrations
Term
How does renal hypoxia result in haematopoeisis
Definition
Renal hypoxia leads to erythropoeitin production which leads to RBC production
Term
What are the three main definitions of anaemia
Definition
Reduced RBC mass
Reduced RBC volume
Reduced haemoglobin concentration
Term
What are the 3 main headings by which anaemia is classified
Definition
Regenerative vs non regenerative
Haemolytic vs non haemolytic
Acute vs chronic
Term
What are some of the main clinical presentations of acute anaemia
Definition
Weakness
Syncope
Tachycardia
Weak pulse
Exercise intolerance
Tachypnoea
Dyspnoea
Haemic murmur
Term
What is a haemic murmur? What causes it?
Definition
Reduced viscosity of the blood
Term
What are some of the main clinical presentations of chronic anaemia
Definition
The same as acute anaemia except the animal may tolerate it more
Weakness
Syncope
Tachycardia
Weak pulse
Exercise intolerance
Tachypnoea
Dyspnoea
Haemic murmur
Term
What are the 4 main tests used in investigating anaemia
Definition
Haematology
Biochemistry
Urinanalysis
Faecal analysis
Term
What are some of the more specific and some of the more peripheral tests that can be used to investigate anaemia
Definition
Autoagglutination
ACTH stimulation
Diagnostic imaging
Endoscopy
Coomb's test
Clotting profiles
Bone marrow aspirates and biopsies
Term
What type of tube would you collect blood in for haematology
Definition
EDTA - orange bottle usually in Eamonn's
Term
What are some of the crucial measurements in haematology for assessing anaemia
Definition
Packed cell volume
Haemoglobin
RBC count
platelet count
Leucocyte count
Term
What haematological test will help assess what type of anaemia you are dealing with
Definition
Mean cell haemoglobin concentration
Mean cell volume
Mean cell haemoglobin
Term
What are some of the main RBC morphology used to assess and diagnose anaemia
Definition
Polychromasia
Macrocytsis
Microcytosis
Hypochromasia
Spherocytosis
Schistocytosis
Nucleated RBC
Term
What can a reticulocyte count help evaluate
Definition
Whether the anaemia is regenerative or not
Term
What will a platelet count help evaluate
Definition
Whether the anaemia is due to haemorrhage either internal or external
Term
What does polychromasia indicate
Definition
that the anaemia is regenerative
Term
What does macrocytosis indicate
Definition
it can be normal
folate deficiency
FeLV
FIV
can also indicate anaemia is regenerative
Term
What does microcytosis indicate
Definition
can be normal
erythrocytosis (high RBC)
portosystemic shunt
Term
What does hypochromasia indicate
Definition
Iron deficiency
Term
What does sphereocytosis indicate
Definition
haemolytic anaemia
Term
What is spherocytosis
Definition
when the RBC are not biconcave
Term
What is schistocytosis
Definition
When parts of the cells are cleaved off
Term
What does schistocytosis indicate
Definition
That there is turbulence in the blood vessels
Could be caused by DIC
Haemangiosarcoma
Term
What are the 3 main things and the 4 lesser things examined in Biochemistry in investigating anaemia
Definition
Main
Urea, bilirubin, albumin
Lesser
Hyperkalaemia, hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia, hypercholestrolaemia
Term
What does elevated urea and creatinine mean in anaemia
Definition
renal failure leading to lack of erythropoeitin production
Term
What does elevated urea with no renal failure mean in anaemia
Definition
blood loss in the upper GIT
May be regen but becoming non regen
Term
What does bilirubin indicate
Definition
haemolysis
Term
What can albumin be used to determine in anaemia
Definition
acute haemorrhage vs chronic and haemolytic
Decreased in acute haemorrhage but normal otherwise
Term
Hyperkalaemia can indicate what in anaemia
Definition
addisons
Term
Hyponatraemia can indicate what in anaemia
Definition
addisons
Term
What will also be found in addisons disease in haematology
Definition
borderline low PCV
Term
What can hypercalcaemia indicate in anaemia
Definition
malignancy
Term
What can hypercholestrolaemia indicate in anaemia
Definition
hyperthyroidism
Term
What are the 3 main things looked at in urinanalysis
Definition
Specific gravity
Haemoglobinuria
Haematouria
Term
What can urine specific gravity indicate in anaemia
Definition
Renal failure if it is low meaning decreased erythropoeitin production
Term
What is haemoglubinuria
Definition
When haemoglobin is found in the urine indicating haemolysis and the entire urine is red with no settling
Term
What does haemoglobinuria indicate
Definition
Haemolysis
Term
What is haematouria
Definition
When red blood cells are present in the urine which indicates renal haemorrhage and presents with the first part of the urine flow as red and it will settle in the container
Term
What does haematouria indicate
Definition
Renal haemorrhage
Term
How does haematouria present clinically
Definition
First part of the urinal flow will be red and it will be seen to settle in the container