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reproductive system
The Reproductive system, physiology; Sherwood
62
Anatomy
12/12/2011

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Term
Definition
Term
sperm are delivered to the expterior through
Definition
epididymis ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra
Term
The scrotum is ____C lower than core body; necessary for sperm production
Definition
3 C
Term

Tunica ____ is derived from peritoneum

tunical _____, the fibrous capsule

Definition

vaginalis

albuginea

Term
site of perm production
Definition
seminiferous tubules
Term
how many lobules in the testes
Definition
250-300
Term
The male duct system
Definition

seminiferous tubules

tubulus rectus

rete testis

efferent ductules

epididymis

ductus defferens

ejaculatory duct

urethra

Term
interstitial (Leydidg) cells outside the seminiferous tubules produce ___
Definition
androgens
Term
major functions of male glands (4)
Definition
  1. activate spermatozoa
  2. provide nutrients spermatozoa need for motility
  3. propelling spermatozoa and fluids along reproductive tract
  4. producing buffers to counteract acidity or urethral and vaginal environments
Term
spermatozoa and fluids are propelled along the reproductive tract via
Definition
peristalic contractions
Term
epididymis; head contains ____
Definition
efferect ductules
Term
microvilli (stereocilia) absorb testicluar fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm
Definition
duct of epididymis
Term
passes through inguinal canal, expands to fotm the ampulla and then joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
Definition
ductus deferens
Term
cutting and ligating the ductus deferens which is nearly 100% effective form of birth control
Definition
vasectomy
Term
encircles pare of the urethra inferior to the bladder; secretes milky slightly acid fluid, contrains citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Definition
prostate
Term
seminal fluid is slightly ____ to neutralize acids in prostate gland and vagina
Definition
seminal fluid
Term
X chromosomes are ____ that Y chromosomes
Definition
larger
Term
nuclear division in the gonads in which the number of chromosomes is halved, two consecutive cell divisions, one round of dna replication, produces four daughter cells
Definition
meiosis
Term
surround and enfold spermatids, provide nutrients and chemical stimuli for development, phagocytize cytoplasm shed by developing spermatids
Definition
nurse cells
Term
area of spermatozoan where mitochondria are concentrated
Definition
midpiece
Term
mature spermatozoon lack
Definition

endoplasmic reticulum

golgi apparatus

lysosomes and peroxisomes

inclusions and other intracellular structures

Term
spermatozoa become motile and become capable of fertilization
Definition
capacitation
Term
begins with hypothalamus releaseing GnRH and resules in testosterone triggering spermatogenesis, then feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and pituitary from rise is testosterone and inhibin
Definition
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
Term
males with age: testosterone ____, FSH and LH ____
Definition
decrease; increase
Term
The oocyte is surrounded by follicle cells (one layer); granulosa cells ( more than one)
Definition
follicle, ovaries
Term
squamous-like follicle cells + oocyte
Definition

primordial follicle

 

Term
cuboidal or columnar follicle cells + oocyte
Definition
primary follicle
Term
two or more layers of granulosa cells + oocyte
Definition
secondary follicle
Term
contains fluid-filled space between granulosa cells; coalesces to form a central antrum
Definition
late secondary follicle
Term
primary oocytes develop in
Definition
primordial follicles
Term
if penetrated by sperm the second oocyte completes meiosis II, yielding:
Definition
ovum and second polar body
Term
phases of a monthly cycle
Definition

follicular

ovulation

lateal

Term
period of follicular growth
Definition
folliculat phase
Term
period of corpus luteum activity
Definition
lacteal phase
Term
corpus luteum degenerates into a corpus albicans in
Definition
7-10 days
Term
effects of LH surge at day 14
Definition

completion of meiosis I (secondary oocyte continues on to metaphase II)

triggers ovulation

transformes ruptured follicle into corpus luteum

Term
corpus luteum produces
Definition
inhibin, progesterone, estrogen
Term
declining FSH and LH ends ______ and inhibits follicle development
Definition
luteal activity
Term
Uterine cycle consists of three phases
Definition

mentruel

proliferative

secretory

Term
metabolic effects of estrogen
Definition
maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels; facilitates calcium uptake
Term
menopause; dwindling estrogen levels cause
Definition

strophy of reproductive organs and breast

hot flashes

thinning of skin and bone loss

Term
lobules within lobes contain _____ that produce milk
Definition
glandular alveoli
Term
Route of milk
Definition

milk

lactiferous ducts

lactiferous sinuses

opening to outside at nipple

Term
the _________ gene on the Y chromosome initiates testes development and maleness
Definition
sex determining region of Y
Term
three types of differences between males and females
Definition

genetic

gonadal

phenotypic

Term
sperm must breach the oocyte coverings; the corona radiata and the _____________________
Definition
zona pellucida
Term
sperm binds to the zona pellucida and undergoes the ________________; enzymes are released to digest holes in the zona pellucida
Definition
acrosomal reaction
Term
upon entry of a sperm, ____ surge from the ER causes the cortical reaction
Definition
calcium
Term

cortical granules release zonal inhibiting proteins; ZIPs destroy sperm receptors; spilled fluid binds water and swells detaching other sperm.

 

This blocks _____

Definition
polyspermy
Term
mitotic division of zygote; first at 36 hrs ---> 2 daughter cells (blastomeres)
Definition
cleavage
Term
at day 3 or 4, the embryo of ~100 cells (____________) has reached the uterus
Definition
blastocyst
Term
display factors that are immunosuppressive; participate in placenta formation
Definition
trophoblast cells
Term
secreted by trophoblast then chorion; prompts corpus luteum to continue progesterone and estrogen secretion; levels rise until end of second month; morning sickness
Definition
Human chorionic gonadotropic
Term
fetal secretion of ____ stimulates the placenta to secrete more estrogen; causes production of oxytocin receptors by myometrium; antagonizes calming effects of progesterone, leading to braxton hicks contractions in uterus.
Definition
cortisol
Term
powerful uterine muscle stimulants
Definition
oxytocin and prostaglandins
Term
___ from fetal lungs causes softening of the cervix
Definition
surfactant protein A
Term
fetal oxytocin causes the placenta to produce
Definition
prostaglandins
Term
stimulate more vigorous contractions of the uterus
Definition
prostaglandins
Term
stages of labor
Definition

cervical dialation

delivery of baby

delivery of placenta

Term
what stimulates the hypothalamus to release prolactin-releasing factors (PRFs)
Definition
placental estrogens, progesterone, lactogen
Term
_____causes the letdown reflex; suppresses the mentruel cycle by inhibiting GnRH which in turn inhibits LH and FSH. thus prevents ovulation and the likelihood of another pregnancy
Definition
oxytocin
Term
beneficial chemicals of breast milk
Definition
IgA, complement, lysozyme, interferon, and lactoperoxidase