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Rationalist/Empiricist
Locke, Hume, Descartes, Newton etc...
138
Philosophy
10/19/2007

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Cards

Term
Hume
Definition
Empiricist who believed in complex ideas. He thought there were two types of perceptions: impressions and ideas. Rejected miracles because we can never experience them. Nothing known without senses, not even cause and effect. We can't "see' the cause. Only succession of events. Our passions determine our morals. Materialist, Behaviorist. Agnostic. Superstition was just jumping to conclusions.
Term
Locke
Definition

Empiricist.

Term

Locke

Definition
two types of knowledge: intuitive and demonstrative
Term
Locke
Definition

pursuit of happiness and wealth

Term
Locke
Definition
simple sensations to complex ideas
Term
Locke
Definition

social contract

Term
Locke
Definition
division of power
Term
Hume, Locke, Hobbes, Bacon, Berkeley
Definition
Empiricist
Term
Descartes, Spinoza, Aquinas, Augustine, Newton, Leibniz, Galileo
Definition
rationalist
Term
Hume
Definition
complex ideas-angels
Term
Hume
Definition
Can't see the CAUSE
Term
Hume
Definition
passions determine morals- what feels good
Term
Hume
Definition

rejected miracles- can't experience

Term
Hume
Definition
behaviorism
Term
Hume
Definition

succesion of events

Term
Hobbes
Definition
atomism
Term
Hobbes
Definition
Euclidean Geometry
Term

Humes

Definition
primitive state
Term
hobbes
Definition
State of nature=State of war
Term
Hobbes
Definition

salvation in politics

Term
Hobbes
Definition
Stripped bible of miracles and spirits
Term

Hobbes

Definition
Eliminate life after death, hell, punishment- creat this-worldly happiness
Term
Hobbes
Definition
Human soul- pagan tradition
Term
Hobbes
Definition
God's immateriality- just breath or wind, not spirit
Term
Hobbes
Definition
Angles and demons- devil just an office or position
Term
Hobbes
Definition
absolute monarchy
Term
Hobbes
Definition
Motion towards= appetite/desire
Motion away= aversion/ repulsion
Term
Hobbes
Definition
desires are not sin
Term
Hobbes
Definition
Public Tranquility= politics
Term
Berekely
Definition
Everything exists in the idea of God
Term
Berekely
Definition
everything we see/feel is of God
Term
Berekely
Definition
God is the perciever of all things. Everything needs to be percieved to be real
Term
Bacon
Definition
Froze chickens-
Term

bacon

Definition
Doesnt care how, just that it happens
Term
Bacon
Definition
4 idols
Term

cave-our own personal experiences, racial history

Definition

first idol

Term
tribe- fund. human nature(imagine)
Definition
2nd idol
Term

market place- over influence of meaning of words

Definition
3rd idol
Term
theater- blind allegience
Definition
4th idol
Term
Bacon
Definition
change nature to fit us
Term
Bacon
Definition
scientists should avoid bias but they interpret data subjectively
Term
Bacon
Definition
salvation comes through works not grace
Term
Machiavelli
Definition

duplicity=decietfulness

Term
Machiavelli
Definition
use religion to control the masses
Term

machiavelli, bacon

Definition
chance=fortuna
Term
machiavelli
Definition
godfearingness=desdemona
Term
Rousseau
Definition
from hedonism to asceticism
Term
Rousseau
Definition
Desire of man=protect from elements, make shelters-led to love
Term
Rousseau
Definition
Man innately good, ruined by civilization
Term
Rousseau, Descartes
Definition
Individual more important
Term

Rousseau

Definition
adam= animal with morality
Term
God created and then stepped back. No involvement since
Definition
Deism
Term

small atoms that make up everything.
Supreme, rational, sentient, simple/bare

Definition

monads

Term
phil. question same as what is real.."What exists and how?"
Definition

ontology

Term
innate ideas
Definition
Nativism
Term
Spinoza
Definition

monist

Term
Kant
Definition
Knowledge comes from sensations but decisive factors determine HOW we percieve the world
Term
Kant
Definition
time and space
Term
kant
Definition
two elements- material(have to be sensed) and form(perception of events)
Term
Kant
Definition
law of causality- reason percieves as cause and effect
Term
Kant
Definition
Practical postulates
Term
Kant
Definition
innate morals
Term
Kant- golden rule
Definition
categorical imparitives
Term
Kant
Definition
duty ethics/good will ethics
Term
Kant
Definition
league of nations
Term
Kant
Definition
can never know external world- always filtered by mind
Term
Kant
Definition
nominal and phenomenal
Term
kant
Definition
no scientific psychology
Term

Reid

Definition
can never know if our idea matches real world- cant compare them
Term
Reid- direct realism- no nominal or phenomenal
Definition
Common Sense philosophy
Term
Reid
Definition
Everyone experiences world, why doubt its existence?
Term
Spinoza
Definition
Monist
Term
Spinoza- god IS nature
Definition

pantheist

Term
Spinoza
Definition

Miracles contradict laws of nature

Term
Spinoza
Definition
Religion and Philosophy different
Term
Spinoza
Definition
full freedom to develop- apple and pear example
Term
Spinoza
Definition
scripture for stupid people
Term
Spinoza
Definition
historicism
Term
Spinoza
Definition
democracy
Term
Spinoza
Definition
Christ=moral man
Term
Spinoza
Definition
God isnt a puppeteer
Term
spinoza
Definition
God's qualities: extension and thought
Term
Descartes- thought and extension
Definition
Dualist. mind and matter
Term
Descartes
Definition
Pineal Gland
Term
Descartes
Definition
 Thoughts of individual superior to groups
Term
Descartes
Definition
analytical geometry
Term
Descartes
Definition

idea of God too perfect for imperfact humans

Term
Descartes
Definition
doubt everything
Term
Descartes
Definition
Vegitative, sensitive, rational
Term
Descartes- clear and distinct
Definition
simple nature
Term
Descartes
Definition
Animal spirits
Term
Newton
Definition
God of the gaps
Term
newton
Definition
god created, ordered and can readjust atoms
Term

newton

Definition
force always external
Term
newton
Definition
nature gov'd by geom.
Term
newton
Definition

math took God out of the equation

Term
newton
Definition
divine influence or no balance
Term
newton, locke, Hume
Definition
NO innate ideas
Term

Locke, Galileo

Definition
Primary and secondary
Term

hume, locke

Definition

single complex ideas

Term
Augustine- good and evil
Definition
manakeyism
Term
Augustine
Definition
Platonized christianity
Term
Augustine
Definition
reson= combat herecies
Term
Augustine
Definition
scrupiture not to be taken literally
Term
Aquinas
Definition
aristotelianized christianity
Term
Aquinas
Definition
faith and reason- harmony, two tupes of knowledge
didn't want them to be opposites
Term

Aquinas

Definition

Sex not for pleasure, just for reproduction

Term
Galileo
Definition
Geometry
Term
Galileo
Definition
imprefect moon, homogenous universe
Term
Galileo
Definition
universal humility...earth lowest...until he showed differently
Term
Galileo
Definition
nature=self contained
Term
Galileo
Definition
precursor to rationalism
Term
Strauss
Definition
contradicted himself- no longet believed in  scriptures
Term
Galileo
Definition
epicycles
Term
Galileo
Definition
3 particles- fire, air, earth
Term
Galileo
Definition
Matter and motion gov'd by God
Term
Galileo
Definition
Book of God- language of God-latin
Book of nature-language of numbers- for scientists
Term

Kepler

Definition
elliptical orbits
Term
Pythagoras
Definition

not materialist
universe intelligently designed
math captures underlying order

Term
Leibniz
Definition
monadology
Term
Leibniz
Definition
subconsious
Term
Bruno
Definition
jupiters moons
Term
Jibberish
Definition
just opinion- not truth(e.g. religion)
Term

asceticism to hedonism
use powers to control nature

Definition
Modern Epicureanism
Term
Pinker
Definition
infanticide
Term
classicism
Definition
man=center of world
eat drink and be merry
Term
humanity would progress
Definition
cultural optimism
Term
Bacon
Definition
Technology would advance Mod. Ep.
Term
Bacon
Definition
What do we desire from nature?
Term

machiavelli

Definition
ruthless force
Term

Individual

Definition
fund. unit of society- Mod. Ep.
Term
Locke
Definition
politics becamse id'ed with economics
Term
mod. empiricism
Definition
british
Term
Locke
Definition
agressively againt innate ideas
Term
Breathe
Definition
"psyche"
Term
descartes
Definition
most concerned with epistemology
Term

Mechanistic

Definition
descartes explained physiological phenomena
Term
Machiavelli
Definition
Princes