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Racial and Ethnic Groups Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Vocabulary Words from Racial And Ethic Groups Twelfth Edition
36
Sociology
01/31/2011

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Term
Afrocentric Perspective
Definition
African American studies scholar Molefi Kete Asante, called for this to emphasize the customs of African American cultures and how they have pervaded the history, culture, and behavior of Blacks in the United States and around the world. Counters Eurocentrism and works toward a multiculturalist or pluralist orientation in which no viewpoint is suppressed.
Term
Minority Group
Definition
a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than do the members of a dominant or majority group.
Term
Racial Group
Definition
This term is reserved for minorities and the corresponding majorities that are socially set apart because of obvious physical differences.
Term
Ethnic Groups
Definition
A group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
Term
Biological Race
Definition
The mistaken notion of a genetically isolated human group.
Term
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Definition
The ratio of a person's mental age (as computed by an IQ test) to his or her chronological age, multiplied by 100.
Term
Racism
Definition
A doctrine that one race is superior.
Term
Racial Formation
Definition
A sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed. (Example- With the creation of reservations for Native Americans in the late 1800s, distinctive tribes were all pushed together into one group.)
Term
Sociology
Definition
The systematic study of social behavior and human groups.
Term
Stratification
Definition
A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society.
Term
Class
Definition
As defined by Max Weber, people who share similar levels of wealth.
Term
Functionalist Perspective
Definition
A sociological approach emphasizing how parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
Term
Dysfunction
Definition
An element of society that may disrupt a social system or decrease its stability.
Term
Conflict Perspective
Definition
A sociological approach that assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
Term
Blaming The Victim
Definition
Portraying the problems of racial and ethnic minorities as their fault rather than recognizing society's responsibilities.
Term
Labeling Theory
Definition
A sociological approach introduced by Howard Becker that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants and others engaging in the same behavior are not.
Term
Stereotypes
Definition
Unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account.
Term
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Definition
The tendency to respond to and act on the basis of stereotypes, a predisposition that can lead one to validate false definitions.
Term
migration
Definition
A general term that describes any transfer of population.
Term
Emigration
Definition
leaving a country to settle in another.
Term
Immigration
Definition
Coming into a new country as a permanent resident.
Term
Globalization
Definition
Worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade, movements of people, and the exchange of ideas.
Term
Colonialism
Definition
A foreign power's maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people for an extended period.
Term
World Systems Theory
Definition
A view of the global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that provide natural resources and labor.
Term
Internal Colonialism
Definition
The treatment of subordinate peoples as colonial subjects by those in power.
Term
Genocide
Definition
The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
Term
Ethnic Cleansing
Definition
Forced deportation of people, accompanied by systematic violence.
Term
Segregation
Definition
The physical separation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group.
Term
Re-segregation
Definition
The physical separation of racial and ethnic groups reappearing after a period of relative integration.
Term
Fusion
Definition
A minority and a majority group combining to form a new group.
Term
Amalgamation
Definition
The process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage to form a new group.
Term
Melting Pot
Definition
Diverse racial or ethnic groups or both, forming a new creation, a new cultural entity.
Term
Assimilation
Definition
The process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group.
Term
Pluralism
Definition
Mutual respect between the various groups in a society for one another's cultures, allowing minorities to express their own culture without experiencing prejudice or hostility.
Term
Panethnicity
Definition
The development of solidarity between ethnic subgroups, as reflected in the terms Hispanic or Asian American.
Term
Marginality
Definition
The status of being between two cultures at the same time, such as the status of Jewish immigrants in the United States.