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Quiz #4
G11-G14
166
Psychology
04/28/2008

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Psychiatry
Definition
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as therapy
Term
psychoactive drug
Definition
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Term
psychoanalysis
Definition
Freud's theory of personality and theraputic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
Term
pyschological dependence
Definition
a pyschological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
Term
psychological disorder
Definition
deviant disstressful and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Term
psychology
Definition
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Term
psychopharmacology
Definition
the studyof the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
Term
psychophysics
Definition
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Term
pyschophysiological illness
Definition
literally, "mind body" illness; any stress-related illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
Term
psychosexual stages
Definition
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) during which, according to Freud, the Id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distince erogenous zones
Term
psychosurgery
Definition
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
Term
psychotherapy
Definition
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from pschological difficulties
Term
puberty
Definition
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Term
punishment
Definition
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Term
pupil
Definition
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Term
random assignment
Definition
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Term
random sample
Definition
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Term
range
Definition
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Term
rationalization
Definition
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Term
reaction formation
Definition
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
Term
recall
Definition
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Term
reciprocal determinism
Definition
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
Term
reciprocity norm
Definition
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Term
recognition
Definition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Term
reflex
Definition
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
Term
refractory period
Definition
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
Term
regression
Definition
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile pyschosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Term
regression toward the mean
Definition
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
Term
rehearsal
Definition
the conscious repitition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Term
reinforcer
Definition
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Term
relative deprivation
Definition
the perception that one is worse off relative to those whom one compares oneself
Term
relearning
Definition
a memory measure that asseses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Term
reliability
Definition
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting
Term
REM rebound
Definition
the tendency for REM skeep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Term
REM sleep
Definition
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur.
Term
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Definition
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
Term
replication
Definition
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different perticipants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Term
representativeness heuristic
Definition
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Term
repression
Definition
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Term
resistance
Definition
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Term
respondent behavior
Definition
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
Term
reticular formation
Definition
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Term
retina
Definition
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus a layer of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
Term
retinal disparity
Definition
a binocular cue for perceiving depth- the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
Term
retrieval
Definition
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Term
retroactive interference
Definition
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Term
rods
Definition
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Term
role
Definition
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Term
rooting reflex
Definition
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Term
Rorschach inkblot test
Definition
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Term
savant syndrome
Definition
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computation or drawing
Term
scapegoat theory
Definition
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Term
scatterplot
Definition
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. little scatter means hish correlation
Term
schema
Definition
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Term
schizophrenia
Definition
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Term
secondary sex characteristics
Definition
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
Term
selective attention
Definition
the focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
Term
self-actualization
Definition
according to maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and pschological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Term
self-concept
Definition
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question "Who am I?"
Term
self-disclosure
Definition
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Term
self-esteem
Definition
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
Term
self-serving bias
Definition
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Term
semantic encoding
Definition
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Term
semantics
Definition
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
Term
sensation
Definition
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
Term
sensorimotor stage
Definition
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Term
sensorineural hearing loss
Definition
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Term
sensory adaptation
Definition
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Term
sensory cortex
Definition
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Term
sensory interaction
Definition
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
Term
sensory memory
Definition
the immediate, very breif recording of sensory information in the memory system
Term
sensory neurons
Definition
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
Term
serial position effect
Definition
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Term
set point
Definition
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set
Term
sexual disorder
Definition
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Term
sexual orientation
Definition
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
Term
sexual response cycle
Definition
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitment, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Term
shaping
Definition
an operant conditioning procedure in whcich reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Term
short-term memory
Definition
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten
Term
signal detection theory
Definition
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue
Term
sleep
Definition
periodic, natural, reversible loss of conciousness
Term
sleep apnea
Definition
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Term
social-cognitive persepctive
Definition
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
Term
social-responsibility norm
Definition
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
Term
social clock
Definition
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Term
social exchange theory
Definition
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of ehich is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Term
social facilitation
Definition
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Term
social leadership
Definition
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Term
social learning theory
Definition
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Term
social loafing
Definition
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal that when individually accountable
Term
social psychology
Definition
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and to relate to another
Term
social trap
Definition
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behaviors
Term
somatic nervous system
Definition
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Term
source amnesia
Definition
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. along with misinformation effect it is at the heart of false memories
Term
spacing effect
Definition
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is acheived in massed study or practice
Term
split brain
Definition
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly of the corpus callosum) between them
Term
spontaneous recovery
Definition
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Term
spotlight effect
Definition
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Term
standard deviation
Definition
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Term
standardization
Definition
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
Term
Stanford-Binet
Definition
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford university) of Binet's original intelligence test
Term
statistical signifigance
Definition
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance
Term
stereotype
Definition
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Term
stereotype threat
Definition
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Term
stimulants
Definition
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstacy
) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Term
storage
Definition
the retention of encoded information over time
Term
stranger anxiety
Definition
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Term
structuralism
Definition
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Term
stress
Definition
the process by which we perceive and respond to certian events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
Term
structured interviews
Definition
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
Term
subjective well-being
Definition
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life
Term
subliminal
Definition
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Term
superego
Definition
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations
Term
superordinate goals
Definition
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Term
survey
Definition
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
Term
sympathetic nervous system
Definition
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Term
synapse
Definition
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Term
syntax
Definition
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Term
systematic desensitization
Definition
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggereing stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
Term
tardive dyskensia
Definition
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors
Term
task leadership
Definition
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
Term
telegraphic speech
Definition
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram- "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
Term
temperament
Definition
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Term
temporal lobes
Definition
the protion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears, includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily form the opposite ear
Term
teratogens
Definition
agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Term
terror-management theory
Definition
proposes that faith in one's world-view and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
Term
testosterone
Definition
the most important of the male sex hormones
Term
thalamus
Definition
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Term
THC
Definition
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Term
TAT test
Definition
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Term
theory
Definition
an explanation using sn intergrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Term
theory of mind
Definition
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Term
threshold
Definition
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Term
token economy
Definition
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and canm later exchange the tokens for various privledges or treats
Term
tolerance
Definition
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
Term
top-down processing
Definition
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
Term
trait
Definition
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act
Term
transduction
Definition
conversion of one form of energy into another.
Term
transference
Definition
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
Term
two-factor theory
Definition
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
Term
two-word stage
Definition
beginning about age 2, the stage in speechdevelopment during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Term
Type A
Definition
Freidman and Roseman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Term
Type B
Definition
Friedman and Roseman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Term
unconditional positive regard
Definition
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Term
unconditioned response
Definition
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the inconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in mouth
Term
unconditioned stimulus
Definition
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response
Term
unconscious
Definition
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. today psychologists suggest it is information processing of which we are unaware
Term
validity
Definition
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Term
variable-interval schedule
Definition
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Term
variable-ratio schedule
Definition
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Term
vestibular sense
Definition
the sense that body movement and position, including the sense of balance
Term
virtual reality exposure therapy
Definition
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulatios of their greatest fears
Term
visual capture
Definition
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
Term
visual encoding
Definition
the encoding of picture images
Term
visual cliff
Definition
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
Term
wavelength
Definition
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
Term
Weber's law
Definition
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Term
WAIS
Definition
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests
Term
Wernicke's area
Definition
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Term
withdrawal
Definition
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Term
working memory
Definition
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Term
X chromosome
Definition
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two and males have one
Term
Y chromosome
Definition
the sex chromosome found only in males
Term
three color theory (Young-Helmholtz)
Definition
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
Term
zygote
Definition
the fertilized egg
Term
Definition