Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Psychology
Exam 2
85
Psychology
03/16/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
sensation
Definition
process of receiving, convertingandtransmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain
Term
perception
Definition
process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information
Term
synthesia
Definition
a mixing of sensory experiences (e.g.seeing colors when a sound is heard)
Term
transduction
Definition
converting a stimulus to a receptor into neural impulses
Term
sensory reduction
Definition
filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending a neural message to the cortex
Term
coding
Definition
process that converts a particular sensory input into a specific sensation
Term
psychophysics
Definition
study of the relation between attributes of the physical world and our psychological experiences of them
Term
absolute threshold
Definition
smallest amount of a stimulus needed to detect that the stimulus is present
Term
difference threshold
Definition
minimal difference needed to notice a stimulus change also called the "just noticeable difference" (JND)
Term
sensory adaptation
Definition
repeated or constant stimulation decreases the number of sensory messages sent to the brain which causes decreased sensation
Term
gate-control theory of pain
Definition
theory that pain sensations are processed and altered by mechanisms
withing the spinal cord
-first introduced by ronald melzack and patrick wall (1965)
Term
wavelength
Definition
dsitance between the crests of peaks of light or sound waves the shorter the wavelength the higher the frequency
Term
frequency
Definition
how often a light of sound wave cycles (i.e. the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time)
Term
amplitude
Definition
height of a light or sounds wave- pertaining to light it refers to brightness, for sound it refers to loudness
Term
accomodation
Definition
automatic adjustment of the eye which occurs when muscles change the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at distances
Term
nearsightedness (myopia)
Definition
visual acuity problem resulting from cornea lens focusing an image in front of the retina
Term
farsightedness (hyperopia)
Definition
visual acuity problem resulting from the cornea and lens focusing an image behind the retina
Term
retina
Definition
light-sensitive inner surface of the back of the eye which contains the receptor cells for vision (rods and cones)
Term
rods
Definition
receptor cells in the retina that detect shades of gray and are responsible for peripheral vision and are most sensitive in dim light
Term
cones
Definition
receptor cells concentrated near the center of the retina responsible for color vision and fine detail most sensitive in brightly lit conditions
Term
fovea
Definition
a tiny pit in the center of the retina filled with cones and responsible for sharp vision
Term
audition
Definition
sense of hearing
Term
cochlea
Definition
three chambered snail-shaped structure in the inner ear containing the receptors for hearing
Term
cochlea
Definition
three chambered snail-shaped structure in the inner ear containing the receptors for hearing
Term
place theory
Definition
explains how we hear higher pitched sounds, different high-pitched sounds bend the basilar membrane hair cells at different locations in the cochlea
Term
place theory
Definition
explains how we hear higher pitched sounds, different high-pitched sounds bend the basilar membrane hair cells at different locations in the cochlea
Term
place theory
Definition
explains how we hear higher pitched sounds, different high-pitched sounds bend the basilar membrane hair cells at different locations in the cochlea
Term
conduction deafness
Definition
middle-ear deafness resulting from problems with transferring sound waves to the inner ear
Term
nerve deafness
Definition
inner-ear deafness resulting from damage to the cochlea hair cells or auditory nerve
Term
olfaction
Definition
sense of smell
-we can detect over 10,000 distinct smells
Term
pheromones
Definition
airborne chemicals that affect behavior, including recognition of family members, aggression, territorial marketing and sexual mating
Term
gustation
Definition
sense of taste
-five major taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty, bitterm and unami (delicious-recently added in 2003, taste receptor thats sensitive to glutamate-found in protein)
Term
vestibular sense
Definition
the sense of body orientation and position with respect to gravity and 3d space (sense of balance)
-located in inner ear
-composed of vestibular sacs and semicircular canals
Term
kinesthesia
Definition
sensory systme for body posture and orientation
Term
selective attention
Definition
filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages
Term
feature detectors
Definition
specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information
Term
habituation
Definition
tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant
Term
gestalt psychologists
Definition
-gestalists emphasized the importance of organization and patterning in enabling us to perceive the whole stimulus
-law of organization: the tendency to distinguist between figure and ground
-reversible figure: when the discrepancy between figure/ground is vague
Term
proximity
Definition
objects that are physically close together are grouped together
Term
continuity
Definition
objects that continue a pattern are grouped together
Term
closure
Definition
the tendency to see a finished unit from an incomplete stimulus
Term
similarity
Definition
similar objects are grouped together
Term
perceptual constancy
Definition
tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input
Term
depth perception
Definition
the ability to percieve 3d space and to accurately judge distance
Term
binnocular cues
Definition
visual input from two eyes that allows perception of depth and distance
Term
monocular cues
Definition
visual input from a single eye alone that contributes to perception of depth or distance
Term
retinal disparity
Definition
binocular cues to distance where the separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina
Term
convergence
Definition
binocular depth cue in which the cloer the object the more the eyes converge or turn inward
Term
trichromatic theory
Definition
thomas young's theory that color perception results from mizing three distinct color systems: red, green, and blue
Term
opponent-process theory
Definition
-hering's theory that color perception is based on three systems of color opposites: blue-yellow, red-green, black-white
-both theories are correct, color is processed in a trichromatic fashion at the level of the retina and in an opponent fashion at the level of the optic nerve
Term
opponent-process theory
Definition
-hering's theory that color perception is based on three systems of color opposites: blue-yellow, red-green, black-white
-both theories are correct, color is processed in a trichromatic fashion at the level of the retina and in an opponent fashion at the level of the optic nerve
Term
perceptual set
Definition
readiness to perceive in a particular manner based on expectations
-we see what we expect to see
Term
bottom-up processing
Definition
information processing that begins "at the bottom" with raw sensory data that feed "up" to the brain
-taking data in through the sensory receptors and sending it up to the brain
Term
top-down processing
Definition
information processing that starts at the top with the observers thoughs, expectations, and knowledge and works down
Term
consciousness
Definition
an organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings
Term
alternate states of consciousness
Definition
mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, and so on
Term
controlled processes
Definition
mental activities requiring focused attention that generally interfere with other ongoing activities
Term
automatic processes
Definition
mental activities requiring minimal attention and having little impact on other activities
Term
high-levels of awareness
Definition
controlled processes- focused attention required
Term
middle levels of awareness
Definition
automatic process- minimal attention required
daydreaming- low level of awareness and conscious effort somewhere between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep
Term
minimal or no awareness
Definition
unconscious mind: freudian concept, unacceptable thoughts, feelings and memories too painful or anxiety provoking to be admitted
unconsciousness: biologically based lowest level of awareness due to head injuries, disease, anesthesia during surgery or coma
Term
minimal or no awareness
Definition
unconscious mind: freudian concept, unacceptable thoughts, feelings and memories too painful or anxiety provoking to be admitted
unconsciousness: biologically based lowest level of awareness due to head injuries, disease, anesthesia during surgery or coma
Term
middle levels of awareness
Definition
automatic process- minimal attention required
daydreaming- low level of awareness and conscious effort somewhere between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep
Term
minimal or no awareness
Definition
unconscious mind: freudian concept, unacceptable thoughts, feelings and memories too painful or anxiety provoking to be admitted
unconsciousness: biologically based lowest level of awareness due to head injuries, disease, anesthesia during surgery or coma
Term
middle levels of awareness
Definition
automatic process- minimal attention required
daydreaming- low level of awareness and conscious effort somewhere between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep
Term
drug abuse
Definition
drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the drug user or others
Term
addiction
Definition
broad term describing a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity
Term
psychological dependence
Definition
desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug
Term
physical dependence
Definition
bodily processes have been so modified by a repeated use of a drug that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal
Term
depressants
Definition
-alcohol, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs, roofies, ketamine, coHB
-tension reduction, euphoria, disinhibition, drowsiness, muscle relaxation
-slow down CNS
Term
stimulants
Definition
-activate CNS
-cocaine, aphetamine, meth, E:
exhiliration, euphoria, high physical and mental energy
Term
opiates
Definition
morphine, heroin, codein
-pain relief, rush of euphoria, prevention of withdrawals
Term
psychoactive drugs and neurotransmitters
Definition
1. neurotransmitter is produced
2. nt is sotired in vesicle when impulse arrives its released
3. nt binds to postsynaptic receptors and activates them
4. excess nt is deactivated by reuptake of the excess breakdown
Term
nrem sleep
Definition
stages 1-4, required for basic biological functioning
Term
rem sleep (parodoxical sleep)
Definition
important for memory, learning, and basic biological functioning, rapid eye movement signals dreaming
Term
circadian rhythm
Definition
-24 hour cycles, affect our sleep and waking cycle
Term
sleep apnea
Definition
temporary stopping of breathing during sleep
Term
night terrors
Definition
panic, hallucinations and abrupt awakenings that happen during nrem sleep
Term
learning
Definition
relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience
Term
conditioning
Definition
process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
Term
classical conditioning
Definition
learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditional stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
Term
unconditional stimulus
Definition
stimulus that elicits an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
Term
neutral stimulus
Definition
a stimulus that before conditioning does not naturally bring about the response of interest
Term
conditioned stimulus
Definition
previously NS that through repeated pairings with an UCS now causes a CR
Term
conditioned response
Definition
learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS