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Psychology of Personality
Exam 3
146
Psychology
12/05/2011

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Term
Harry Sullivan is known for his high cure rate using ______________ therapy.
Definition
Interpersonal
Term
What is interpersonal therapy?
Definition
Staff creates a safe, corrective interpersonal interactive relationship with patients.
Term
According to Sullivan, what do people carry into their relationships?
Definition
Distorted views and unrealistic expectations
Term
What is required for a mental well-being?
Definition
A balance between security and pursuit of satisfaction.
Term
Who developed the personological system?
Definition
Henry Murray
Term
According to Murray, what two components combined influence personality?
Definition
Unconscious motives and environmental pressures
Term
What are the three components of the personological system?
Definition
1. Internal needs/motives (nPow, nAch, nAff)
2. Environmental Press (alpha=real, beta=perceived)
3. Dynamic System
Term
Cultural difference in internal needs/motives?
Definition
US= high nAch, other countries= high nAff
Term
What two tests measure themas?
Definition
TAT and narrative.
Term
What was Mischel's critique of the relationship between personality and behavior?
Definition
Had very low relationship, correlation of .30 or less
Term
Mischel believed that personality changed in different __________. Why?
Definition
Situations; the situations trigger thoughts and emotions from past experiences.
Term
Mischel said traits can be _____________, but not ____________.
Definition
Cross-temporal (consistent over time); cross-situational
Term
What are competencies?
Definition
Ability to general diverse behaviors under appropriate conditions. It is what people know and are able to do, not what they actually do.
Term
What is the term used for how people describe themselves?
Definition
Personal constructs.
Term
Behavior outcome expectancy?
Definition
What will happen if a person acts a certain way.
Term
Stimulus outcome expectancy?
Definition
How events develop in the world.
Term
What is the belief of whether or not you can do something?
Definition
Self-efficacy, it influences behavior greatly
Term
The Marshmallow Test was used to show_________________.
Definition
Delay of gratification.
Term
Why are situations hard to predict?
Definition
Error variance, factors of situations are unique, hard to generalize across situations.
Term
Low self monitoring v. high self monitoring.
Definition
Low: less sensitive to others reactions/expectancies so their behaviors are more consistent over situations.
High: more sensitive, more varied behavior
Term
We seek situations that reinforce our_______________, which makes our behavior and environment seem more stable.
Definition
Self-concept
Term
The Blocks' longitudinal study focused on what?
Definition
Ego control: ability to delay gratification
Ego resiliency: moderate level of control to accommodate new circumstances
Term
Caspi found what three things in the longitudinal study?
Definition
1. personality traits are consistent
2. consistency increases with age
3. personality can change even in old age
Term
In Caspi's longitudinal study, it was found that personality consistency peaks at what age?
Definition
50 years old
Term
What is the purpose of the Circumplex model?
Definition
Conceptualize, organize, and assess interpersonal behavior, traits and motives
Term
Female and males both desire ____ traits.
Definition
Male
Term
What traits do males have more of than females?
Definition
Spatial skills, aggressiveness
Term
What traits do females have more of than males?
Definition
Verbal skills, better communication
Term
What is castration anxiety?
Definition
The fantasized fear of injury or loss of the genital organs, often as the reaction to a repressed feeling of punishment for forbidden sexual desires
Term
What is penis envy?
Definition
Female desires a penis and the power that comes with it.
Term
What was Erikson's thoughts on outward genitalia v. inward genitalia?
Definition
Outward= active, exploring
Inward, gental, peaceful
Term
Who disagreed with Freud's penis envy? What did they come up with?
Definition
Karen Horney, womb envy.
Term
Anima?
Definition
Femininity in males.
Term
Animus?
Definition
Masculinity in females
Term
Behaviorists and Learning theorists believed that gender was attained through what?
Definition
Reinforcements, modeling and conditioning.
Term
When are females aggressive?
Definition
When protecting their young.
Term
Describe the crying trends in males and females.
Definition
Males: cry more than females when babies
Females: cry more than males when adults
Term
Who has a higher motivation for achievement, males or females?
Definition
It is equal
Term
What is the most useful view/theory in male-female differences?
Definition
Interactionalists
Term
Are males or females more likely to "love"?
Definition
Males, Boston Study.
Term
What is Farleys Type T?
Definition
T stands for thrill seeking, driven by psychobiological motives, disease prone personality.
Term
What is the Sick Role?
Definition
Way of responding to stress.
Term
What is the somatopsychic effect? Two examples.
Definition
Disease/genetic predispositions to illness can affect personality. Down syndrome and oxygen deprivation.
Term
Define personality disorder.
Definition
Patterns of behaviors that impair well-being and functioning.
Term
Cluster A?
Definition
Odd/eccentric: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
Term
Cluster B?
Definition
Dramatic, emotional, erratic: antisocial, borderline, histronic, narcissistic
Term
Cluster C?
Definition
Anxious, fearful: avoidant, dependent, OCD
Term
Both ______ and ________ must occur simultaneously for a disorder to occur.
Definition
Diathesis and stress
Term
Type A behavior is associated with what health issue?
Definition
Coronary heart disease
Term
Termites results in conscientiousness.
Definition
More conscientious lived longer (30% less likely to die any given year)
Term
Termites results in sociability.
Definition
No link with longevity
Term
Termites results in cheerfulness.
Definition
Higher cheerfulness=sooner death because they are risk takers
Term
Termites results in stress from parents divorce.
Definition
Before age 21, more likely to die or divorce
Term
Types of self healing personality.
Definition
Active healthy: functions best under stress, outgoing, spontaneous
Relaxed healthy: low stress, calm, philosophical
Term
What did Broden and Build study?
Definition
Form and function of positive emotions, what they sparked.
Term
Joy sparks....
Definition
Play
Term
Interest sparks...
Definition
Exploration
Term
Contentment sparks...
Definition
Savouring
Term
Love sparks...
Definition
Desire and achievement of relationships
Term
What is coherence?
Definition
Knowing the world is understandable and meaningful.
Term
What 5 things are we influenced by?
Definition
Family, peers, social institutions, cultural traditions and class.
Term
Etic v. Emic
Definition
Etic: cross cultural, assessments from outside the culture applied to the group
Emic: one culture is studied, assessments are within the group
Term
Individualism v. collectivism?
Definition
Individualism: Wester society, focus on individual
Collectivism: Eastern society, focus on group
Term
Adolescence is more or less stressful in Samoa than the U.S.? Who studied this?
Definition
Less, Mead
Term
Whiting and Whiting study found a relationship between what?
Definition
Adult personality and child rearing experiences
Term
Lewin's three political cultures?
Definition
1. Autocratic/authoritarianism
2. Democratic (US)
3. Laissez Faire
Term
What is the American Dilemna?
Definition
"All men are created equal," but there was slavery...
Term
What is the relationship between SES and health?
Definition
Lower SES usually smoke, live in unhealthy areas so risk of disease and death is higher.
Term
Idiolect?
Definition
Individual version of his/her native language
Term
Dialect?
Definition
Cultural/regional variants of vocabulary and syntactic forms.
Term
What is the interpretation of the world depending on the linguistic system by which we classify is?
Definition
Linguistic relativity
Term
What was the fictional language created by Orwell that was meant to remove all shades of meaning from language and is the only language that gets smaller each year?
Definition
Newspeak.
Term
Culture free testing v. culture fair testing
Definition
Free: independent of culture, very difficult to create
Fair: some culture, but is understandable among an array of cultures, used much more often
Term
What is the stereotype threat?
Definition
Fear that others judgments of their own actions will negatively stereotype them.
Term
What types of brain disorders may cause hate?
Definition
Structural abnormalities, low density dopamine receptors and drug induced
Term
Homicides are usually committed under...
Definition
Influence of drugs and amphetamines
Term
Fits or rage and hatred may stem from lesions where?
Definition
On/near the temporal lobe of the hypothalamus and amygdala
Term
Having low density dopamine receptors may lead to what type of personality?
Definition
Aloof and detached
Term
Having low density dopamine receptors may lead to what type of personality?
Definition
Aloof and detached
Term
What is Thanatos?
Definition
Drive toward death and self destruction, but may be redirected and projected onto others
Term
According to Erikson, how may hostility be created?
Definition
Failure to resolve the first three ego crises
Term
What two neo-analytic theorists studied childhood experiences to determine the root of hatred?
Definition
Adler and Horney
Term
Adler found that _____ leads to aggression, caused by what?
Definition
Inferiority caused by rejection by parents
Term
Horney found that children who don't feel ______ become _______, which leads to aggression
Definition
Safe, anxious
Term
Fromm stated that what two things combined were responsible for hatred? What three SPECIFIC things?
Definition
Culture and past experiences
-biology
-negative relationships with parents
-failure to find meaning in society
Term
How did Rogers think parents were responsible for a child's anxiety and ultimately, aggression?
Definition
They put conditions on positive regard
Term
Maslow believed that unmet ________ needs lead to hate.
Definition
Safety
Term
Eysenck compared what trait to hatred?
Definition
Psychoticism
Term
What 5 letters did Cattell say were responsible for aggression and could create a cold blooded killer?
Definition
Low A: aloof and critical
Low C: emotionally unstable
High E: dominate and aggressive
Low I: tough minded
High L: suspicious
Term
Describe the danger of Kelly's cognitive simplicity?
Definition
No distinctions may cause the person to see whole groups of people as all enemies.
Term
Three ways Learning Theorists believed hate could be learned.
Definition
Classical conditioning: hate is the conditioned response
Operant conditioning: reinforcements shape aggressive behavior
Social Learning Theory: observation/modeling teaches hate
Term
In reference to hate and aggression, what is the difference between the South and North U.S.?
Definition
South are more hostile because of their high honor and pride
Term
Buss and Angleitner found that men sought __________ and females sought _________ when it came to love.
Definition
Physical attractiveness; earning ability
Term
According to the psychoanalytic theory, when and whom do you have your first love?
Definition
Oral stage with your mother
Term
State Sharer's three romantic styles.
Definition
Secure, Avoidant, Anxious Ambivalent
Term
Secure romantic style?
Definition
Easily gets close with others and lets others get close with them
Term
Avoidant romantic style?
Definition
Have trouble trusting and getting close to people.
Term
Anxious ambivalent romantic style?
Definition
Want to get close, but are insecure.
Term
50% of the people studied had what kind of romantic style?
Definition
Secure
Term
According to the humanistic approach, when can a person experience love?
Definition
When their potential is realized
Term
Rogers believed that children can love once they do what?
Definition
Accept themselves
Term
In Maslow's hierarchy, what two things must be accomplished before one can love?
Definition
Safety and physiological
Term
Differentiate between Type B love and Type D love
Definition
B: being, unselfish love
D: deficiency, selfish love
Term
Motherly, brotherly and erotic love are all ___________ love according to who?
Definition
Immature, according to Fromm
Term
State May's 5 types of love and briefly describe each.
Definition
1. Sex: lust tension released
2. Eros: procreative, savoring, experiential
3. Philia: brotherly
4. Agape: unselfish love, devotion to others
5. Authentic: combination of all four listed above
Term
Fatuous love is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Spirit and Body
Term
Consumate love is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Spirit, mind and body
Term
Romantic love is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Mind and Body
Term
Compassionate love is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Spirit and Mind
Term
Liking is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Mind
Term
Infatuation is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Body
Term
Empty Love is a result of which of the following: spirit, body or mind, according to Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love?
Definition
Spirit
Term
Spirit = _________, Mind = _______________, Body = _____________ (Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love)
Definition
Commitment, intimacy, passion
Term
If the focus of personality study should be on the interpersonal situation, not on the person, then how could we go about assessing personality?
Definition
Regard each personality as an indeterminate entity some significant characteristic of which may be inferred from the processes that occur in the group of persons
Term
It is clear that the individual has some self-contained psychobiological characteristics. How can this fact be integrated with the idea that personality involves enduring patterns of relationships?
Definition
People in dreams are related to real people in that persons life. Patterns reveal little about anyone except the subject-individual.
Term
Is it only an illusion that a person has a single, fixed personality
Definition
Yes.
Term
Global traits have a centra role in everyday, intuitive understanding of personality. Does the field of personality psychology benefit from this or suffer because of it?
Definition
Suffer because it leads to over generality, vagueness and philosophical confusion.
Term
What are some dangers in moving away from global traits? How do these dangers affect our view of people and their behaviors?
Definition
1. When we use dispositional terms that are framed NARROWLY we discard the possibility of generating independent differences
2. ESTOTERIC: don't make contact with traits as used in everyday life
3. FREQUENCIES
Term
What is the role of learning in the development of personality traits in Funder's view?
Definition
Traits are learned by patterns of perception and action in the social world.
Trait = interaction with environment + genetic endowment
It is immutable, but stable.
Term
What are some of the methodological challenges of adapting a measurement instrument for use in different languages and in different cultural environments?
Definition
Patterns in the things being measured show variations in magnitude of differences seen across different cultures. Differential access to health care.

1. Artifactual results: where sex roles are prescribed, when describing themselves they compare themselves to others of the same gender, but not opposite
2. Less relevant to members of collectivist cultures
3. Attribution processes
Term
If gender differences are, on average, small relative to within-gender variation, does that necessarily mean that the between gender differences are unimportant?
Definition
No.
Term
Why should such issues as conscientiousness, mature ego defenses, lack of impulsiveness and social stability prove so important to health longevity?
Definition
Those characteristics predict longevity, about 30% less likely to die in any given year.
Term
What social conditions in present day society might encourage violence and evil? How might our society change so as to reduce violence?
Definition
Seeing people as hostile, devaluing certain groups of people, having overly strong respect for authority and others.

Frustration of basic human needs and the development of destructive modes of need fulfillment.
Term
What does Staub mean by a needy-dependent perpetrator? What kind of people fall into this category? What personality characteristics do people of this category have? How do they acquire these personality characteristics?
Definition
Someone has difficulty acting in the world and taking care of his needs. Finds a wife who was a parentified child and will take care of their children. When the children grow up the wife has withdrawals and distances herself sexually from her husband. The husband then begins to get affectionate with the daughter. Daughter becomes parentified. Father engages daughter sexually.

Shows how fulfillment of needs can be destructive.
Term
How should we change the way boys are raised?
Definition
Encourage a level of self-esteem, constitute it in a different way, its fragility and sources all matter.

Expose them to less violent things (television, physical sports, aggressive peers etc.)
Term
What factors (in domains such as technology, government, economics, family patterns, culture) might account for the substantial increase observed over time in the average extraversion levels?
Definition
Birth Cohort: mobility increased, day care is more common, parenting less rule bound, economy increasingly moving toward service and away from industry
Term
What role might be played by increases in the average age of college students over the decades studied, or a reduction in the average ago of onset of puberty?
Definition
Narcissism, more extraverted?
Term
For bicultural individuals, what life experiences or personality characteristics might make it more likely that their two cultural identities would be compatible?
Definition
Openness, agreeableness, extraversion
Term
Does research on biculturalism appear to take a position on whether maintaining a cultural identity in addition to one's mainstream identity is fundamentally desirable or undesirable?
Definition
Desirable.
Term
Mead claims that self-consciousness (in the sense of awareness of the self) arises only in the presence of conflict that causes disintegration of the organization of habit. Does this imply that, without conflict in social interaction, a person stagnates in his or her existing state?
Definition
Yes, because the growth of the self arises out of a partial disintegration of the organization of habit.
Term
What is the ideal balance between continuity and change in personality, avoiding the extremes of stagnation and volatility?
Definition
Correlation of 0.30?
Term
Chumship
Definition
Important role played by peers in the formation of identity, peers act as a social mirror
Term
Social Self
Definition
Who we are and how we think of ourselves arises from our interactions with those around us (George Mead)
Term
Intimacy motive
Definition
The need to share oneself with others in intimate ways, seen in the narrative approach
Term
Mischel's four personality variables
Definition
1. Competencies
2. Encoding strategies
3. Expectancies
4. Plans
Term
Mirror neurons
Definition
Brain cells that react in the same way both when the person acts and when the person sees another person act in the same way
Term
Cumulative Continuity
Definition
The tendency of personality to remain stable over time through consistency of interpretations, environments and reactions
Term
Two independent dimensions in the circumplex model
Definition
Affiliation of warmth and harmony versus rejection and hostility

Assertiveness of dominance and task orientation versus submission and deference
Term
What is Turner's Syndrome
Definition
Only one X chromosome, female genitalia but fertile (no ovaries)
Term
Gender schemas
Definition
Organized mental structures that delineate our understanding of the abilities of, appropriate behaviors of and appropriate situations for men and women
Term
Bem Sex Role Inventory classifications (4)
Definition
1. Feminine
2. Masculine
3. Androgynous
4. Undifferentiated
Term
Bem suggests that the ______________ person would be most functional in a number of situations, being able to nurture, assertiveness, emotions etc.
Definition
Androgynous
Term
Egoistic dominance?
Definition
Controlling the behavior of others in order to meet their own needs
Term
Borderline Personality Disorder
Definition
People with serious problems of impulsive, self-destructive behavior; fragile self identity; and moody, stormy relationships
Term
Three scientific developments that will change psychology
Definition
1. Brain biochemistry
2. Accurate control of environmental contingencies (social engineering)
3. Human genetic code
Term
What are the less effective means of control?
Definition
Coercion, fear and punishment