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Psychology Exam 2 - Memory
Memory
41
Psychology
10/27/2009

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Term
ENCODING
Definition
Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.
Term
STORAGE
Definition
Keeping or maintaining information in memory.
Term
RETRIEVAL
Definition
When information stored in memory is brought to mind.
Term
CONSOLIDATION
Definition
Allows new information to be stored in memory for later retrieval; requires the synthesis of protein molecules.
Term
SENSORY MEMORY
Definition
Information that comes in through senses (virtually everything you see, hear, or otherwise sense) is held in _____, but only for the briefest amount of time (up to 2 seconds).
Term
MOTIVATED FORGETTING
Definition
Purposefully forgetting information in order to protect oneself from experiences that are painful, frightening, or otherwise unpleasant.
Term
SHORT-TERM (WORKING) MEMORY
Definition
Type of memory that has a limited capacity and in which items are remembered for less than 30 seconds; Usually codes according to sound.
Term
CHUNKING
Definition
Organinzing/grouping seperate bits of information into larger units or chunks (easily identifiable units such as syllables, words, acronyms, or numbers).
Term
REHEARSAL
Definition
Repeating something over and over again in order to commit it to memory.
Term
LONG-TERM MEMORY
Definition
Vast storehouse of permanent or relatively permanent memories; holds all the knowledge you have accumulated, the skills you have aquired, and the experiences you have had.
Term
ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL
Definition
Strategy of memorization that relates new information to information already in your long-term memory.
Term
DECLARATIVE (EXPLICIT) MEMORY
Definition
Subsystem within long-term memory; stores information that can be brought to mind in the form of words or images and then stated, or declared.
Term
EPISODIC MEMORY
Definition
Part of declarative memory that holds memories of events as they have been subjectively experienced.
Term
SEMANTIC MEMORY
Definition
Part of declarative memory that contains general knowledge, or objective facts and information.
Term
NONDECLARATIVE (IMPLICIT) MEMORY
Definition
Subsystem of long-term memory that consists of motor skills, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses; aquired through repetition.
Term
LEVELS-OF-PROCESSING MODEL
Definition
Suggests that how long people remember something depends on how deeply they process the information.
Term
RECALL
Definition
When a person must produce required information by searching memory without the help of retrieval cues.
Term
RETRIEVAL CUES
Definition
A stimulus that aids in the retrieval of particular information from long-term memory.
Term
RECOGNITION
Definition
When a person recognizes something as familiar.
Term
RELEARNING (SAVINGS) METHOD
Definition
Method in which retention is expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned, compared with the time required to learn the material originally.
Term
RECONSTRUCTION
Definition
An account pieced together from a few highlights, using information that may or may not be accurate.
Term
SCHEMA
Definition
An integrated framework of knowledge stored in long-term memory (clusters of knowledge about objects, people, and situations that encode generalizations about our experiences).
Term
MISINFORMATION EFFECT
Definition
When misleading information suplied to witnesses after an event causes erroneous recollection.
Term
FLASHBULB MEMORY
Definition
Memory formed when a person learns of an event that is surprising, shocking, and highly emotional.
Term
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
Definition
The finding that, for information learned in sequence, recall is better for items at the beginning and the end than it is for items in the middle of the sequence.
Term
PRIMARY EFFECT
Definition
Information at the beginning of a sequence is subject to ___; It is likely to be recalled because it has already been placed in long-term memory.
Term
RECENCY EFFECT
Definition
Information at the end of a sequence is subject to ___; It is likely to be recalled because it is still in short-term memory.
Term
STATE-DEPENDENT MEMORY EFFECT
Definition
When people tend to recall information better if they are in the same internal emotional state as they were when the information was encoded.
Term
HIPPOCAMPAL REGION
Definition
Temporal lobe the includes the hippocampus and the underlying cortical areas.
Term
LONG-TERM POTENTIATION
Definition
An increase in the efficiency of neutral transmission at the synapses that lasts for hours or longer; the physiological process that underlies the formation of memories.
Term
CORTISOL
Definition
Stress horomone
Term
NONSENSE SYLLABLES
Definition
Combinations of letters that can be pronounced but have no meaning.
Term
CURVE OF FORGETTING
Definition
Consists of saving scores at various time intervals after original learning; shows that the largest amount of forgetting occurs very quickly, but after that forgetting tapers off.
Term
DECAY THEORY
Definition
Theory that assumes that memories, if not used, fade with time and ultimately disappear entirely.
Term
ENCODING FAILURE
Definition
Causes an inability to remember, due to the fact that the information never entered long-term memory in the first place.
Term
INTERFERENCE
Definition
An interuption when trying to recall a piece of information; major cause of forgetting.
Term
PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
Definition
When information or experiences already stored in long-term memory hinder the ability to remember newer information.
Term
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
Definition
When new learning interferes with the ability to remember previously learned information.
Term
CONSOLIDATION FAILURE
Definition
A disruption in the consolidation process, usually causing long-term memory not to form.
Term
REPRESSION
Definition
When unpleasant memories are litterally removed from consciousness, and the person is no longer aware that the unpleasant event ever occurred.
Term
PROSPECTIVE FORGETTING
Definition
Forgetting to carry out intended actions.