Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Psychology 1A
Chapter 1
19
Psychology
02/13/2008

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What is psychology?
Definition
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Term
What is the scientific method?
Definition
Teh orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings.
Term
What is structuralism?
Definition
The first formal school of thought in pyschology, aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience.
Term
What is functionalism?
Definition
An early school of psychology that was concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment.
Term
What is behaviorism?
Definition
The school of psychology that views observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior. 
Term
What is pyschoanalysis?
Definition
The term Freud used for his theory of personality and his therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders; the unconscious is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory. 
Term
What is humanistic psychology?
Definition
The school of psychology that focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health.
Term
What is cognitive psychology?
Definition
The school of psychology that sees humans as active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, language, and other forms of cognition.
Term
What is Gestalt psychology?
Definition
The school of psychology that emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Term
What is evolutionary psychology?
Definition
The school of psychology that studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environment pressures over the long course of evolution. 
Term
What is biological psychology?
Definition
The school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual differences
Term
What is the sociocultural approach?
Definition
The view that social and cultural factors may be juse as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others. 
Term
What is naturalistic observation?
Definition
A descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it. 
Term
What is laboratory observation?
Definition
A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting. 
Term
What is a case study?
Definition
A descriptive research method in which a single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth. 
Term
What is a survey?
Definition
A descriptive research method in which researchers use interviews and or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people
Term
What is the correlational method?
Definition
A research method used to establish the degree of relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors. 
Term
What is the experimental method?
Definition
The only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables.
Term
What are the different biases?
Definition

Selection bias-systematic differences in groups selected.

Placebo- expectations about treatment influence subject's actual treatment

Experimenter bias- an experimenter is influenced by what they WANT the outcome to be

Confounding variables-factors outside of independent variables are not equivalent across groups