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Psychology 101
Chapter 1 Study guide
55
Psychology
08/27/2013

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Nature vs. Nurture:
Definition

 

Both are important factors of the makeup of an individual.

 

Nature ~ the inborn nature / self of the individual. A type of instinct or genetic makeup.

 

Nurture ~ how the environmental influences the individual. Example growing up in a loving home.

 

Term

Major perspectives in Psychology

Definition
Term

Biological Perspective

Definition

 

o   The study of the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics.

 

§  Neuroscience ~ study of the nervous system/brain.

 

Term

Psychodynamic Perspective

Definition

 

o   unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior or in treating people

 

Term

Behavioral Perspective

Definition

 

o   How behavior is acquired or modified by environmental causes.

 

Term

Humanistic Perspective

Definition

 

o   Motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on a person self-concept, and the importance of choice and sel-direction in striving to reach one’s potential.

 

Term

 Positive Psychology Perspective

Definition

 

Developing therapeutic techniques that increase personal well-being rather than just alleviating the trouble of the disorder. Personal happiness, optimism, creativity, resilience, wisdom

 

Term

Cognitive Perspective

 

Definition

 

[image]How people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems and think.

 

o   Gastalt Psychology: our brain is self-organizing, having innate mental laws. Principle maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts, suggesting the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The form-generating capability of our senses, particularly with respect to the visual recognition of figures and whole forms instead of just a collection of simple lines and curves.

(old woman/young woman pic) 

Term

Cross-Cultural Perspective

Definition

o   The diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries.

o   Social striving- collectivistic cultures, people tend to work harder in a group then when alone.

Term

Evolutionary Perspective

Definition

o   The individual member of a species compete for survival. Inherited differences, some members of a species are better adapted to their environment than are others.

§  Natural selection – the most adaptive characteristics are “selected” and perpetuated in the next generation.

Term

Specialty areas in psychology

Definition

Ø  Biological psychology

o   The study of the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics.

o   Neuroscience ~ study of the nervous system/brain.

Term
Clinical psychology
Definition

o   The causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of different types of behavioral and emotional disorders. Example: anxiety or eating disorders.

Term
Cognitive psychology
Definition

o   How people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems and think.

o   The form-generating capability of our senses, particularly with respect to the visual recognition of figures and whole forms instead of just a collection of simple lines and curves.

Term

Counseling Psychology

Definition

 

o   Helps to adjust, adapt, and cope with personal and interpersonal problems. Such as relationships, work, marriage, ext…

 

Term
Developmental psychology
Definition

 

o   Physical, social, and psychological changes that occur at different ages and stages in life.

 

Term

 

Educational psychology

Definition

 

o   How people of all ages learn. Developed instructional methods and materials used to train people in educational and work settings.

 

Term

Experimental psychology

Definition

 

o   Research focused on such basic topics as sensory and perceptual processes and principles of learning, emotion, and motivation.

 

Term

Forensic psychology

Definition

 

o   Applies psychological principles and techniques to legal issues, such as assessment and treatment of offenders, mental competency to stand trial, child custody, jury selection, and eyewitness testimony.

 

Term

 

Health psychology

Definition

o   Focuses on development, prevention, treatment of illness.

Term

 Industrial/Organizational psychology

Definition

 

o   Concerns between people and work. As well as job analysis, personnel selection and training, leadership, group behavior within organizations.

 

Term

 Personality psychology

Definition

 

o   Studies the nature of human personality, individual differenced, characteristics that make each person unique, and how those characteristics originated and developed.

 

Term

Rehabilitation psychology

Definition

 

o   Applies psychological knowledge to helping people with chronic and disabling health conditions. Example: accident or stroke victims

 

Term

Social psychology

Definition

 

o   How people are affected by their social environments, including how people think about and influence others.

 

Term

 Sports psychology

 

Definition

o   Uses psychological theory and knowledge to enhance athletic motivation, performance, and consistency.

Term

Goals of Psychology

(example is for stress)

Definition

Ø  Describe

o   Experience and effects of stress. The sequence of responses that occur during stressful experiences, looking for patterns in thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

Ø  Explain

o   Studies how thoughts about stressful events evoke unpleasant emotions and physical changes.

Ø  Predict

o   Investigates responses to different kinds of challenging events, hoping to be able to predict the kinds of events that are most likely to evoke a stress response.

Ø  Control or Influence

o   Help those coping strategies to better control their reactions to stressful events.

Term

Steps in the scientific method

Definition

 

Ø  Formulate a specific question that can be tested – Develop hypotheses

 

Ø  Design a study to collect relevant data – experimental – descriptive

 

Ø  Analyze the data to arrive at conclusions – use of statistical procedures

 

Ø  Report the result – Publication - Replication

 

Term
Operational definition
Definition

defines the variable in very specific terms as to how it will be measured, manipulated, or changed.

Term
Hypothesis
Definition
tentative statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables.
Term
Theory
Definition
tentative explanation for observed findings accumulate finding, tool for explaining.
Term
Replication
Definition
the same basic result are obtained again, scientific confidence that the results are accurate is increased.
Term
Naturalistic observation
Definition
the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur I their natural setting.
Term
Case study
Definition
An intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals.
Term
Surveys
Definition
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinion, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
Term
Sample
Definition
A selected segment (or subset) of the population used to represent the group that is being studied.
Term
Population
Definition

A complete set of something – people, nonhuman animals, objects, or events.

Term
Representative sample
Definition
A selected segment hat very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
Term
Random selection
Definition
Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study.
Term
Random assignment
Definition
The process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study.
Term
Correlational study
Definition
A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other.
Term
Correlation coefficient
Definition
A numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables.
Term
Experimental method
Definition
A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.
Term
Independent Variable
Definition
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the treatment variable.
Term
Dependent variable
Definition
The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable; also called the outcome variable.
Term
Confounds/Extraneous Variables
Definition
A factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment.
Term
Experimental group / experimental condition
Definition

In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable.

Term
Placebo group vs. Control groups
Definition

Placebo group - In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except they are given a sugar pill; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.

Term
Control group
Definition

In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.

Term
Demand Characteristics
Definition
In a research study, subtle cues of signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is expected from the participant.
Term
Practice effects
Definition
Any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task.
Term
Double blind study
Definition

An experimental control in which neither the participants no the researchers interaction with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.

Term
Ethics in psychological research
Definition

– psychological research conducted in the US is subject to ethical guidelines developed by the APA.

·         Informed consent and voluntary participation – participant must be informed of the test and any possible outcomes good and bad. Participant may withdraw for research at any time.

·         Students as research participants – a course requirement or an opportunity for extra credit. Student must be given the choice of an alternative activity to fulfill the course requirement or earn extra credit.

·         The use of deception – psychologists can use deceptive techniques as part of the study only when two conditions have been met: (1) It is not feasible to use alternatives to do not involve deception, (2) the potential findings justify the use of deception because of their scientific, educational, or applied value.

·         Confidentiality of information – In their writing, lectures, or other public forums, psychologists may not disclose personally identifiable information about research participants.

·         Information about the study and debriefing – participants must be provided with the opportunity to obtain information about the nature, results, and conclusion of the research. Psychologists are also obligated to debrief the participants and to correct any misconceptions that participants may have had about the research.

Term
Expectancy effects
Definition
occurs in scientific experiments or medical treatments when research subject or patient expects a given result and therefore unconsciously affects the outcome, or reports the expected result. Because this effect can significantly bias the results of experiments (especially on human subjects,) double-blind methodology is used to eliminate the effect.
Term
Advantages and Disadvantages of experiments vs. descriptive
Definition

 

·         Descriptive research methods

 

o   Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events.

 

·         Experimental method

 

o   A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another.

 

 

Research design

Goal

Advantages

Disadvantages

 

Descriptive

To create a snapshot of the current state of affairs

Provides a relatively complete picture of what is occurring at a given time. Allows the development of questions for further study.

Does not assess relationships among variables. May be unethical if participants do not know they are being observed.

Experimental

To assess the causal impact of one or more experimental manipulations on a dependent variable

Allows drawing of conclusions about the causal relationships among variables.

Cannot experimentally manipulate many important variables. May be expensive and time consuming.

 

Term

Fathers of psychology and their field of expertise

Definition

[image]Abraham Maslow ~ Theory of psychological growth.