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03/01/2008

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Term

The physThe physical distance from one cycle of electromagnetic energy to the next determines the:

a.

hue or color that will be perceived

b.

absolute threshold of light

c.

brightness that will be perceived

d.

intensity of the light wave

Definition

a.

hue or color that will be perceived

Term
Definition
Term

Ellen see

sws blurry shapes unless she wears her glasses. She probably has a defective:

a.

retina

b.

pupil

c.

lens

d.

iris

Definition

c.

lens

Term

The receptor cells in the retina that enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light are called

 

a.

cones

b.

rods

c.

bipolar cells

d.

ganglion cells

 

Definition

a.

cones

Term

The theory of color vision which proposes the human eye has three types of receptors that are sensitive to different ranges of light wavelengths is known as the:

 

a.

opponent-process theory

b.

trichromatic theory

c.

geon theory

d.

Gestalt theory

 

Definition
b. Trichromatic theory
Term

The key idea behind the opponent-process theory of color vision is that:

 

a.

increased activation of one type of color cell decreases activation in another

b.

the retina contains three kinds of color receptors

c.

ganglion cells encode most aspects of color

d.

each hemisphere of the brain processes color differently

 

Definition

a.

increased activation of one type of color cell decreases activation in another

Term

Sarah had some professional portraits taken, and the photographer used a blue flash. For several seconds after each shot Sarah saw spots before her eyes. Based on opponent-process theory, you should predict that the color of the spots that Sarah saw were:

 

a.

most likely red

b.

probably green

c.

also blue

d.

yellow

 

Definition

d.

yellow

Term

When Peggy went to the baseball game she quickly separated the fans into the "home crowd" (wearing mostly red), and the "visitors" (wearing mostly blue), even though the fans were fairly evenly dispersed throughout the stadium. Peggy's perception of the crowd illustrates the Gestalt principle of:

 

a.

figure ground

b.

closure

c.

common fate

d.

similarity

 

Definition

d.

similarity

Term

Peter held a small earthworm in each hand and held his hands together so that only one end of each of the earthworms could be seen. In this way, he was able to fool his little sister into thinking he had one gigantic earthworm in his hands. Peter's trick illustrates the Gestalt principle of:

 

a.

good continuation

b.

binocular disparity

c.

figure and ground

d.

common fate

 

Definition

a.

good continuation

Term

When Adrian was watching an air show he saw the group of jets flying in formation as a single unit. Adrian's perception during the air show illustrates the Gestalt principle of:

 

a.

figure-ground

b.

linear perspective

c.

common fate

d.

closure

 

Definition

c.

common fate

Term

In paintings, artists can often give the impression of depth by drawing objects such as train tracks as pairs of converging lines. The impression of depth originates due to the monocular depth cue of:

 

a.

convergence

b.

linear perspective

c.

binocular disparity

d.

stereoscopic imagery

 

Definition

b.

linear perspective

Term

Hilda had an operation on her eyes, but the doctors were unable to save the vision in one eye. Based on what is known about visual perception, you should predict that Hilda will:

 

a.

lose her ability to perceive colors accurately

b.

no longer be able to utilize binocular depth cues

c.

no longer have any perception of depth

d.

be more likely to misinterpret perceptual illusions

 

Definition

b.

no longer be able to utilize binocular depth cues

Term

As Frank was walking away from Bill, the image that he cast on Bill's retina got smaller and smaller. However, Bill perceived Frank as staying the same size. This illustrates:

 

a.

size constancy

b.

shape constancy

c.

binocular depth perception

d.

linear perspective

 

Definition

a.

size constancy

Term
Stereoscopes, 3-D movies, and stereograms all create illusions of depth by relying on the perceptual principle of:

a.

convergence

b.

motion parallax

c.

retinal disparity

d.

texture gradient

Definition

c.

retinal disparity

Term

The frequency of a sound wave determines the:

 

a.

loudness that will be perceived

b.

amplitude of the sound wave

c.

pitch that will be perceived

d.

absolute threshold of sound

 

Definition

c.

pitch that will be perceived

Term

Very loud sounds can jeopardize hearing, and exposure to loud sounds can be perceived as being painful. With respect to hearing, human threshold for pain

 

a.

hovers around 120 Hz

b.

is generally between 500 and 5,000 Hz

c.

is between 50 to 55 decibels

d.

hovers around 120 decibels

 

Definition

d.

hovers around 120 decibels

Term

The coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger neural impulses is called the:

 

a.

cochlea

b.

Eustachian tube

c.

semicircular canal

d.

auditory canal

 

Definition

a.

cochlea

Term

According to the place theory of pitch perception, pitch is partially determined by:

 

a.

the frequency of neural impulses traveling along the auditory pathways

b.

the location in the cerebral cortex where the sound is decoded

c.

how often the same sound has been encountered in the past

d.

the location of the activated hair cells on the basilar membrane

 

Definition

d.

the location of the activated hair cells on the basilar membrane

Term

            According to frequency theory:

 

a.

high-frequency sound waves trigger more activity near the start of the cochlea's basilar membrane

b.

most sound waves are a complex mixture of many frequencies

c.

frequent or prolonged stimulation of any sensory receptor causes that receptor to become less sensitive

d.

the pitch of a sound is determined by the rate at which neural impulses travel along the auditory pathways

 

Definition

d.

the pitch of a sound is determined by the rate at which neural impulses travel along the auditory pathways

Term
The birds that were eating at the bird feeder initially flew away when the shadow of Charlie's kite passed over the feeder. However, after Charlie had been flying the kite for 15 minutes, the birds had all returned and didn't stop feeding when the kite passed overhead. The birds' change in responsiveness illustrates the learning process known as:

a.

sensitization

b.

habituation

c.

second-order conditioning

d.

negative reinforcement

Definition

b.

habituation

Term
Six weeks ago, Pamela bought a new computer that makes a constant humming sound while it is running. At first Pamela found this new sound distracted her and made it difficult to concentrate. However, now she no longer even notices the humming sound. Pamela's change in responsiveness illustrates the learning process known as

a.

shaping

b.

stimulus generalization

c.

sensitization

d.

habituation

Definition

d.

habituation

Term

Seeing blood always has made Sela feel sick. The movie she saw last week presented a drill-like noise just before the madman butchered each victim. Sela has noticed that she now feels queasy each time she hears the drills at the construction site next door. Based on what is know about different types of learning, you should conclude that Sela's problem is most likely the result of the type of learning known as:

 

a.

operant conditioning

b.

classical conditioning

c.

observational learning

d.

extinction

 

Definition

b.

classical conditioning

Term
Mike used to really enjoy potato salad, and at a family reunion he ate a large helping. Unfortunately, the potato salad had not been properly refrigerated, and Mike became quite ill after eating it. Now he finds that even the sight of potato salad in the school cafeteria can make him feel sick to his stomach. In this example of classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is:

a.

the improperly refrigerated potato salad at his family reunion

b.

the illness Mike experienced after the family reunion

c.

Mike feeling sick to his stomach when he sees potato salad in the school cafeteria

d.

the sight of potato salad in the school cafeteria

Definition

a.

the improperly refrigerated potato salad at his family reunion

Term
A few seconds before your new clock radio sounds its alarm, it makes a tiny click. You've recently noticed that you wake up right after the click and before the alarm, even though you previously never woke up to anything but the alarm itself. The click is acting as:

a.

an unconditioned stimulus

b.

a conditioned stimulus

c.

a positive reinforcer

d.

a blocking stimulus

Definition

b.

a conditioned stimulus

Term
Research has shown that the most effective classical conditioning association will form when the unconditioned stimulus occurs

a.

just before the conditioned stimulus

b.

soon after the unconditioned response

c.

soon after the conditioned stimulus

d.

just before the conditioned response

Definition

c.

soon after the conditioned stimulus

Term
Bernstein applied principles of classical conditioning to the study of taste aversion in young patients undergoing chemotherapy. The children were given some unusually flavored ice cream just before the chemotherapy. Later, the children showed an aversion to that flavor of ice cream. In this example of classical conditioning, the chemotherapy was:

a.

an unconditioned stimulus

b.

an unconditioned response

c.

a conditioned stimulus

d.

a conditioned response

Definition

a.

an unconditioned stimulus

Term
When Peter was three years old, he was clawed very badly by the neighbor's cat. Today Peter is afraid of all small animals, including rabbits and puppies. Peter's fear of all small animals illustrates the classical conditioning process referred to as:

a.

stimulus discrimination

b.

stimulus generalization

c.

aversive conditioning

d.

conditioned inhibition

Definition

b.

stimulus generalization

Term
When Cody was a child, his mother would always make him vanilla pudding when he was sick, and the vanilla pudding always seemed to make Cody feel better. As an adult, Cody finds that the smell of vanilla still makes him feel good, but he doesn't get the same good feeling from other scents like cinnamon or orange. Cody's lack of responsiveness to cinnamon or orange scents illustrates the classical conditioning process referred to as:

a.

stimulus generalization

b.

second-order conditioning

c.

stimulus discrimination

d.

habituation

Definition

c.

stimulus discrimination

Term
Anastasia wants to teach her cat not to claw at the arms of her couch. Based on what is known about different types of learning, you should conclude that Anastasia will be most successful in reducing the cat's scratching behavior if she relies on the type of learning known as:

a.

classical conditioning

b.

second-order conditioning

c.

observational learning

d.

operant conditioning

Definition

d.

operant conditioning

Term
According to the theory of operant conditioning, when the presentation of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, increases the likelihood of the response occurring again, the process that is at work is referred to as

a.

negative reinforcement

b.

punishment

c.

positive reinforcement

d.

classical conditioning

Definition

c.

positive reinforcement

Term
Vicente wanted his daughter to make her bed every morning so he gave her a quarter if her bed had been made when she headed out the door for school. Now his daughter makes her bed first thing, every morning, as soon as she gets up. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that, for Vicente's daughter, receiving the quarters acted as:

a.

a negative reinforcer for bed making

b.

a conditioned stimulus for bed making

c.

an unconditioned stimulus for bed making

d.

a positive reinforcer for bed making

Definition

d.

a positive reinforcer for bed making

Term
Sylvia got a nasty sunburn at the lake last summer. Now, before she goes out in the sun she uses a sunscreen to prevent another sunburn. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that Sylvia's behavior is being influenced by the process referred to as:

a.

positive reinforcement

b.

negative reinforcement

c.

negative punishment

d.

positive punishment

Definition
   

b.

negative reinforcement





Term
If you were explaining the concept of punishment to another student, the most accurate explanation would be that punishment:

a.

increases the probability of an undesirable response

b.

has the same effects as negative reinforcement

c.

decreases the probability of a response

d.

affects the probability of an unconditioned response occurring in the future

Definition

c.

decreases the probability of a response

Term
According to the theory of operant conditioning, when the removal of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, decreases the likelihood of the response occurring again, the process is referred to as:

a.

positive reinforcement

b.

positive punishment

c.

negative punishment

d.

negative reinforcement

Definition

c.

negative punishment

Term
Compared to continuous reinforcement schedules, intermittent reinforcement makes a response:

a.

less resistant to extinction

b.

more resistant to shaping

c.

more resistant to extinction

d.

easier to shape

Definition
C. more resistant to extinction
Term
Robin sells cars at an auto dealership, and she earns a commission for each car that she sells. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Robin's car selling is being reinforced based on a

a.

fixed-ratio schedule

b.

variable-ratio schedule

c.

fixed-interval schedule

d.

variable-interval schedule

Definition
a.fixed-ratio schedule
Term
Hugh works on an assembly line, and his foreman walks along the line every hour, on the hour, to check on how things are going. Hugh has learned to work especially hard in the few minutes just before his foreman arrives, and while his foreman is watching. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Hugh's behavior of "working hard" is being reinforced on a:

a.

fixed-ratio schedule

b.

variable-ratio schedule

c.

variable-interval schedule

d.

fixed-interval schedule

Definition

d.

fixed-interval schedule

Term
Daniel is a hunter, and he is out in a duck blind watching for ducks flying overhead. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Daniel's watching behavior is likely to be reinforced based on a:

a.

fixed-ratio schedule

b.

variable-ratio schedule

c.

variable-interval schedule

d.

fixed-interval schedule

Definition

c.

variable-interval schedule

Term
Eugene was autistic and wouldn't speak to anyone. A therapist who was working with Eugene initially gave him a cookie every time he made any sound at all. This switched to only giving cookies when Eugene said a complete word, and eventually only for complete sentences. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that the therapist developed Eugene's speech skills using the process known as:

a.

negative reinforcement

b.

shaping

c.

adventitious reinforcement

d.

vicarious reinforcement

Definition

b.

shaping

Term
Breland and Breland tried to use shaping to train a pig and a raccoon to drop wooden coins into a bank. Neither of the animals was able to learn the task because they both started to respond with behaviors related to feeding instead of the desired response. The results from this study indicate that:

a.

operant conditioning proceeds more slowly when the selected reinforcer is typically a consequence for competing natural behaviors

b.

classical conditioning associations are acquired more quickly when the CS and the US "belong" together

c.

classical conditioning associations are acquired more slowly when the CS and the US "belong" together

d.

operant conditioning proceeds more quickly when the selected reinforcer is typically a consequence for competing natural behaviors

Definition

a.

operant conditioning proceeds more slowly when the selected reinforcer is typically a consequence for competing natural behaviors

Term
Observational learning is important because it is adaptive to

a.

be able to learn about consequences of behavior without direct experience

b.

learn to ignore events that are of little long-term significance

c.

shift our attention quickly to sudden changes in the environment

d.

react more intensely after repeated exposure to the same event

Definition

a.

be able to learn about consequences of behavior without direct experience

Term
Nelly is having a problem getting her tennis serves to land where she wants them, so her coach demonstrates the correct stance and swing. After watching the coach, Nelly is able to land her serves with much more accuracy. Based on what is known about learning, you should conclude that Nelly was able to improve her serve because of the process known as:

a.

classical conditioning

b.

operant conditioning

c.

observational learning

d.

vicarious observation

Definition

c.

observational learning

Term
The small helmet decals given to football players who have an outstanding performance are examples of:

a.

variable reinforcers

b.

primary reinforcers

c.

negative reinforcers

d.

conditioned reinforcers

Definition

d.

conditioned reinforcers

Term

Liza likes to play slot machines when she takes trips to Las Vegas. She never knows which quarter will cause a slot machine to "hit," but she also knows that the more times she plays, the more likely she is to hit a jackpot. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Liza's gambling is being reinforced based on a:

a.

fixed-ratio schedule

b.

variable-ratio schedule

c.

fixed-interval schedule

d.

variable-interval schedule

Definition

b.

variable-ratio schedule

Term
A number of optical illusions apparently result from:

a.

the tendency of one eye to dominate over the other

b.

biological factors that are unaffected by experience

c.

our tendency to interpret three-dimensional objects as being two-dimensional

d.

our tendency to interpret two-dimensional objects as being three-dimensional

Definition

d.

our tendency to interpret two-dimensional objects as being three-dimensional

Term
The path of a sound wave, as it enters the human ear, is:

a.

from the eardrum, to the auditory canal and through the middle ear

b.

from the auditory canal, through the middle ear, to the eardrum

c.

from the auditory canal, to the eardrum and through the middle ear

d.

from the middle ear, to the eardrum, and through the auditory canal

Definition

c.

from the auditory canal, to the eardrum and through the middle ear

Term
Definition