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psych final
final
129
General Vocab
12/10/2012

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Term
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
Definition

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

Term

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

Definition
overconfidence
Term

The tendency to perceive order in random events often leads to overestimating the value of

Definition
intuition
Term

The fact that the same individual won the New Jersey lottery on two separate occasions best illustrates

Definition

a random outcome.

Term

By testing their predictions with the observational method of science, psychologists are using a(n)

Definition

empirical approach.

Term

Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

Definition

certainty, creativity, and curiosity.

Term
A hypothesis is a(n)
Definition

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

Term

A statement describing the exact procedures for measuring an anticipated experimental outcome is known as a(n)

Definition

operational definition.

Term
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
Definition
operational definitions.
Term
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?
Definition
replication
Term
The case study is a research method in which
Definition
a single individual is studied in great depth.
Term
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that
Definition
the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.
Term
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
Definition
prediction.
Term
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use
Definition
correlational measures.
Term
Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?
Definition
correlation coefficient
Term
To represent the correlation between two variables graphically, researchers often construct a
Definition
scatterplot
Term
A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
Definition
intelligence and academic success.
Term
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
Definition
negatively correlated.
Term
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that
Definition
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.
Term
A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that
Definition
less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
Term
If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are
Definition
negatively correlated.
Term
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
Definition
–0.12
Term
Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?
Definition
the experiment
Term
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate
Definition
causes from effects.
Term
To accurately isolate cause and effect, experimenters should use
Definition
random assignment.
Term
Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
Definition
the double-blind procedure.
Term
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a
Definition
placebo.
Term
In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
Definition
placebo.
Term
The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors.
Definition
positive expectations
Term
To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems by working together; other participants were told to solve problems by working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.
Definition
correlational
Term
In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dose) was the
Definition
independent variable.
Term
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a
Definition
confounding variable.
Term
In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.
Definition
dependent
Term
The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a
Definition
bar graph.
Term
When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to
Definition
note the range and size of the scale values.
Term
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the
Definition
mode
Term
The mean of a distribution of scores is the
Definition
score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores.
Term
When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to
Definition
consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.
Term
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the
Definition
range
Term
Which measure of variation is affected most by a few extreme scores?
Definition
range
Term
Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores?
Definition
standard deviation
Term
The first major issue that emerges in debates over experimenting on animals centers around the
Definition
ethics of placing the well-being of humans above that of animals.
Term
Potential research participants are told enough about an upcoming study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. This illustrates the practice of seeking
Definition
informed consent.
Term
After an experiment, research participants are told its purpose and about any deception they may have experienced. This is called
Definition
debriefing
Term
Psychologists' personal values and goals
Definition
can bias their observations and interpretations.
Term
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes
Definition
deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment
Term
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it
Definition
may be unrepresentative of what is generally true
Term
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as
Definition
naturalistic observation
Term
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes
Definition
the survey
Term
Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion
Definition
A
Term
Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations
Definition
random sampling
Term
Although phrenology incorrectly suggested that bumps on the skull revealed a person's character traits, phrenology did succeed in focusing attention on
Definition
the localization of function.
Term
A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ________ perspective.
Definition
biological
Term
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communities, it is most necessary to recognize that people are
Definition
biopsychosocial systems.
Term
Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
Definition
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Term
Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
Definition
zygote, embryo, fetus
Term
Most people's earliest memories do not predate_________of age
Definition
3 years
Term
Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
Definition
Kohlberg
Term
The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is
Definition
inattentional blindness
Term
Which of the following is characteristics of REM sleep?
Definition
genital arousal
Term
Which of the following is NOT a stimulant?
Definition
alcohol
Term
According to one physiological theory, dreaming represents
Definition
the brain's efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity
Term
How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on?
Definition
all of these conditions
Term
Over the last century, Western parents have placed _________priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and___________priority on teaching them loyalty to their country
Definition
decreasing, decreasing
Term
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called
Definition
gender typing
Term
Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender
Definition
schemas
Term
Adopted children are especially likely to have similar __________if raised in the same home
Definition
attitudes
Term
Taking certain drugs during pregnancy is likely to expose unborn children to
Definition
schemas
Term
After Nadia learned that penguins cant fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of
Definition
accomodation
Term
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire
Definition
sense of object permanence
Term
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of other's emotional stages is most characteristic of
Definition
autism
Term
Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are
Definition
more likely to develop a sense of self reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence
Term
Jared thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jared demonstrates a(n)________morality
Definition
preconventional
Term
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
Definition
Erikson's psychosocial development threory
Term
Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of
Definition
continuity & stages
Term
As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following
Definition
all of these conditions
Term
Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long term moemory by
Definition
decreasing REM sleep
Term
Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the _______________of their adopted children
Definition
personality traits
Term
Providing a child with a stimulating educational environment during early childhood is likely to
Definition
prevent neural connections from degenerating
Term
After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of
Definition
perceptual set.
Term
Accommodation refers to the
Definition
process by which the lens changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Term
Conditioning is the process of
Definition
learning associations.
Term
In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that
Definition
evokes a response.
Term
Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n)
Definition
stimulus.
Term
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
Definition
classical conditioning.
Term
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
Definition
operant conditioning.
Term
The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called
Definition
cognitive learning.
Term
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Definition
observational learning.
Term
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
Definition
Ivan Pavlov.
Term
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
Definition
neutral stimulus.
Term
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
Definition
the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
Term
In Pavlov's experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the sound of a tone was a(n)
Definition
conditioned response.
Term
In Pavlov's experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the taste of food was a(n)
Definition
unconditioned response.
Term
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
Definition
acquisition.
Term
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates
Definition
higher-order conditioning.
Term
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
Definition
CS; US
Term
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
Definition
spontaneous recovery.
Term
The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction
Definition
the CR is suppressed.
Term
Perception is the process by which
Definition
sensory input is organized and interpreted.
Term
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes are called
Definition
top-down processing.
Term
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's
Definition
absolute threshold.
Term
Priming refers to the activation of certain
Definition
associations.
Term
People's response to subliminal priming indicates that
Definition
they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.
Term
Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the
Definition
sensory receptors.
Term
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
Definition
generalization.
Term
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
Definition
generalization.
Term
B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
Definition
the law of effect.
Term
An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n)
Definition
reinforcement
Term
Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
Definition
shaping
Term
Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.
Definition
increase; increase
Term
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
Definition
specified number of responses have been made.
Term
A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.
Definition
variable-ratio
Term
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
Definition
punishment
Term
Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.
Definition
increase; decrease
Term
Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is
Definition
positive punishment.
Term
The process of encoding refers to
Definition
getting information into memory.
Term
The process of getting information out of memory is called
Definition
retrieval
Term
Remembering how to solve a puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory.
Definition
implicit
Term
An iconic memory is a ________ memory.
Definition
sensory
Term
Echoic memory refers to
Definition
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Term
For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
Definition
echoic
Term
Chunking refers to
Definition
the organization of information into meaningful units.
Term
A mnemonic is a
Definition
memory aid.
Term
We are more likely to remember the words “typewriter, cigarette, and fire” than the words “void, process, and inherent.” This best illustrates the value of
Definition
imagery
Term
A lack of conscious memories of your first three years of life best illustrates
Definition
infantile amnesia.
Term
Which of the following has been suggested as an explanation for infantile amnesia?
Definition
The hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature.
Term
Which measure of memory retention assesses the ability to draw information out of storage and into conscious awareness?
Definition
recall
Term
Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?
Definition
recognition