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Psych exam 1
ch 1-3
74
Psychology
02/02/2009

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Term
data
Definition
the results of carefully and systematically recored observations
Term
scientific method
Definition
general set of procedures used to gain information in the sciences
Term
superstition
Definition
belief in practice based on faith and chance, magic or irrational feelings (subjective)
Term
intuition
Definition
knowledge that we aquire without conscious reasoning (subjective)
Term
authority
Definition
information learned from reports of a trustworthy and credible source(objective)
Term
5 ways of knowing
Definition
superstition, intuition, authority, rational-inductive
Term
rational-inductive
Definition
primary method of knowledge acquision in non-scientific disciplines, based on texts of authors, historical contexts; learner draws conclusions about authors beliefs, learner forms own rational arguments (objective but arguing suceptible to bias)
Term
hypothesis
Definition
prediciton of what causes a certain phenomenon to occur
Term
confounds
Definition
flaws in the design of a study that allow for competing explinations of the results
Term
independent variable
Definition
what the researcher changes or manipulates in an experiment
Term
levels/conditions of the IV
Definition
different ways in which the independent variable is varied
Term
experimental group
Definition
the group of participants given the treatment being tested
Term
control group
Definition
the group of participants that does not recieve the treatment being tested
Term
dependent variable
Definition
what the experimenter measures in both the experimental and control groups
Term
subject variable/attribute variable
Definition
a characteristic of the participants that can be measured (selected but not manipulated ex. gender)
Term
description
Definition
a goal of scientific research, to describe when behavior is likely to occur (identifies and describes phenomenon so explanations of these phenomena may be proposed
Term
3 research objectives
Definition
description, explanation & prediction, control
Term
explanations
Definition
a goal of research, to explain phenomena (attempt to offer reasons why a phenomenon occurs)
Term
predictions
Definition
an objective of research, to predict when behaviors or phenomena will occur(hypotheses derived and tested from explanations)
Term
control
Definition
a goal of research in psychology, to control some behaviors by understanding their causes
Term
applied research
Definition
research with results that are immediatly relevant in a practical setting
Term
basic research
Definition
research whose results may be of no immediate practical use
Term
theory
Definition
a set of related statements that explain and predict phenomena
Term
laws
Definition
specific statements expressed in the form of a mathematical equation whose accuracy is beyond a reasonable doubt
Term
principles
Definition
statements that predict a phenomenon with a certain level of probability
Term
beliefs
Definition
statements based on personal feelings and subjective knowledge about things that can't be tested scientifically
Term
parsimony
Definition
the assumption that, of two equally accurate explanations, the one based on simpler assumptions is preferrable(preference for simplicity in an explanation)
Term
precision
Definition
the criteria by which theories are evaluated on how precisely they are stated. a more precisely stated theory is considered better than one containing vague statements
Term
criteria for a theory (4)
Definition
parsimony, precision, testability, accuracy
Term
testability
Definition
it must be possible to prove the theory wrong
Term
accuracy
Definition
ablity to fit the known facts and predict new ones
Term
institutional review boards (IRB)
Definition
comites of individuals with diverse backgrounds who review proposals for research with human participants
Term
anonymous
Definition
of unknown identity
Term
informed consent form
Definition
a form given in advance to each participant in a research project; it describes the purpose of the study and what the participant will be asked to do and includes any known risks or benefits of the study
Term
American Psychological Association (APA)
Definition
a national organization of psychologists and people in related fields
Term
APA ethical principles in the conduct of research
Definition
guidelines generated by the APA for conducting research in which people are the participants
Term
risk
Definition
the potential for physical or psychological harm to a research participant (a primary ethical concern)
Term
minimal risk
Definition
a sitiuation in which the risk to the participants of a research project is no greater than that encountered in daily life
Term
deception
Definition
lying to, or misleading research participants (should only be conducted when no alternative procedure is available)
Term
free consent
Definition
consent given without coercion or pressure to comply
Term
debriefing
Definition
fully explaining the purpose of the experiment to the participants, usually after the experiment is over
Term
confederate
Definition
a researcher participant who poses as a participant
Term
confidentiality
Definition
secrecy of the identity of research participants
Term
privicy
Definition
an invisible physical or psychological buffer zone or boundry around a person
Term
APA principles for the care and use of animals
Definition
guidelines for the use of animals in research
Term
scientific misconduct
Definition
acts in which a researcher modifies or lies about data so that the results of the research will be more impressive
Term
reliability
Definition
the consistency of which the same results are obtained from the same test instrument or procedure
Term
operational definition
Definition
a definition that tells the reader exactly what was done; to produce a phenomenon or to measure some variable
Term
validity
Definition
the extent to which a measurement technique measures what it purports to measure
Term
internal validity
Definition
the extent to which the design of an experiment ensures that the IV, and not some other variable or variables, cause the measured difference in the DV's
Term
experimenter effect
Definition
the confound arising when behavior differences in a study are caused by the participation of different experimenters
Term
demand characteristics
Definition
cues the participants use to determin what is expected of them in a study
Term
external validity
Definition
the extent to which the results of an investigation can be generalized beyond the original study
Term
extraneous variables
Definition
factors other than the IV that could possibly effect the outcome of the study
Term
population
Definition
all of the individuals to whom the research project is meant to generalize
Term
sample
Definition
subset of the population
Term
random selection
Definition
all members of the population are equally likely to be chosen
Term
convenience sample/accidental sample
Definition
a sample composed of individuals who happen to be at the right place at the right time
Term
random assignment
Definition
assigning participants to experimental conditions within an investigation in a manner such that each participant is equally likely to be assigned to each condition
Term
null hypothesis (Ho)
Definition
the prediction that there is no differece between the groups being compared (statement that no relationship exists among the variables that were tested)
Term
alternative hypothesis (H1)
Definition
prediction that there is a relationship among the variables that were tested
Term
two-tailed hypothesis
Definition
a type of alternative hypothesis in which the researcher simply predicts that the two groups being compared will differ, but does not predict the direction of that difference
Term
one-tailed hypothesis
Definition
a type of alternative hypothesis in which the researcher predicts the direction of the difference between the groups being compared
Term
type I error
Definition
rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true
Term
type II error
Definition
failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false
Term
alpha (a)
Definition
the probability of making a type I error
Term
significant difference
Definition
a difference between two descripitive statistics-such as means-that is of such a magnitude as to be unlikely to have occured by chance alone
Term
sampling distribution
Definition
the distribution of sample means, as opposed to a distribution of individual scores
Term
region of rejection
Definition
the area of sampling distribution beyond the critical value of the test statistic. if the score falls within the region of rejection, the Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected
Term
beta (B)
Definition
the probability of making a type II error
Term
power
Definition
the liklihood of finding a true difference (1-B)
Term
statistical analysis
Definition
summerization and analysis of data
Term
steps in conducting scientific research
Definition
1)identify a topic
2)learn about the topic
3)form a hypothesis
4)design a study
5)collect data
6)analyze data
7)interpret results
8)communicate results
Term
quasi IV
Definition
a variable that can't be manipulated (ex. gender, personality, skills)