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Psych Development
AP Psychology
52
Psychology
04/21/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
development psychology
Definition
the study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences
Term
prenatal period
Definition
developmental period before birth
Term
germinal stage
Definition
prenatal stage of 0 to 2 weeks
Term
embryonic stage
Definition
prenatal stage from 2 weeks to 2 months
Term
fetal stage
Definition
prenatal stage from 2 months to birth
Term
placenta
Definition
organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother
Term
teratogens
Definition
toxic substances that can damage the developing organism
Term
neonatal period
Definition
stage from birth to 1 month
Term
infancy stage
Definition

stage from one month to 18 months

learn classical conditioning

attachment 

Term
maturation
Definition
genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time
Term
mary ainsworth
Definition
psychologist that discovered attachment needs
Term
harry harlow
Definition

studied rhesus monkeys 

discovered contact comfort

Term
piaget
Definition
psychologist that studied cognitive development
Term
schemas
Definition
mental structures or programs that guide a developing child's thoughts
Term
assimiliation
Definition
mental process that modifies new info to fit into existing schemas
Term
accomodations
Definition
mental process that restructures existing schemas so that new information is better understood
Term
sensorimotor
Definition

birth to age 2

reflexes

mental representations (faces)

object permanence 

Term
preoperational
Definition

2 to 6 or 7

well developed mental representation and the use of language

egocentrism

animalistic thinking

centration

Term
egocentrism
Definition
one perspective thinking
Term
animalistic thinking
Definition
childlike thinking that all objects have life
Term
centration
Definition
lack conservation (beaker test, bead demo)
Term
concrete operational
Definition

7 to 11

understands conservation

no abstract thought

Term
formal operational
Definition

age 12 on

abstract thought

Term
theory of mind
Definition
an awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own
Term
temperament
Definition

an individual's characteristic manner of behavior or reaction

 

Term
jerome kagan
Definition
psychologist that said inherited personality can be changed
Term
zone of proximal development 
Definition
the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance
Term
socialization
Definition
the lifelong process of shaping an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society 
Term
vgotsky 
Definition

psychologist that criticized piaget about the interaction with parents

children will succeed with help from parents

Term
authoritarian parents
Definition
type of parents who are very strict and give no explanation when punishing
Term
authoritative parents 
Definition
type of parents that have high standards and punish but explain the punishment
Term
permissive parents
Definition
type of parents that don't punish. children usually get away with wrongdoings. no rules
Term
uninvolved parents 
Definition
parents who are not there to be a part of the child's life
Term
Erikson
Definition

psychologist who was a neofreudian

developed the psychosocial stages

Term
trust vs. mistrust
Definition

birth to 18 months

when children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection

Term
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Definition

age 2 to 3

children need to develop a sense of personal contol over physical skills and a sense of independence. may lead to failure

Term
confidence/ industry vs. inferiority
Definition

6 to 11

children need to cope with new social and economic demands 

Term
initiative vs. guilt
Definition

3 to 5 years

children need to begin asserting control and power over the enviornment. leads to a sense of purpose 

Term
identity vs. role confusion
Definition

12 to 18 

teens need to develop a sense of self

Term
intimacy vs. isolation
Definition

19 to 40

young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships

Term
generativity vs. stagnation
Definition

40 to 65

adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them

Term
ego integrity vs. despair
Definition

65 to death

need to look back on life and see a sense of fulfillment 

Term
rites of passage
Definition
social rituals that mark the transition betwen developmental stages 
Term
frontal lobe
Definition
lobe that undergoes remodeling during the teen years
Term
peers
Definition
dominant influence in a teens life
Term
morality
Definition
discerning from right an wrong
Term
kohlberg
Definition
psychologist that created the stages of moral reasoning 
Term
preconventional morality
Definition

morality inspired by piaget

personal gain or reward

Term
conventional morality 
Definition

morality that seeks social approval

laws, rules, policies

Term
postconventional morality 
Definition
morality that involves your dignity, principles, law is interrupted
Term
love and work
Definition
erikson said that ______ should be the basis of adulthood
Term
ego integrity 
Definition
ability to look back on life without regrets