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Psych 3
Psych3
108
Physiology
03/22/2009

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Term
language
Definition
a system of communication with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar
Term
phoneme
Definition
the smallest unit of sound that is recognizeable as speech rather than as a random noise
Term
phonological rules
Definition
a set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
Term
morphemes
Definition
the smallest meaningful unit of language
Term
grammar
Definition
a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages
Term
morphological rules
Definition
a set of rules that indicate how morphemes can becombined to form words
Term
syntactical rules
Definition
a set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
Term
deep structure
Definition
the meaning of a sentence
Term
surface structure
Definition
how a sentence is worded
Term
fast mapping
Definition
the fact the children can map a word onto a underlying concept after only a single exposure
Term
telegraphic speech
Definition
speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of content words
Term
nativist theory
Definition
the view that language developement is best explained as an innate, biological capacity
Term
language aquisition device
Definition
a collection of processes that facilitate language learning
Term
genetic dysphasia
Definition
a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence
Term
aphasia
Definition
difficulty in producing or comprehending language
Term
linguistic relativity hypothesis
Definition
the proposal that language shaped the nature of thought
Term
concept
Definition
a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects,events, or other stimuli
Term
category specific deficit
Definition
a neurological syndrome that is characterized be an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed
Term
family resemblance theory
Definition
members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
Term
exemplar theory
Definition
a theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category
Term
rational choice theory
Definition
the classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen judging the value of the outcome and then multiplying the two
Term
availability bias
Definition
items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occured more frequntly
Term
heuristic
Definition
a fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decisions making bu does not guarantee that a solution will be reached
Term
algorithm
Definition
a well defined sequense of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem
Term
conjunction fallacy
Definition
when people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
Term
representativeness heuristic
Definition
a mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event
Term
framing effects
Definition
when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased or framed
Term
sunk cost fallacy
Definition
a framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
Term
prospect theory
Definition
proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluating a potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains.
Term
means-ends analysis
Definition
a process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current sitation and the desired goal
Term
analogical problem solving
Definition
solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem.
Term
functional fixedness
Definition
the tendency to perceive the functions of the objects as fixed
Term
reasoning
Definition
a mental activity that consists of organizing info or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions
Term
practical reasoning
Definition
figuring out what to do ro reasoning directed twd action
Term
theoretical reasoning
Definition
reasoning directed twd arriving at a belief
Term
belief bias
Definition
ppls judgment about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believeable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid
Term
syllogistic resoning
Definition
determining whether a conclusion follows from two stements that are assumed to be true
Term
consciousness
Definition
the person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
Term
cartesian theater
Definition
named after the philosopher rene descartes - a mental screen or stage on which things appear to be presented for viewing by the mind's eye.
Term
phenomenology
Definition
how things seem to the conscious person
Term
problem of other minds
Definition
the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
Term
mind/body problem
Definition
the issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body
Term
dichotic listening
Definition
a task in which people wearing headphones hear different msgs presented to each ear
Term
cocktail party phenomenon
Definition
a phenomenon in which ppl tune in one msg even while they filter out others nearby.
Term
minimal consciousness
Definition
a low level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensation and may output behavior
Term
full consciousness
Definition
consiousnes in which you know and are able to report your mental state
Term
self consciousness
Definition
a distinct level of conciousness in which the persons attention is drawn to the self as an object
Term
mental control
Definition
the attempt to change conscious states of mind
Term
thought suppression
Definition
the conscious avoidance of a thought
Term
rebound effect of thoght suppression
Definition
the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness w/ greater frequency following suppression
Term
ironic processes of mental control
Definition
mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them
Term
dynamic unconsciousness
Definition
an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the persons deepest instincts and desires and the persons inner struggle to control these forces
Term
repression
Definition
a mental process that removes unacceptable thought and memories from consciousness
Term
cognitive conscious
Definition
the mental processes that give rise tot he persons thought choicees emotions and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person
Term
subliminal perception
Definition
a thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
Term
altered states of consciousness
Definition
form of experience that depart from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind
Term
circadian rhytm
Definition
a naturally occuring 24 hour cycle
Term
REM sleep
Definition
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements anda high level of brain activity
Term
electrooculograph
Definition
an instrument that measures eye movements
Term
insomnia
Definition
difficulty in falling asleep or stayign asleep
Term
sleep apnea
Definition
a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while they sleep
Term
somnambulism (sleep walking)
Definition
occurs when the person arises and walks around while still asleep
Term
narcolepsy
Definition
a disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of walking activities
Term
sleep paralysis
Definition
the experience of waking up unable to move
Term
night terrors
Definition
abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
Term
manifest content
Definition
a dreams apparent topic or superficial meaning
Term
latent content
Definition
a dreams true underlyig meaning
Term
activation synthesis model
Definition
the theorry that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep
Term
psychoactive drug
Definition
a chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brains chemical msg
Term
drug tolerance
Definition
the tendency for larger doses of drug to be required over time to acheive the same effect
Term
depressants
Definition
substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system
Term
expectant theory
Definition
the idea that alchohol effects can be produced by ppls expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
Term
balanced placebo design
Definition
a study design in which behavior is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus
Term
alcohol mytopia
Definition
a condition that results when alcohol hampers attention leading ppl to respond in simple ways to complex situations
Term
stimulants
Definition
substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels
Term
narcotics/opiates
Definition
highly addictive drugs derived from opium tgat relieve pain
Term
endorphins/endogenous opiates
Definition
neuratransmitters that have a similar structure to opiates and that appear to play a role i nhow the brain copes internally with pain and stress
Term
hallucinogens
Definition
drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations
Term
marijuana
Definition
the leaves and buds of the hemp plant
Term
hypnosis
Definition
an altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that noes actions are occuring involuntarily
Term
posthypnotic amnesia
Definition
the failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
Term
hypnotic analgesia
Definition
the reduction of pain through hypnosis in ppl who are susceptible to hypnosis
Term
emotion
Definition
a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological traits
Term
james-lange theory
Definition
a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system , which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain
Term
cannon-bard theory
Definition
a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain
Term
two-factor theory
Definition
a theory about relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal
Term
appraisal
Definition
an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus that is performed by the amygdala
Term
emotion regulation
Definition
the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one's emotional experience
Term
reappraisal
Definition
a strategy that involves changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus
Term
emotional expression
Definition
any observable sign of an emotional state
Term
universality hypothesis
Definition
the hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone
Term
facial feedback hypothesis
Definition
the hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify
Term
display rules
Definition
norms for the control of emotional expression
Term
motivation
Definition
the purpose for or cause of an action
Term
hedonic principle
Definition
the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
Term
homeostasis
Definition
the tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state
Term
drive
Definition
an internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality
Term
bulimia nervosa
Definition
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
Term
anorexia nervosa
Definition
an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake
Term
metabolism
Definition
the rate at which energy is used by the body
Term
human sexual response cycle
Definition
the stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity
Term
extrinsic motivation
Definition
a motivation to take actions that are no themselves rewarding, but lead to a reward
Term
intrinsic motivation
Definition
a motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding
Term
conscious motivation
Definition
a motivation of which one is aware
Term
unconscious motivation
Definition
a motivation of which one is not aware
Term
need for achievement
Definition
the motivation to solve worthwhile problems
Term
approach motivation
Definition
a motivation to experience positive outcomes
Term
avoidance motivation
Definition
a motivation not to experience negative outcomes