Shared Flashcard Set

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psych 3
n
121
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10/21/2009

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Term
emotions are a mix of
Definition
physiological activation, expressive behavior, conscious experiences (thoughts, feelings)
Term
james lange theory
Definition
psycological reaction THEN feelings
Term
cannon-bard theory
Definition
physiological arousal and our emotional experience occurs TOGETHER. one does not cause the other, emotions seperate from bodys arousal
Term
schachter-singer 2 factor theory
Definition
our physiological and cognitions together CREATE emotion.
Term
autonomic nervous system
Definition
mobilizes for action, calms later. controls arousal via sympathetic division which directs adrenal glands to release hormones (like adrelaline)
Term
parasympathetic nervous system
Definition
when crisis passes, takes over and calms
Term
more activity in the right prefrontal from..
Definition
negative emotions
Term
guilty knowledge test
Definition
ties responses to crime scene details known only to guilty person
Term
robert zajonc
Definition
says we have many emotional reactions apart from, or even before, our interpretations of a situation
Term
amygdala
Definition
sends more neural perceptions up to the cortex then back. the limibc system nerusal center deep in brain
Term
richard lazarus
Definition
says even instantaneously felt emotions require some sort of cignitive appraisal of situation. otherwise how do we know what we are reacting to?
Term
facial feedback effect
Definition
force a smile, youll start feeling better. imitating others behavior to help us empathize.
Term
catharis
Definition
assume that aggressive action provides emotional release. false.
Term
sunjective well being is..
Definition
happiness
Term
adaption level principle
Definition
describes our tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced. we adjust our neutral level
Term
relative deprivation
Definition
the sense that were worse off than others
Term
individual personality
Definition
your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Term
freuds psychoanalytic theory
Definition
roproses childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
Term
humanistic approach
Definition
focuses on our inner capacitieies for growth and self fulfillment
Term
frued specialized in
Definition
nervous disorders.. no neurological sense.
Term
free association
Definition
relax, say what comes to mind. frued
Term
hysteria
Definition
now conversion disorder.. no medical proof of ailment
Term
psychoanalysis
Definition
frueds name for what he did
Term
id
Definition
part of the conflict. operates on immediate pleasure
Term
ego
Definition
part of the conflict. operates onr eality. id in realistic ways
Term
superego
Definition
part of the conflict. voice of the consious that forces ego to consider the real and ideal, HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE
Term
physosexual stages
Definition
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
OAPLG. phallic is key
Term
oedipus complex, electra complex
Definition
boys want mother, girls want father
Term
identification process
Definition
children repess their threatening feelings and begin identifying with rival parent.
Term
defence mechanism
Definition
ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsiously distorting reality
Term
repression
Definition
part of DEFENCE MECHANISM. banishes anixety-arousing thoughts, feelings, memories from consiousness. painful. thought to be a myth by some, rare.
Term
regression
Definition
part of DEFENCE MECHANISM. retreating to an earlier, more infantile stage of development. going back to where your needs were met
Term
fixate
Definition
conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stage could surface as malaadoptive behavior in the adult years.
Term
reaction formation
Definition
the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites. behaving how your afraid of
Term
projection
Definition
part of DEFENCE MECHANISM. disguises threatening impulses by attributing them to others. liking someone and saying they like you
Term
rationalization
Definition
part of DEFENCE MECHANISM. offer self-justifying explanations
Term
neo-freutdians placed more emphasis on..
Definition
.. the role of the conscious mind and doubted sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations
Term
alfred adler
Definition
inferiority copmplex. with karen horney and carl jung. common reservior of images derived from our species universal experiences
Term
projective tests
Definition
provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of ones inner dynamics.. no clear direction. rorschach inkblot. shows hidden traits
Term
thematic appreciation test (TAT)
Definition
people view ambiguous picturesd and make up stories about them. accessess achievement motiveation. projection
Term
rirschach inkblot test
Definition
10 inkblots that seek to identify peoples innfer feelings. most famous, ambiguous
Term
admirers and crditics agree that recent research
Definition
contradicts many of frueds specific ideas. historically, sexual suppreion has diminished, psychological disorders have not
Term
the modern unconious mind
Definition
we have limited access to what goes on in the mind, implicit learning, false consensus effect, terror management theory
Term
false consensus effect
Definition
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Term
terror management theoery
Definition
the terror resulting from our awareness of vulnerabilitity and death
Term
the humanisitic perspective
Definition
focuesesfocuses on the way healthy people strive for self determination and self realization. abraham maslow and carl rogers
Term
carl rogers person-centered perspective
Definition
believed people are basically good and endowed with self actualizing tendencies, believed that a growth promoting climate required, self concept: all the thoughts we have in response to who am i?
Term
self-concept
Definition
thoughtd and feelings tied to who am i? part of carl rogers person-centered perspective
Term
a growth promoting climate requires
Definition
genuineness, acceptance, empthay. part of carl rogers person centered perspective
Term
the self concept is positive when
Definition
the ideal and actual self are nearly alike
Term
the chameleon effect
Definition
we are natural mimics. the most empathic people mimic the most
Term
mood linkage
Definition
we feel hapiers with happy people
Term
suggestibility is a subtle form of
Definition
conformity.. adjusting our behavior towards a groups standards
Term
normative social influence
Definition
reason for conforming. desire to gain approval or avoid disaproval.
Term
informational social influence
Definition
reaosn for conforming. group may provide valuable info, and only an uncommonly stubborn person will never listen to others.
Term
stanley milgrams
Definition
shocking experiement, teacher shocks actors
Term
obediance is highest when (according to milgrams experiement)
Definition
authority person was close, was seen as very authoritative, supported by an institution, victim depersonalized at a duistance, no role models for defienace.
Term
conformity and obediance tests found
Definition
experiements explroe underlying processes that shape the behaviors found. in any society, great evils sometime grow out of peoples compliance with lesser evils
Term
social facilitation
Definition
norman triplettm observed bike riders. improved performance in a task in presence of others, occures with simple or well learned tasks. msut already know how to do it
Term
norman triplett
Definition
observed bike riders, people are better at tasks when watched
Term
deindividuation
Definition
sometimes the presence of others both arouse people and dimish their sense of responsibility, become less self-conscious and less restrained in a group.
Term
group popularization
Definition
enhancements of a groups prevailing tendencies, occurs when people within a group discuss attitudes that most favor or oppose. internet provides new medium
Term
groupthink
Definition
yes sir for bay of pigs with kennedy, made my janis
Term
irving janis
Definition
groupthink
Term
minority influence
Definition
power of one or two indivuals to sway majorities
Term
prejudice mix of
Definition
beliefs (stereotypes) emotions, predispositions to action
Term
little hana
Definition
2 groups watch little girl taking IQ test, group who were told she's poor thought she would do bad before the video, and after the video said she did even worse because her questions were easy. opposite of rich little girl
Term
scapegoating
Definition
prejudice may express anger, to boost our sense of status it helps to have other denigrate
Term
vivid cases
Definition
we often judge frequency of events by instances that readily come to mind and therefore influence our judgements of a group.
Term
just-world phenomenma
Definition
reflects idea that good is reward and bad is punished. hindsight bias is a factor (blaming the victim)
Term
agreesion is facilitated by
Definition
neural systems, not one spot in the brain. but frontal lobe system serves to inhibit aggression
Term
aversive events
Definition
being blocked short of a goal increases peoples readiness to aggress, frustration-agression princuiple
Term
frustration-aggresion principle..
Definition
part of aversion events.. frustrates creates anger, which in some people generates aggression, espesially in presence of aggressive cue (gun)
Term
rape myth
Definition
victims fight at first and then enjoy
Term
miss attribution
Definition
bridge test.. men on steady bride more likely to ask woman out.
2 groups shot with epridefrin.2nd group not told. emotion picked up from person in room,
Term
emotion =
Definition
arousak +label
label is person youre with
Term
fear
Definition
the most widely recognized emotion in picture tests. also anger. fight or flight.. survival of the fittest
Term
amygala
f
Definition
key to fear, limbis center in brain
Term
freud
Definition
started with hypmosis, free association, unconsciousm free association, childhood sexuality shapes influence personality,
Term
collective unconscious
Definition
common reservoir of images derived from our specues universal ideas. neo fruedian. psychodinamic theorists
Term
maslow and rogers
Definition
humanistic! environment
Term
growth promoting climate requires
Definition
geniuneness, acceptance, empathy
Term
congruent
Definition
when ideal self amd actual self are alike
Term
myer briggs type indicator (MPTT)
Definition
classifies people according to yungs personality types
Term
factor analysis
Definition
statisical procedure used to classify clusters of bahaviors which refkect a basic fctor or trait
Term
minnesote multiphasic personality inventory MMPI
Definition
most wuidely used personality test. imperically devised(developed by testing pool of items then selecting what discriminates between groups, uses math not theory. accesses abnormal traits. addresses faking answers!
Term
big 5 factors
Definition
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion
Term
barnum effect
Definition
It is the tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.
Term
bandura
Definition
social cognitive perspective.. emphasizes interaction of persons with our situations, what we think effects iyr behavior, focus on how we and our environment interact. recipricol determinism
Term
recipricol determination
Definition
our bahavior influences and is influenced by environment. bandura
Term
external locus of control
Definition
rotter. perseption that chance or outside force effects fate
Term
internal locus of control
Definition
rotter. believe we create our own destiny
Term
learned helplessness
Definition
seligman. the hopelessness and passive resignation a human learms when unable to avoid unpleasent (aversive) events
Term
attributional style
Definition
how you explain neg and pos events
Term
negative attribution style
Definition
pessimism follows this. attribute poor performances to their lack of ability or to situations enduringly beyond control
Term
spotlight effect
Definition
overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performances, blunders.
Term
attribution theory
Definition
connect behaviors or feelings to something else, intelligence, weather, ext
Term
fundamental attribution error
Definition
we overestimate influence of personality and underestimate influence of situation. works for when describing others, not ourselves
Term
central route to persuasion
Definition
people naturall analytical or involved
Term
peripheral route
Definition
people respond to incidential cues.. such as attractiveness
Term
foot in door phenomena
Definition
tendency for people who agee to a small action to comply kater with a larger one
Term
zimbardo
Definition
prison study
Term
cognitive dissondance
Definition
relief from tension. wyhen we are aware that our attitudes and actions dont coincide. inconsistant traits
Term
pg 681 experiment
Definition
Term
obediance highest when
Definition
authority figure, supported by institution, victim depersonalized by distance, no role models for defieance
Term
social facilitation
Definition
improved performance around others
Term
deindividualization
Definition
everyone else does it, i will too
Term
group polarization
Definition
people make more extreme statements or thoughts when with a group
Term
ingroup vs outgroup
Definition
we are ingroup. them is the outgroup. bias for ones own group.
outgroup the person feels the need to compete
ingroup person feels comfortable
Term
love is
Definition
passion, intemicy, commitment. passion greatest at first
Term
MISATTRIBUTION
Definition
brigde experiment
Term
kitty genovese
Definition
yelled for help, no one came to rescue, bystander effect!
Term
altruism
Definition
unselfish regard for others. prosocial behavior!
Term
social exchange theory
Definition
maximize rewards, minimize costs. you help for rewards
Term
fundamental attribution error, drive carefully experiement,
Definition
Term
reciprocity norm
Definition
expectation that we should return help, not harm, so we will get it back. help those who help us
Term
social responsibility norm
Definition
help those who need help, even if there are costs
Term
social traps
Definition
do something good for the moment that hurts the group later on. take money from church
Term
form mirror-image perceptions
Definition
we we see them, as untrustworthy and evil intentioned, so they see us
Term
subordinant goals
Definition
shared goals that can override differences and can be achieved only through cooperation
Term
GRIT graduated and reciprocated intiatives in tension reduction
Definition
from modest beginnings, door for reciprocity by other party opened