Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Psych 242 Midterm
psych242
73
Psychology
10/13/2009

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Qualitative Research
Definition
A holistic approach that is conducted in a natural setting. It focuses on an entire phenomenon, subculture, or culture. The goal of this approach is to develop a complete description of the behavior of interest.
Term
Descriptive Methods
Definition
Research methods that do not involve the manipulation of factors or variables by the researcher. The reseracher may collect data from archives and other previously recorded sources, case studies, and clinical observation.
Term
Correlational Studies
Definition
A mathematical approach that studies the strength of the relation between two factors or variables of interest.
Term
Surveys, Questionnaires, Tests, and Inventories
Definition
An approach that researchers use to assess attitudes, thoughts, emotions, and feelings
Term
Ex Post Facto Studies
Definition
As the name indicates, the factors or variables of resarch interest are studies. "after the fact." (ex post facto)
Term
Experiments
Definition
an attempt to determine the cause-and-effect relations that exist in nature. This approach involves the manipulation of an independent variable (IV), recording of changes in a dependent variable (DV), and control of extraneous variables.
Term
Componenets of the Research Process
Definition
Problem, Literature Review, Theorectical Considerations, Hypothesis, Research Plan, Conducting the Project, Analysis of Research Findings, Decisions in Terms of Past Research and Theory, Preparation of the Research Report, Sharing your results: presentation and publication, Finding a new problem
Term
Theory
Definition
A formal statement of the realations among the variables in an given area of resarch
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
An attempt to organize certain data and specific relations among variables within a specific portion of a larger, more comprehensive theory
Term
Research or experimental hypothesis
Definition
The experimenter's predicted outcome of a research project
Term
Resarch Design
Definition
The general plan for conducting research and gathering data
Term
Research Idea
Definition
identification of a gap in the knowledge base or an unanswered question in an area of interest
Term
Important characteristics of research idea
Definition
Testable, Likelihood of success (the closer our prject comes to approximating reality, the greater the likelihood of success)
Term
Two general sources of research ideas
Definition
Nonsystematic and systematic research ideas
Term
Nonsystematic sources
Definition
Sources for research ideas that present themselves in an unpredictable manner; a concerted attempt to locate researdchable ideas has not been made.
Term
Major nonsystematic sources of research ideas
Definition
Inspiration, Serendipity, and Everyday occurrences
Term
Systematic Sources
Definition
Thoroughly examined, carefully thought-out sources for research topics
Term
Common examples of systematic sources for research ideas
Definition
Past Research, Theory, and Classroom Lectures
Term
Steps in Conducting a search of the literature
Definition
Selection of Index Terms (Thesaurus of psychological index terms), computerized search of the literature (PsychINFO), obtaining relevant publications, integrating the results of the literature search
Term
Evaluating Internet Research
Definition
Authority, Accuracy, Objectivity, Currency, and Coverage
Term
Nuremberg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical aspects of research:
Definition
Participants should consent to participate in research, participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research prject, risks should be avoided whenever possible, participants should be protected against risks to the greatest extent possible, projects should be conducted by scientifically qualified personnel, participants have the right to discontinue participation at any time
Term
Participants at risk
Definition
Participants in an experiment that places them under some type of physical or emotional risk
Term
Participants at minimal risk
Definition
Participants in an experiment that does not place them under physical or emotional risk
Term
Debriefing Session
Definition
The time at the conclusion of an experiment when its nature and purpose are explained to participants.
Term
Guidelines for effective debriefing
Definition
-Researchers integrity must be conveyed
-Researcher should reassure the participants if deception was used that it doesn't mean they're low in intelligence
-Process should be slow
-Return participants to original state
-Repeat guarantees of confidentiality and anonymity
-conduct immediately following experimental session
Term
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Definition
The university committee that is responsbile for determining whether a proposed research project conforms to accepted ethical standards.
Term
Descriptive Research Methods
Definition
Research methods that do not inolve the manipulation of an independent variable
Term
Types of Descriptive Methods
Definition
Archival and previously recorded sources of data or Naturalistic Observation
Term
Naturalistic Observation
Definition
Seeking answers to research questions by observing behavior in the real world
Term
Reactance or reactivity Effect
Definition
The finding that participants respond differently when they know they are being observed
Term
Hawthorne Effect
Definition
another name for reactance or reactivity effect (named after Hawthorne plant where the workers were observed to observe light and productivity)
Term
Time Sampling
Definition
making observations at different time periods in order to obtain a more representative sampling of the behavior of interest.
Term
Situation Sampling
Definition
observing the same behavior in different situations. allows the researcher to determine whether the behavior in question changes as a function of the context in which you observed it and allows you to determine whether the behavior in question changes as a function of the context in which you observed it
Term
Interobserver Reliability
Definition
The extent to which observers agree (low interobserver reliability indicates that the observers disagree about the behaviors they observed; high interobserver reliability indicates agreement.
Term
Correlational Study
Definition
involves the measurement and determination of the relation between two variables. a correlational study is likely to be more rigorous than one of the descriptive methods we've just considered
Term
Descriptive Survey
Definition
seeks to determind the percentage of the population that has a certain characteristic, holds a particular opinion, or engages in a particular behavior
Term
Analytic Survey
Definition
seeks to determine the relevant variables, and how they are related
Term
Pilot Testing
Definition
Preliminary, exploratory testing that is done prior to the complete research project
Term
Validity
Definition
The extent to which a test or inventory measures what it is supposed to measure
Term
Content Validity
Definition
The extent to which test items actually represent the type of material they are supposed to represent
Term
Interrater Reliability
Definition
Degree of agreement among judges concerning the content validity of test or inventory items
Term
Concurrent Validity
Definition
Degree to which the score on a test or inventory corresponds with another measure of the designated trait
Term
Criterion Validity
Definition
Established by comparing the score on a test or inventory with a future score on another test or inventory
Term
Reliability
Definition
Extent to which a test or inventory is consistent in its evaluation of the same individuals
Term
Test-retest procedure
Definition
the test is simply given a second time and the scores from the two tests are compared; the greater the similarity, the higher the reliability
Term
Split-half technique
Definition
determination of reliability by dividing the test or inventory into two subtests and then comparing the scores made on the two halves
Term
Population
Definition
the complete set of individuals
Term
Sample
Definition
a group that is selected to represent the population
Term
Random Sample
Definition
a sample in which every member of the population has an equal liklihood of being included
Term
Stratified Random Sampling
Definition
random samples are drawn from specific subpopulations or strata of the general population
Term
Single-strata approach
Definition
gathering data from a single stratum of the population of interest
Term
Cross-sectional research
Definition
Comparison of two or more groups during the same, rather limited, time period
Term
Longitudinal research project
Definition
obtaining research data from the same group of participants over an extended period of time
Term
Cohort
Definition
a group of individuals born during the same time period
Term
Experiment
Definition
an attempt to determine the cause-and-effect relations that exist in nature. Involves the manipulation of an independent variable (IV), recording of changes in a dependent variable (DV), and control of extraneous variables
Term
Cause-and-effect
Definition
unless we have directly manipulated an IV, we cannot really learn anything about cause and effect in our research project
Term
Research or Experimental Hypothesis
Definition
the experimenter's predicted outcome of a research project
Term
Synthetic Statement
Definition
Statements that can be either true or false (ex: Abused children ahve lower self-esteem because there is a chance that it is true or false)
Term
Analytic Statement
Definition
Statements that are always true (ex: I am making an A or I am not making an A)
Term
Contradictory Statement
Definition
Statements that are always false. (EX: I am making an A and I am not making an A)
Term
General Implication Form
Definition
statement of the research hypothesis in an "if...then" form. Regardless of how the research hypothesis is stated, it must be restatable in general implication form.
Term
Principle of Falsifiability
Definition
Results not in accord with the research hypothesis are taken as evidence that this hypothesis is false
Term
Inductive Logic
Definition
Reasoning that proceeds from specific cases to general conclusions or theories. involved in the construction of theories.
Term
Deductive Logic
Definition
Reasoning that proceeds from general theories to specific cases. the reasoning process we use in formulating our research hypothesis
Term
Directional Research Hypothesis
Definition
when our research hypothesis specifies the outcome of the experiment
Term
Nondirectional Research Hypothesis
Definition
a research hypothesis that does not predict the exact directional outcome of an experiment: it simply predicts that the groups we are testing will differ
Term
Operational Definition
Definition
Defining the independent, dependent, and extraneous variables in terms of the operations needed to produce them.
Term
Types of IVs
Definition
Physiological IV (physiological state of participant that is manipulated), Experience IV, Stimulus or environmental IV
Term
Nuisance Variables
Definition
Unwanted variables that can cause the variability of scores within groups to increase
Term
Ways to control extraneous variables
Definition
randomization, elimination, constancy, balancing, and countebalancing
Term
Type 1 Error
Definition
Accepting the experimental hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true
Term
Type II Error
Definition
Accepting the null hypothesis when the experimental hypothesis is true
Term
Experimental Design
Definition
The general plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to experimental conditions, controlling extraneous variables, and gathering data