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PSY206 Chapter 18
Psychosocial Development in Late Adulthood
100
Psychology
03/28/2008

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

Individuals from more recent cohorts show more flexibility in old age than people from previous generations.

 

True or False?

Definition

 

 

True!

Term

 

 

 Although there is a common belief that older adults tend to be depressed, research suggests that older adults actually feel what?

Definition

 

 

More Content and Satisfied

Term

 

 

 

A longitudinal study of older adults demonstrated that negative emotions such  as boredom, loneliness, and unhappiness decreased after what age?

Definition

 

 

 

age 60

Term

 

Older adults who reported higher levels of positive emotion and retained their positivity are those considered to have which personality?

Definition

 

 

 

Extrovert

Term

 

 

Older adults who are overanxious and restless and who seem to complain and have negative affect are likely to have which personality? 

Definition

 

 

Neurotic

Term

According to Erikson, persons in late adulthood are in which crisis?

Definition

 

 

 

ego integrity versus despair

Term

 

 

 June is 75 years old and is examining her life in order to accept her approaching death. 

Which stage of development describes June?
Definition

 ego integrity versus despair stage

Term

 

 

What is the virtue gained during Erikson’s final stage?

Definition

 

 

 

Wisdom

Term

 

 

According to Erickson, wisdom includes acceptance of death, as well as imperfections in one's self and who else?

                            
Definition

 

 

 

one's parents

Term

 

When 80-year-old Monty is asked about his life, he states that he knows he has lived life as well as he could and that he loves his deceased parents despite all faults.

 

According to Erikson, what virtue has Monty developed?

Definition

 

 

 

Wisdom

Term

 

 

According to Erikson’s theory, people who successfully resolve the final crisis can overcome what?

Definition

 

 

 

Despair

Term

 

 

What is the ability to adapt thinking and behavior to reduce or relieve stress that arises from harmful, threatening, and challenging conditions is referred to as?

Definition

 

 

 

Coping

Term

 

 

Name 3 mature adaptive defenses that the Grant Study determined to be important factors in predicting emotional heath at age 65.

Definition

 

   A. altruism

 

B. humor

 

       C. sublimation

Term

 

 

What is the process of adapting to harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions?

Definition

 

 

Coping

Term

David has had trouble getting into his apartment building because the steps are too steep. He makes several complaints to the owner of the building until finally the owner installs a ramp, making entry easier.

What style of coping is this?

Definition

 

 

 

problem-focused style of coping

Term

 

     Delores wishes she could see her grandchildren more often, but they live on the other side of the country.

To help herself feel better, Delores volunteers at a day care center so she can be around small children.

What style of coping is this?

Definition

 

 

the emotion-focused style of coping

Term

 

 

Is emotion-focused coping used more by older or younger adults?

Definition

 

 

older adults

 

Term

 

 

 

According to the text, who has the most flexible coping strategy?

Definition

 

 

 

elderly adults

Term

What are the three most frequently reported coping strategies with which older people cope with stressful events?

Definition

A. keeping busy

B. accepting situations that cannot be changed

C. religious faith

Term

 

The loss of a loved one to Alzheimer’s disease, the loss of a child to drug addition, and the loss of a homeland are all examples of what kind of loss, according to Pauline Boss?

Definition

 

 

Ambiguous loss

Term

 

 

What person is most likely to show a strong correlation between religious activity and well being?

 

Definition

 

 

 

an African American  woman, age 85

Term

Successful or optimal aging has been measured using all of the following criteria: 

cardiovascular functioning and cognitive performance,

productivity and longevity,

and a degree of what?

 

Definition

 

 

personal control retained in old age

Term

 

 

The question of whether people are well because they are active in late adulthood or active because they are well is a constant focus in studying which theory?

Definition

 

 

 

the activity theory

Term

 

 

Which theory says the normal way to age is to cut down in activities and commitments to others and to become increasingly preoccupied with the self?

Definition

 

 

 

disengagement theory

Term

 

 

Dan, age 78, has reduced his social commitments, is slowing down, and is focusing on his own needs. He is aging successfully, according to which theory? 

Definition

 

 

 

the disengagement theory

Term

 

 

What theory holds that people age most successfully by remaining involved in as many roles as possible and finding substitutes for lost roles?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Activity theory

Term

Cathy, after retiring from teaching school, rechanneled her energy into serving on the boards of directors for both a senior center and a historical foundation. She also volunteered for “meals on wheels.”

Which activity theory is she following?

Definition

 

 

 

 

activity theory of successful aging

Term

 

 

 

Which theory of successful aging suggests that older adults should continue to do what they have been doing as long as they find that activity satisfying?

Definition

 

 

 

continuity theory

Term

 

 

 

According to Atchley’s continuity theory, the most desirable pattern of development in later life is for older people to welcome some change but also do what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

maintain links with the past

Term

 

 

 

Which coping method's success depends on having goals to guide development and resources to make the goals potentially achievable?

Definition

 

 

 

 

selective optimization and compensation

Term

 

 

 

According to Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, the most important psychological function of social interaction in old age is what?

Definition

 

 

emotional support

Term

 

  

A study that analyzed styles of aging found all of the following:

A. most older people who have aged successfully remained active,

B. less active lifestyles are also associated with successful aging,

and what else? 

Definition

 

 

 

 

 different personality types react to aging in a variety of ways

Term

 

 

 

According to the research of Carstensen, “the most reliable finding in social gerontology” is that older people tend to reduce what? 

Definition

 

 

 

their social contacts

Term

 

 

What is the most crucial lifestyle decision people make as they approach late adulthood?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Whether and when to retire

Term

 

 

 

 

When did the concept of retirement become widespread?

Definition

 

 

  

during the early twentieth century

Term

 

 

 

Why did retirement at age 65 eventually became almost universal?

Definition

 

 

 

Primarily because of the social security system

Term

 

 

 

A noted gerontologist is giving a lecture titled “How to Age Successfully.”  What would the audience be least likely to hear?

Definition

 

 

 

Don’t get too involved in childcare.  

 

Term

 

 

 

What 3 choices about working are available to older adults?

Definition

 

 

 

A. early retirement

                                   B. retiring from one career to start another

   C. working part-time

Term

Compared to younger workers, the typical older workers are more what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

responsible

Term

 

 

 

Older workers have more experience than younger workers,

they are absent from work less than younger workers,

and they are more what?

Definition

 

 

 

loyal

Term

 

 

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1986) protects most workers age 40 and older from what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

being denied a job, fired, paid less, or forced to retire because of age

Term

 

 

 

Older adult workers have been found to be better educated than those that retire, as well as being what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

in good health

Term

 

   The Plitton Company tries to hire people that are close to retirement age, because they've found older people are:

slower, but are more accurate;

      frugal with both time and materials;

and they have what kind of work habits?

 

Definition

 

 

 

 

more careful, dependable, and responsible

Term

 

In a study commissioned by the United States Congress, findings about older workers demonstrated that job performance were not best predicted by age, but by what?

Definition

 

 

 

tests of specific abilities

Term

 

 

 

Since the turn of the century, the participation of older men in the workforce of the United States has decreased and the participation of older women has ________.

Definition

 

 

 increased

Term

 

 

 

Since the late 1960’s the proportion of U.S. older adults doing volunteer work has ________.

Definition

 

 

 

increased

Term

 

All of the following are problems faced by individuals who will be retiring early in the twenty-first century:

there are too few younger workers contributing to Social Security; there is uncertainty about how well private pension funds will perform;

and  what problem specific to women?

Definition

 

 

 

women often will receive smaller pensions than men

Term

 

 

 

What is a key predictor of positive morale after retirement for both men and women?

Definition

 

 

 

workers’ satisfaction in their jobs before retirement

Term

 

 

 

Approximately what percentage of older adults has done volunteer work or community service during the past year?

Definition

 

 

 

57%

Term

 A pattern of retirement activity that is found in well-educated older adults who seem to allocate their time equally among family, work, and leisure is referred to as what kind of lifestyle?

Definition

 

 

 

a balanced investment lifestyle

Term

 

 

Dan and Diane are retirees who spend much of their time visiting family and friends, watching television, and going to inexpensive restaurants with friends.

 

What kind of retirement lifestyle is this?

Definition

 

 

 

a family-focused retirement lifestyle

Term

 

 

Ellen, who is recently retired from her job as a nurse, now devotes most of her time to making furniture, something she has always wanted to do.

What kind of retirement lifestyle is this?
Definition

 

 

 

a serious leisure retirement lifestyle

Term

 

 

Since the late 1960s, has the proportion of older adults doing volunteer work increased or decreased?

Definition

 

 

 

increased greatly

Term

 

 

 

What is the single largest source of income for older people in the United States?

Definition

 

 

 

Social Security

Term

 

 

What number out of ten older Americans receives social security benefits? 

Definition

 

 

 

 

9

Term

 

 

Who are most likely to be poor in late adulthood?

 

Definition

 

 

 

black women

Term

 

 Many older people in the United States are poor for the first time in their lives, for all of the following reasons:

 they are unable to work,

 inflation has eroded their savings and pensions,

 and they have what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Soaring medical bills

Term

 

 

Proposed adjustments in the United States’ Social Security  program include all of the following:

privatization,

raising the income cap,

and raising what else?

Definition

 

 

 

retirement age

Term

 

 

 Who do most older Americans live with?

 

Definition

 

 

 

spouse, children, or other relatives

Term

 

 

 

How many out of ten older people own their homes, and prefer to live  there even  after they are widowed?

Definition

 

 

 

 

8

Term

 

 

 

What is the most desired living arrangement by the majority of elderly Americans?

Definition

 

 

 

Aging in place

Term

 

 

 

What is the single most important factor that enables older adults to live in their own homes instead of in institutions?

Definition

 

 

 

 

being married

Term

 

 

Among those 75 and over, what percentage of women live alone?

Definition

 

 

 

50%

Term

All of the following reasons have been cited to explain the growth of elderly single-person households:

 increased old-age benefits,

reverse mortgage programs,

and what else?

Definition

 

 

 

long-term care policies that discourage institutional living

Term

 

Families seem to make the assumption that when older adults live alone they  are lonely, but what 3 other factors also play a significant role in whether or not a loved one will be vulnerable to loneliness?

Definition

A. personality traits of the older adult.

 B. the physical health of the person that is living alone.

C. the depletion of a person’s social network.

 

Term

 

 

 One of the reasons that older adults do not want to be absorbed into their children’s households is  that  they will be isolated from who?

 

 

Definition

 

 

 

their friends

Term

 

 

The older adults most likely to be institutionalized are those who have overburdened their busy families with what?

Definition

 

 

 

their poor health and disabilities

Term

 

 

 

Approximately what percentage of Americans over 85 years old lives in nursing homes?

Definition

 

 

18%

Term

 

 

The following features are desirable in a nursing home:

A. privacy for social activity

B. opportunities for socialization

C. a full range of what?

Definition

 

 

 

social and therapeutic services

Term

 

 

 

What element is MOST important in a good nursing home?

Definition

 

 

 

opportunity for residents to make decisions

Term

 

 

 Residents in intermediate-care nursing homes who had higher self-esteem, less depression, and a greater sense of satisfaction with their lives were more likely than others to adjust well and be less likely to do what?

Definition

 

 

 

to die within four years

Term

 

 

 

What is the fastest-growing form of housing for the elderly in the United States?

Definition

 

 

The Assisted-living facility

Term

 

 

What is the form of elder abuse in which a frail or ill old person is abandoned called?

Definition

 

 

 

 

granny dumping

Term

 

 

 According to the text, elder abuse involves what 3 types of abuse?

 

Definition

 

 

 

neglect, physical abuse & emotional abuse  

Term

 

 

Neglect or physical or psychological abuse of dependent older persons is  most likely to be committed by who?

Definition

 

 

 

 

a caregiver-spouse

Term

 

 

 

What older person would be most likely to be abused to the point of injury?

Definition

 

 

 

very old, infirm woman living with her husband

Term

 

 

 

What are close friends and family members upon whom older people can rely for social support and well-being called?

Definition

 

 

 

social convoys

Term

 

 

 

Who most likely wants to get to know new and interesting people?

Definition

 

 

 

a young adult in good health

Term

 

 

 

Clara has recently lost her spouse. To help her maintain satisfaction in life after this trauma, what is it very important that Clara’s family and friends do?

Definition

 

 

 

 provide emotional support

 

Term

 

Now that multigenerational families are beginning to span five generations, many of the “over 60” family members are caregivers to parents for a  longer time than they did what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

cared for their children

Term

 

 

The Hispanic Americans culture demonstrates a lineal, or Inter-generational obligation, which means that power and authority is held by who?

Definition

 

 

 

older generations

Term

 

 

 

African Americans and Irish Americans, whose cultures have been marked by poverty, have household structures that are highly _______.

Definition

 

 

 

collateral

Term

 

 

 

What percent of marriages last for at least 50 years?

Definition

 

 

 

 

20%

Term

 

 

According to research cited in the text, couples who are still together in late adulthood are more likely than middle-aged couples to find what?

Definition

 

 

to find their marriage satisfying 

 

Term

 

The following are likely reasons why marital satisfaction of couples who are still together in late adulthood is greater:

    A. since divorce is relatively easy today, people who are still together have usually chosen to be together.

B. they have had more time to work out their difficulties.

and....

Definition

 

 

 

 

C. they may need to justify having remained married so long.

Term

 

 

 

Divorce in late life is _____.

Definition

 

 

 

 

Rare

Term

 

 

Men tend to be more satisfied in late-life remarriages than in what?

Definition

 

 

 

mid-life remarriages

Term

 

 

 

U.S. women ages 65 and over are how many times more likely than men of the same age to be widowed?

Definition

 

 

 

3 times

Term

 

 

 

Glenda, who is 74 years old, never married nor had children. What relationship would she probably find LEAST important to her?

Definition

 

 

 relationships with similarly aged men

 

Term

 

 

 

What percentage of U.S. men and women 65 years of age and older have never married?

 

Definition

 

 

 

4%

Term

 

Generalizing from the textbook: it could be concluded that in comparison with older people who have been married, “never marrieds” are more likely to be what?

Definition

 

 

 

independent

Term

 

 

Because of negative attitudes toward homosexuality throughout much of the twentieth century, many homosexuals’ self-concepts were shaped by the _______  _________; those born later tend to view their homosexuality as a status.

Definition

 

 

prevailing stigma

Term

 

 

 

What is a common problem for aging homosexuals?

Definition

 

 

 

poor relations with their family

Term

Friends are important because they are chosen by the person.

 

True or False?

Definition

 

 

True!

Term

 

 

Having friends in late adulthood is important because choosing friends gives one a sense of ______.

Definition

 

 

 

control

Term

 

Who do older people rely on in emergencies?

Definition

 

 

neighbors

Term

 

 

Elderly parents do not want to be a burden on their children or expect them to provide what?

Definition

 

 

financial help

Term

 

 

What does research suggest that elderly childless people regret?

Definition

 

 

not having children

Term

 

 

Sisters tend to be more _______ than brothers in late adulthood.

Definition

 

 

 

nurturant

Term

 

 

Grandparenting offers what 3 benefits to the family?

Definition

 

sense of renewal,

 

source of diversion,

 

mark of longevity