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PSY100 Exam 1
Modules 1-8
142
Psychology
09/19/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Wilhelm Wundt
Definition
begins psychological science with first lab and testing apparatus
Term
(Edward Titchner) introspection to explore elemental structure of the human mind
Definition
Sturcturalism
Term
(William James)how mental and behavioral processes function enabling an organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Definition
Fuctionalism
Term
Psychology is now defined as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.” The perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture is the ...
Definition
social-cultural perspective
Term
A prominent psychology text was published in 1890. Its author was
Definition
William James.
Term
The definition of psychology has changed several times since the late 1800s. In the early twentieth century, redefined psychology as “the science of observable behavior Name?
Definition
John B. Watson
Term
In the history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature and nurture. Nature is to nurture as
Definition
biology is to experience
Term
The behavioral perspective in psychology emphasizes observable responses and how they are acquired and modified. A behavioral psychologist would be most likely to study
Definition
the effect of school uniforms on classroom behaviors
Term
A psychologist who treats emotionally troubled adolescents at the local mental health agency is most likely to be a/an
Definition
clinical psychologist
Term
A psychologist who conducts basic research to expand psychology’s knowledge base would be most likely to
Definition
observe 3- and 6-year-old children solving puzzles and analyze differences in their abilities
Term
the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience
Definition
nature-nurture issue
Term
behaviorists
Definition
science is rooted in observation
Term
emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance
Definition
Humanistic psychology
Term
psychology
Definition
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Term
Wilhelm Wundt was both a ___________and ____________.
Definition
physiologist; philosopher
Term
In an experiment conducted by Professor Costa, the first task for participants is to press a button if they see a red light blink. For the second task, they press the rightmost button if they see a red light blink and the leftmost button if they see a green light blink. Professor Costa is studying the difference in the average lag times of these two tasks. This is similar to experiments conducted by which of the following early psychologists?
Definition
Wilhelm Wundt
Term
Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much LESS likely to focus on the study of:
Definition
thinking
Term
The field of psychology is a collection of diverse subfields. Psychologists who conduct ____________ research contribute by expanding the knowledge base of psychology, whereas others who conduct ____________ research explore practical problems.
Definition
basic; applied
Term
A focus on the different marriage rituals practiced by members of different ethnic groups is of most relevance to the ______________ perspective
Definition
social-cultural
Term
One way to develop a complete picture of any given behavior or mental process is to incorporate an integrated viewpoint that examines biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. This is also known as:
Definition
biopsychosocial approach
Term
basic research
Definition
builds psychology’s knowledge base
Term
research that tackles practical problems
Definition
applied
Term
psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders
Definition
clinical
Term
psychologists help people cope with challenges (including academic, vocational, and marital issues) by recognizing their strengths and resources
Definition
counseling
Term
often provide psychotherapy, are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
Definition
psychiatrists
Term
an acronym for its five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.
Definition
SQ3R
Term
A branch of medicine dealing with
psychological disorders; practiced by
physicians who provide medical (for
example drugs) treatments as well as
psychological therapy
Definition
Psychiatric
Term
Psychology tells us what we already know from common sense, say some skeptics. Hindsight bias refers to our tendency to
Definition
perceive events as obvious or inevitable after the fact
Term
As scientists, psychologists view theories with skepticism, humility, and curiosity. This means that they
Definition
persistently ask questions, and are willing to reject ideas that cannot be verified by research
Term
A newspaper article describes how a “cure for cancer has been found.” A critical thinker probably will
Definition
question the article, evaluate the evidence, and assess the conclusions.
Term
In psychology, a good theory implies hypotheses, or predictions that can be tested. When hypotheses are tested, the result is typically
Definition
confirmation or revision of the theory
Term
Psychologists use various research methods to observe and describe behaviors and mental processes. Which of the following would you use in an attempt to predict college grades from high school grades?
Definition
Correlational research
Term
Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of a/an
Definition
illusory correlation
Term
the factor being manipulated
Definition
independent variable
Term
Descriptive and correlational studies describe behavior, detect relationships, and predict behavior. But in order to begin to explain that behavior, psychologists use
Definition
experimentation
Term
laboratory environment is designed to
Definition
re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions
Term
T/F Despite some gender differences, the underlying processes of human behavior are the same
Definition
True
Term
known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
Definition
hindsight bias
Term
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Definition
critical thinking
Term
explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Definition
theory
Term
testable predictions produced by theory
Definition
hypothesis
Term
studying one individual in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all.
Definition
case study
Term
method looks at many cases in less depth and asks people to report their behavior or opinions
Definition
survey
Term
every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating
Definition
random sampling
Term
The survey method is different from case studies because
Definition
A. many people are included in the sample.
B. a representative sample is used.
C. self-reported attitudes and behaviors are ascertained.
Term
In science, the clearest way to isolate cause and effect is to conduct a(n):
Definition
experiment
Term
In an experiment, it is important that independent and dependent variables are given _______________, which specify procedures for manipulating the independent variable and measuring the dependent variable
Definition
precise operational definitions
Term
Although one goal of the case study method is to uncover universal principles, it is possible that the person being studied is so atypical that:
Definition
the findings lead to mistaken conclusions about the population of interest
Term
________________ is one phenomenon that illustrates why we should NOT rely on our intuition and common sense when trying to explain why people act, think, and feel the way they do
Definition
judgemental overcnfidence
Term
Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove:
Definition
causation
Term
When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief
Definition
illusionary correlation
Term
neither the participant nor the research assistant collecting the data knows whether the participant’s group is receiving the treatment
Definition
double blind procedure
Term
tendency to search for information that
confirms one’s preconceptions...
Definition
confirmation bias
Term
tendency to underestimate the
commonality of one’s abilities and one’s
desirable or successful behaviors
Definition
false uniqueness
Term
a recipe for conducting
research that progresses logically and
extends our knowledge base
Definition
scientific method
Term
Research Process? Steps 1-8
Definition
1.Establish Research Question
2.Develop theory
3.Derive Hypothesis
4.Design Research
5.Collect Data
6. Evaluate Data
7.INterpret data w/respect to theory
8.Replication-start over
Term
altering the phrasing of
questions can affect the answers
Definition
wording effects
Term
observing and recording behavior in the
natural environment, without
attempting to control or
manipulate the
situation
Definition
naturalistic
Term
researcher manipulates
one or more variables
to observe the effect
on some behavior
or mental process.
Definition
experiment
Term
inactive condition or substance
Definition
placebo
Term
automatic response to stimuli...
Definition
reflex
Term
parts of neurons
Definition
soma: cell body
nucleus: brain of cell
dendrites: sensors
axon: transmission
bouton: end of axon
myelin sheath: insulation
action potential: electric
impulse within a neuron
Term
are natural opiates released in response to pain and vigorous exercise
Definition
endorphins
Term
Axons carrying PNS information are bundled into the electrical cables we know as
Definition
nerves
Term
carry messages from the body’s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord, for processing
Definition
sensory neurons
Term
nervous systems that enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles
Definition
somatic
Term
nervous system that controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs, influencing such functions as glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestion
Definition
autonomic
Term
nervous system that arouses and expends energy
Definition
sympathetic
Term
nervous system that conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat, lowering your blood sugar, and so forth
Definition
parasympathetic
Term
an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain
Definition
spinal cord
Term
influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression
Definition
hormones
Term
gland that releases hormones that influence growth, and its secretions also influence the release of hormones by other endocrine glands.
Definition
pituitary
Term
hormones that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar, providing us with a surge of energy
Definition
adrenal glands
Term
In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating
Definition
growth
Term
In terms of their length of effect, endocrine messages are to ____________ as neural messages are to____________.
Definition
marble sculptures, sand castles
Term
Which of the following does the autonomic nervous system most directly control
Definition
bladder contractions (MUSCLES)
Term
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ___________ blood sugar levels and ___________ the pupils of the eyes
Definition
raises, dilates
Term
serves to fence out unwanted chemicals circulating in the blood
Definition
blood-brain barrier
Term
brain’s basement—its oldest and innermost region
Definition
brain stem
Term
Here lie the controls for your heartbeat and breathing
Definition
medula
Term
part just above medula that helps coordinate movements
Definition
pons
Term
brain’s sensory switchboard, a joined pair of egg-shaped structures
Definition
thalamus
Term
a finger-shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus
Definition
reticular formation
Term
enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory. It helps us judge time, modulate our emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures (Bower & Parsons, 2003). And it coordinates voluntary movement
Definition
cerebellum
Term
hippocampus
Definition
processes memory
Term
limbic system component that influences aggression and fear
Definition
amygdala
Term
part of limbic system that influences hunger; others regulate thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior;monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
a genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings
Definition
reward defifiency syndrome
Term
a thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells. It is your brain’s thinking crown, your body’s ultimate control and information-processing center
Definition
cerebral cortex
Term
an impaired use of language
Definition
aphasia
Term
brains ability to modify itself after some types of damage.
Definition
pascticity
Term
The nerve network that governs arousal is the
Definition
reticular formation
Term
The thalamus receives information from the sensory neurons and routes it to the higher brain regions that control the senses. The thalamus functions like a
Definition
switchboard
Term
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the
Definition
cerebellum
Term
The neural structure that most directly regulates eating, drinking, and body temperature is the
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
The motor cortex is the brain region that controls voluntary muscle movement. If a neurosurgeon stimulated your right motor cortex, you would most likely
Definition
move your left leg
Term
About three-fourths of the cerebral cortex is not committed to any specific sensory or motor function. The “uncommitted” areas are called
Definition
association areas
Term
Judging and planning are enabled by the
Definition
frontal lobes
Term
The area in the brain that, if damaged, might impair your ability to form words is
Definition
Broca's area
Term
The left hemisphere excels in
Definition
processing language
Term
Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to
Definition
recognize the emotional content of facial expressions
Term
electroencephalogram
Definition
records electrical activity
in the brain
Term
Brain activity results in telltale electrical signals that can be detected by a(n):
Definition
electroencephalogram
Term
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
Definition
irritability
Term
Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the _____________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
Definition
left cerbral hemisphere
Term
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan depicts brain activity by
Definition
detecting where radioactive forms of glucose are located during a given task
Term
The association areas of ______________ are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning
Definition
parietal lobe
Term
founder of modern
developmental
psychology
Definition
G. Stanley
Hall
Term
rooting reflex
Definition
tendency to open mouth, and search
for nipple when touched on the cheek
Term
withdrawal reflex
Definition
withdraw the hurt limb & extend
another one in an effort to push
away attacker
Term
gripping relfex
Definition
infants firmly grasp objects that
brush their hands/palms
Term
mental activities associated with
thinking, knowing, remembering, &
communicating
Definition
cognition
Term
a concept or framework that organizes and
interprets information
Definition
schema
Term
interpret experience based on our
schemas
Definition
assimilation
Term
modify current schema to accommodate
new information
Definition
accomodation
Term
mass, number, volume remain the
same despite changes in form
Definition
conservation
Term
master of psychosexaul
developmental
theory
Definition
Sigmund Freud
Term
the study of our lifelong physical, mental, and social development
Definition
developmental psychology
Term
The most immediate and direct function of the rooting reflex is the facilitation of
Definition
food consumption
Term
Research shows that an infant only a few weeks old will suck more vigorously when she
Definition
hears her mothers familiar voice
Term
During an experiment, newborn infants were found to turn their heads in the direction of human voices. These same infants would likely prefer to look at face-like images (as opposed to a bull's-eye pattern) and at objects about 8-12 inches away, which is the same distance between a nursing infant's eyes and its mother's eyes. These findings suggest:
infants prefer
Definition
sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness
Term
An infant is most likely to be at risk for mental retardation if her mother is
Definition
heavy drinker
Term
harmful agents such as certain viruses and drugs
Definition
teratogen
Term
Developmental researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to believe in __________; those who emphasize biological maturation tend to believe in __________.
Definition
continuity; stages
Term
Although development is lifelong, there is stability of personality over time. For example
Definition
temperament tends to remain stable throughout life.
Term
proposed that all children pass through four discrete, age-linked stages of cognitive development, each stage with its own specific conceptual (thinking) abilities.
Definition
Jean Piaget
Term
proposed that all children pass through four discrete, age-linked stages of cognitive development, each stage with its own specific conceptual (thinking) abilities.
Definition
Jean Piaget
Term
zygotes
Definition
fertilized eggs
Term
Freuds 4 stages of development
Definition
1. oral
2. anal
3. phallic
4. latency
5. genital
Term
orderly sequence of biological growth processes
Definition
maturation
Term
refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Definition
cognition
Term
concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences
Definition
schemas
Term
the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
Definition
conservation
Term
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
Definition
sense of object permanence
Term
_______________ refers to people's ideas about their own and others' mental states; that is, how feelings, perceptions, or thoughts might predict behavior
Definition
theory of mind
Term
_____________ is to our understanding of children's cognitive development as _____________ is to our understanding of our solar system
Definition
Piaget; Copernicus
Term
Hussein is concerned because he cannot remember events from before he was about 4 years old. What is the most likely cause for this infantile amnesia?
Definition
A. His memories were organized differently after he turned 3 or 4.
B. His maturing cortex allowed him to gain a sense of self he didn't have before he was 4.
C. His maturing cortex increased his long-term storage after age 4.
D.** All of these things contribute to infantile amnesia.
Term
The process of attachment occurs during a brief developmental phase known as
Definition
critical period
Term
parents impose rules & expect
obedience
Definition
authoritarian
Term
submit to children’s desires, make
few demands, use little punishment
Definition
permissive
Term
authoritative
Definition
both demanding and responsive