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PSY-140
Jackson College PSY-140
198
Psychology
10/06/2013

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their:

A. Culture
B. Normal Curve
C. Wording Effects
D. Statistical Significance
Definition
A. Culture
Term
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier study with different participants and in different countries.

A. Replication
B. Random Sampling
C. Naturalistic Observation
D. The Double-blind Procedure
Definition
A. Replication
Term
Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

A. Correlation Coefficient
B. Standard Deviation
C. Range
D. Mean
Definition
A. Correlation Coefficient
Term
Psychologists' personal values and goals...

A. Are carefully tested by means of observation and experimentation.
B. Lead them to avoid experiments involving human participants.
C. Can bias their observations and interpretations
D. Have very little influence on the process of scientific observation.
Definition
C. Can bias their observations and interpretations
Term
To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which research method did this illustrate?

A. The case study
B. Naturalistic observation
C. The double-blind study
D. The survey
Definition
B. Naturalistic observation
Term
The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the:

A. Normal curve
B. Median
C. Mean
D. Range
Definition
C. Mean
Term
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces and of the same effects as the drug is called:

A. Placebo
B. Median
C. Case Study
D. Replication
Definition
A. Placebo
Term
Psychological differences between the genders are:

A. Of little interest to contemporary psychologists
B. Simply reflections of biological differences between the sexes
C. No longer evident in contemporary Western societies
D. Far outweighed by gender similarities
Definition
D. Far outweighed by gender similarities
Term
A hypothesis is a(n):

A. Observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables
B. Testable prediction that gives direction to research
C. Set of principles that organizes observations and explains newly discovered facts
D. Unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning
Definition
B. Testable prediction that gives direction to research
Term
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as:

A. The survey
B. Experimentation
C. Naturalistic Observation
D. The case study
Definition
C. Naturalistic Observation
Term
When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to:

A. Determine whether it is statistically significant
B. Consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases
C. Be sure that it describes an experimental group
D. Recognize the potential for a correlation coefficient
Definition
B. Consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases
Term
University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as:

A. Naturalistic Observation
B. The double-blind procedure
C. The Standard Deviation
D. The Case Study
Definition
A. Naturalistic Observation
Term
Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ____ standard deviation(s) from the mean.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 5
Definition
B. 2
Term
The fact that the same individual won the New Jersey lottery on two separate occasions best illustrates:

A. A random outcome
B. The double-blind procedure
C. The placebo effect
D. The hindsight bias
Definition
A. A random outcome
Term
The biggest danger of relying on case study evidence is that it:

A. Is based on naturalistic observation
B. May be unrepresentative of what is generally true
C. Overestimates the importance of operational definitions
D. Leads us to underestimate the casual relationships between events
Definition
B. May be unrepresentative of what is generally true
Term
which research method assesses how well one variable predicts another without demonstrating a cause and effect relationship between the two variables?

A. Naturalistic observation
B. Correlation research
C. The case study
D. The experimental method
Definition
B. Correlation research
Term
Correlation research is most useful for purposes of:

A. Explanation
B. Prediction
C. Control
D. Replication
Definition
B. Prediction
Term
The symmetric bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a:

A. Bar graph
B. Normal curve
C. Correlation
D. Scatterplot
Definition
B. Normal curve
Term
The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable:

A. Assumptions
B. Correlations
C. Predictions
D. Variables
Definition
C. Predictions
Term
Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean?

A. 16
B. 32
C. 68
D. 95
Definition
C. 68
Term
Critical thinking is smart thinking that involves:

A. Debriefing
B. Case Study
C. Evaluating Evidence
D. Informed Consent
Definition
C. Evaluating Evidence
Term
A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and the median is said to be:

A. Statistically significant
B. A random sample
C. A scatter plot
D. Skewed
Definition
D. Skewed
Term
Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are:

A. Pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity
B. Ingenuity, practicality, and certainty
C. Certainty, creativity, and curiosity
D. Curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Definition
D. Curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Term
The mean of a distribution of scores is the:

A. Most occurring score
B. Arithmetic average of all the scores
C. Least frequently occurring score
D. Score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores
Definition
B. Arithmetic average of all the scores
Term
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate:

A. Facts from theories
B. Causes from effects
C. Case studies from surveys
D. Random samples from representative samples
Definition
B. Causes from effects
Term
A statistically significant difference between two sample groups is NOT likely to be:

A. A reflection of differences between the populations they represent
B. Due to chance variation within and between the sample groups
C. Observed more than 5 percent of the time the groups are compared
D. Observed when the two groups are very large
Definition
B. Due to chance variation within and between the sample groups
Term
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample or research participants in order to ensure that:

A. The participants are representative or the population they are interested in studying
B. There will be a large number of participants in the research study
C. The study will not be influenced by the researcher's personal values
D. The same number of participants will be assigned to each of the experimental conditions
Definition
A. The participants are representative or the population they are interested in studying
Term
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a:

A. Wording effect
B. Correlation coefficient
C. Placebo Effect
D. Confounding variable
Definition
D. Confounding variable
Term
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:

A. Dismiss the value of replication
B. reject and ideas that can't be scientifically tested
C. Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome
D. Overestimate the extent to which other share their opinions
Definition
C. Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome
Term
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors:

A. Vary together
B. Are random samples
C. Influence each other
D. Show statistical significance
Definition
A. Vary together
Term
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor and observe its effect on same behavior or mental processes?

A. The survey
B. The case study
C. Experimentation
D. Naturalistic observation
Definition
C. Experimentation
Term
Random assignment minimizes ____ between experimental and control groups. Random sampling minimizes _____ between a sample and a population.

A. Similarities....differences
B. Differences....similarities
C. Similarities....similarities
D. Differences....differences
Definition
D. Differences....differences
Term
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes:

A. Obtain written promises from participants to respond honestly
B. Treat information about individual participants confidentially
C. Deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment
D. Allow people to decide for themselves whether they want to participate in an experiment
Definition
C. Deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment
Term
An axon is:

A. A cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system.
B. A layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons
C. An antagonist molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites
D. The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Definition
D. The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Term
Neural networks refer to:

A. The branching extensions of a neuron
B. Interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
C. Neural cables containing many axons
D. Junctions between sending and receiving neurons
Definition
B. Interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
Term
Oxytocin is secreted by the:

A. Pancreas
B. Thyroid Gland
C. Pituitary Gland
D. Adrenal Gland
Definition
C. Pituitary Gland
Term
The association areas are located in the:

A. Brainstem
B. Thalamus
C. Limbic system
D. Cerebral Cortex
Definition
D. Cerebral Cortex
Term
One function of glial cells is to:

A. Control heartbeat and breathing
B. Mimic the effects of neurotransmitters
C. Provide nutrients to interneurons
D. Stimulate the production of hormones
Definition
C. Provide nutrients to interneurons
Term
The hypothalamus influences the ____ to send messages to the ____.

A. Cerebellum...amygdala
B. pituitary...endocrine glands
C. motor neurons...sensory neurons
D. thalamus...angular gyrus
Definition
B. pituitary...endocrine glands
Term
A synapse is a(n):

A. Chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions
B. automatic response to sensory input
C. junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
D. Neural cable containing many axons
Definition
C. junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
Term
The parasympathetic nervous system:

A. stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat
B. Inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat
C. Stimulates digestion and accelerates heartbeat
D. Inhibits digestion and slows heartbeat
Definition
A. stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat
Term
Addictive disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the:

A. Thalamus
B. Cerebellum
C. Reticular formation
D. Limbic system
Definition
D. Limbic system
Term
The amygdala consists of emotion-linked neural clusters in the:

A. frontal lobes
B. Reticular formation
C. Limbic system
D. Association areas
Definition
C. Limbic system
Term
Serving a cat's reticular formation from a higher brain regions causes the cat to:

A. Become violently aggressive
B. Cower in fear
C. Experience convulsive seizures
D. Lapse into a coma
Definition
D. Lapse into a coma
Term
The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be:

A. Increased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise
B. Decreased by heroin use and decreased by vigorous exercise
C. Increased by heroin use and decreased by vigorous exercise
D. Decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise
Definition
D. Decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise
Term
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter:

A. Dopamine
B. Epinephrine
C. Acetylcholine
D. Serotonin
Definition
A. Dopamine
Term
Dendrites are branching extensions of:

A. Neurotransmitters
B. Endorphins
C. Neurons
D. Glial Cells
Definition
C. Neurons
Term
Left-handedness is ____ common among males than females, and in both right- and left-handers the left hemisphere tends to be slightly ____ than the right hemisphere.

A. less...smaller
B. Less...larger
C. more...smaller
D. More...larger
Definition
D. More...larger
Term
The release of cortisol into the bloodstream is most likely to:

A. Increase blood sugar
B. Lower blood pressure
C. Stimulate digestion
D. Decrease perspiration
Definition
D. Decrease perspiration
Term
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:

A. Serotonin
B. Endorphins
C. Dopamine
D. Epinephrine
Definition
B. Endorphins
Term
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the:

A. Limbic system
B. Corpus callosum
C. Cerebellum
D. Reticular formation
Definition
C. Cerebellum
Term
Hormones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system, travel through the bloodstream to affect other:

A. Axons
B. Tissues
C. Synapses
D. Neurons
Definition
B. Tissues
Term
The central nervous system consists of:

A. Sensory and motor neurons
B. Somatic and autonomic systems
C. The brain and the spinal cord
D. sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
Definition
C. The brain and the spinal cord
Term
Optic nerves transmit information from the ___ visual field of ___ to the left cerebral hemisphere.

A. Left... only the left eye
B. Right... only the right eye
C. Left... only the right eye
D. right... both the right and left eyes
Definition
D. right... both the right and left eyes
Term
Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

A. The Limbic system
B. The sympathetic nervous system
C. The somatic nervous system
D. The central nervous system
Definition
B. The sympathetic nervous system
Term
An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ____ is linked to seizures.

A. Glutamate
B. GABA
C. Serotonin
D. ACh
Definition
B. GABA
Term
A person whose hand has been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when his arm was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of:

A. Tomography
B. Brain plasticity
C. Lateralization
D. Cognitive neural prosthetics
Definition
B. Brain plasticity
Term
Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of:

A. Phrenology
B. Electroencephalograms
C. Constraint-induced therapy
D. magnetic resonance imaging
Definition
C. Constraint-induced therapy
Term
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that:

A. Causes sleepiness
B. Lessens physical pain
C. Reduces depressed moods
D. Triggers muscle contractions
Definition
D. Triggers muscle contractions
Term
Motor neurons transmit signals to:

A. Glands
B. Interneurons
C. Sensory neurons
D. All of these parts
Definition
A. Glands
Term
Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in:

A. Neurogenesis
B. Multiple sclerosis
C. The fight-or-flight response
D. A reward deficiency syndrome
Definition
B. Multiple sclerosis
Term
The chemical messengers released into the spinal junctions between neurons are called:

A. Hormones
B. Neurotransmitters
C. Synapses
D. Genes
Definition
B. Neurotransmitters
Term
Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to:

A. Solve arithmetic problems
B. Copy drawings
C. Recognize faces
D. Recognize familiar melodies
Definition
A. Solve arithmetic problems
Term
The function of dendrites is to:

A. Receive incoming signals from other neurons
B. Release neurotransmitter into the spinal junctions between neurons
C. Coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
D. Control pain through the release of opiatelike chemicals into the brain
Definition
A. Receive incoming signals from other neurons
Term
Reuptake refers to the:

A. Movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap
B. Release of hormones into the bloodstream
C. Inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane
D. Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Definition
D. Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Term
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which:

A. A neuron fires more rapidly than usual
B. An electrical charge travels from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron
C. Positively charged ions are pumped back outside to a neural membrane
D. An individual reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus
Definition
C. Positively charged ions are pumped back outside to a neural membrane
Term
The divided-conscious theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that:

A. Hypnosis can block sensory input
B. Hypnosis can affect voluntary but not involuntary behaviors
C. Hypnotized people are simply playing the role of "good hypnotic subjects"
D. Hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress
Definition
D. Hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress
Term
The absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin has been linked to:

A. Insomnia
B. Sleep apnea
C. narcolepsy
D. Night terrors
Definition
C. narcolepsy
Term
The best time for athletes to engage in heavy exercise workouts is:

A. Early in the morning
B. Shortly before noon
C. Late afternoon or early evening
D. Within three hours of bedtime
Definition
C. Late afternoon or early evening
Term
A need to take larger and larger doses of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia indicates :

A. Narcolepsy
B. Tolerance
C. Sleep apnea
D. REM Rebound
Definition
B. Tolerance
Term
Depressants are drugs such as:

A. Marijuana and LSD
B. Barbiturates and opiates
C. Nicotine and caffeine
D. Cocaine and amphetamines
Definition
B. Barbiturates and opiates
Term
Repeated use of an opiate:

A. Decreases the brain's production of endorphins
B. Increases the heart and breathing rates
C. Is not associated with any serious withdrawal symptoms
D. Triggers auditory as well as visual hallucinations
Definition
A. Decreases the brain's production of endorphins
Term
Unlike alcohol, the THC in marijuana:

A. Acts as a inhibitor
B. Impairs motor coordination skills
C. Promotes a state of relaxation
D. Lingers in the body for a week or more
Definition
D. Lingers in the body for a week or more
Term
Bed-wetting is most likely to occur at the end of ____ sleep.

A. NREM-1
B. NREM-2
C. NREM-3
D. REM
Definition
C. NREM-3
Term
Reduced immune system functioning is most likely to accompany long-term repeated use of:

A. Nembutal
B. Caffeine
C. Ecstasy
D. Morphine
Definition
C. Ecstasy
Term
Consciousness is:

A. The ability to solve problems, reason, and remember
B. The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
C. Effortless encoding of incidental information into memory'
D. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Definition
D. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Term
Brain regions that are active as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to be active again as they experience:

A. Night terrors
B. Narcolepsy
C. Sleep apnea
D. REM Sleep
Definition
D. REM Sleep
Term
One of the dangers of using Ecstasy at all-night dances is:

A. Increased appetite
B. Dehydration
C. Lethargy
D. Pupil contriction
Definition
B. Dehydration
Term
The use of barbiturates ____ anxiety and ___ nervous system activity.

A. Increases...decreases
B. Decreases...increases
C. Decreases...decreases
D. Increases...increases
Definition
C. Decreases...decreases
Term
Sleep deprivation has been shown to:

A. Increase attentiveness to highly motivating tasks
B. Reduce REM rebound
C. Diminish immunity to disease
D. Decrease narcolepsy
Definition
C. Diminish immunity to disease
Term
Most college students are "owls," with performance ____ across the day. Most older adults are "larks," with performance ____ as the day progresses.

A. Improving...declining
B. declining...improving
C. Declining...staying the same
D. Staying the same...declining
Definition
A. Improving...declining
Term
According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to: A. Erotic wishes B. Stressful life events C. Physiological needs for brain stimulation D. Random bursts of neural activity
Definition
A. Erotic wishes
Term
People can be hypnotically induced to:

A. Surpass their normal waking levels of physical strength and stamina
B. Perform dangerous acts that they would not perform in a normal state
C. Recall correctly almost anything that has ever happened to them
D. Report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath
Definition
D. Report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath
Term
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that:

A. An occasional cigarette smoker almost always becomes a heavy smoker
B. Regular marijuana smokers typically experience an irresistible craving for THC
C. Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help
D. Individuals who receive morphine from physicians for pain relief usually develop the irresistible cravings of an addict
Definition
C. Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help
Term
The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by:

A. Most dreams are psychologically meaningless
B. The disruption of REM sleep leads to narcolepsy
C. Most mammals experience REM rebound
D. Sexual tension is naturally discharged during REM sleep
Definition
C. Most mammals experience REM rebound
Term
The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called:

A. The cocktail party effect
B. The pop-out phenomenon
C. Dual processing
D. Neuroadaptation
Definition
C. Dual processing
Term
Hypnosis involves a state of...

A. increased physical stamina
B. Heightened openness to suggestion
C. Improved perceptual skills
D. Elevated autonomic arousal
Definition
B. Heightened openness to suggestion
Term
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with...

A. Sleep spindles
B. Dissociation
C. REM Sleep
D. Sleep apnea
Definition
C. REM Sleep
Term
Alcohol consumption is likely to be _____ attention to an arousing provocation and ______ attention to normal inhibitions.

A. Decrease...increase
B. Increase...decrease
C. Decrease...Decrease
D. Increase...increase
Definition
B. Increase...decrease
Term
Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively...

A. fast and especially effective for solving new problems
B. Slow and especially effective for solving new problems
C. fast and especially effective for solving routine problems
D. slow and especially effective for solving routine problems
Definition
B. Slow and especially effective for solving new problems
Term
Researchers are most likely to question that value of hypnosis for:

A. Reducing fear
B. Enhancing memory
C. Relieving pain
D. Facilitating relaxation
Definition
B. Enhancing memory
Term
During REM sleep, your skeletal muscles are relaxed because messages from the motor cortex are blocked by the:

A. Brainstem
B. Hypothalamus
C. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
D. Dopamine reward system
Definition
A. Brainstem
Term
Compared with adults, children are:

A. More likely to experience night terrors and less likely to experience sleepwalking
B. Less likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking
C. Less likely to experience night terrors and less likely to experience sleepwalking
D. More likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking
Definition
D. More likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking
Term
The activation of light-sensitive retinal proteins in our eyes signals our brain to decrease the production of:

A. Melatonin
B. Serotonin
C. Acetylcholine
D. Dopamine
Definition
A. Melatonin
Term
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to use at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of:

A. Circadian rhythms
B. Selective attention
C. REM Rebound
D. Hypnagogic sensations
Definition
B. Selective attention
Term
Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that:

A. Men are less likely than women to report dreams with sexual orientation
B. The genital arousal that occurs during sleep is typically related to sexual dreams
C. People are more likely to dream of failure than of success
D. Most dreams are pleasant, exotic, and unrelated to ordinary daily life
Definition
C. People are more likely to dream of failure than of success
Term
Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere is called:

A. narcolepsy
B. Neuroadaptation
C. Paradoxical sleep
D. Inattention blindness
Definition
D. Inattention blindness
Term
Sleep deprivation _____ the production of body fat by _____ levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

A. Stimulates...increasing
B. Inhibits...increasing
C. Stimulates...decreasing
D. Inhibits...decreasing
Definition
A. Stimulates...increasing
Term
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because:

A. Our heart rate is slow and steady, while our breathing is higher irregular
B. We are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily
C. Our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move
D. It leads to highly imaginative dreams that are perceived as colorless images
Definition
C. Our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move
Term
Gender identity refers to:

A. One's biological sex
B. The sense of being male or female
C. The set of expected behaviors for males or for females
D. How masculine a boy is or how feminine a girl is
Definition
B. The sense of being male or female
Term
According to evolutionary psychologists, our predisposition to overconsume fatty junk foods illustrates that we are biologically prepared to behave in ways that promoted the ______ of our ancestors.

A. Gender typing
B. Brain plasticity
C. Reproductive success
D. Neuroticism
Definition
C. Reproductive success
Term
Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn:

A. Stranger anxiety
B. Fetal alcohol syndrome
C. Infantile amnesia
D. Male systemizing tendency
Definition
D. Male systemizing tendency
Term
Older adults who feel satisfied when reflecting on their lives demonstrate what Erikson called a sense of:

A. Attachment
B. Maturity
C. Integrity
D. Resilience
Definition
C. Integrity
Term
Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be: A. Intelligent and imaginative B. Irritable and unpredictable C. Fearless and assertive D. Extraverted and cheerful
Definition
B. Irritable and unpredictable
Term
Object permanence is the understanding that:

A. Developmental stages occur in a predictable sequence
B. Biological growth processes enable orderly development
C. Things continue to exist even when they are not perceived
D. The mass and volume of objects remain the same despite changes in their form
Definition
C. Things continue to exist even when they are not perceived
Term
One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin contributes to the:

A. Collectivism
B. Gender schemas
C. A fearful temperament
D. Alzheimer's disease
Definition
C. A fearful temperament
Term
An organic methyl molecule attached to part of a DNA strand has been identified as a(n):

A. X chromosome
B. Y chromosome
C. Gender schema
D. Epigenetic mark
Definition
D. Epigenetic mark
Term
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of:

A. Social learning theory
B. Gender typing
C. Temperament
D. Natural selection
Definition
D. Natural selection
Term
A random error in gene replication is know as a:

A. Gender schema
B. Genome
C. Mutation
D. Natural selection
Definition
C. Mutation
Term
DNA is a complex:

A. Sex hormone
B. Gender schema
C. Molecule
D. Synapse
Definition
C. Molecule
Term
During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

A. Sensorimotor
B. Peroperational
C. Concrete operational
D. Formal operational
Definition
A. Sensorimotor
Term
Human sperm cells ____ than egg cells.

A. Are larger
B. Contain more genes
C. Are smaller
D. Contain fewer genes
Definition
C. Are smaller
Term
A gender role refers to:

A. One's biological sex
B. A sense of being male or female
C. A set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
D. A sense of being homosexual or heterosexual
Definition
C. A set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
Term
Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget:

A. Overestimated the continuity of cognitive development
B. Underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
C. Overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence
D. Underestimated the impact of object permanence on infant attachment
Definition
B. Underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
Term
Identical twins originate from the fertilization of:

A. A single egg cell by a single sperm cell
B. Two egg cells by a single sperm cell
C. A single egg cell by two sperm cells
D. Two egg cells by two sperm cells
Definition
A. A single egg cell by a single sperm cell
Term
As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates:

A. The development of secondary sex characteristics
B. Feelings of attraction toward those of the opposite (or the same) sex
C. The birth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus
D. Communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions
Definition
D. Communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions
Term
From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the:

A. Frontal lobes
B. Hypothalamus
C. Cerebellum
D. Brainstem
Definition
A. Frontal lobes
Term
Adolescence extends from:

A. The beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations
B. 12 to 15 years of age
C. The beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
D. The beginnings to the end of the growth spurt
Definition
C. The beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
Term
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are _____ similar in neuroticism and ______ similar in risk of divorcing.

A. more;less
B. less;more
C. more;more
D. less;less
Definition
D. less;less
Term
Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to:

A. Have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends
B. Have somewhat less intimate relationships with girlfriends
C. Take longer than normal to establish their own independence and separate identity
D. Have difficulty forming intimate relationships with boys
Definition
A. Have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends
Term
Cognition refers to:

A. An emotional tie linking one person with another
B. The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
C. Any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain
D. Any process of change that accompanies maturation
Definition
B. The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Term
An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most amount of time in day-care facilities had:

A. Slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness
B. Slightly inferior thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness
C. Slightly advanced thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness
D. Slightly inferior thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness
Definition
A. Slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness
Term
A child's temperament is likely to be:

A. Difficult to observe
B. Stable over time
C. A product of parenting style
D. A reflection of his or her schemas
Definition
B. Stable over time
Term
In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is:

A. More likely to affect a child's educational success
B. Less likely to affect whether a teen smokes
C. More likely to affect a child's language accent
D. Less likely to influence whether a preschooler will reject a certain food
Definition
C. More likely to affect a child's language accent
Term
The heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among:

A. Genetically similar individuals who have been raised in similar environments
B. Genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments
C. Genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments
D. Genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments
Definition
C. Genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments
Term
The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by:

A. Basic trust
B. Inner speech
C. Conservation
D. Imprinting
Definition
B. Inner speech
Term
The genome is the complete:

A. The collection of sexual characteristics regulated by the X and Y chromosomes
B. Range of traits that contribute to reproductive success
C. Set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
D. Set of interactions between genes and environments
Definition
C. Set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
Term
Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing:

A. Discrete age-linked stages
B. The interaction of nature and nurture
C. Maturation during adolescent development
D. Cognitive changes during childhood and development
Definition
A. Discrete age-linked stages
Term
Norms are best described as:

A. The biochemical units of heredity
B. A person's characteristic emotional reactivity
C. Rules for socially acceptable behavior
D. A universally shared moral grammar
Definition
C. Rules for socially acceptable behavior
Term
Researchers have detected unusually diffuse brain activity while people at risk for _____ are trying to memorize words.

A. Autism spectrum disorder
B. Fetal alcohol syndrome
C. Alzheimer's disease
D. Infantile amnesia
Definition
C. Alzheimer's disease
Term
Habituation refers to the:

A. Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
B. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
C. Adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information
D. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience
Definition
B. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
Term
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the:

A. Toddler
B. Preschooler
C. Elementary schoolchild
D. Adolescent
Definition
D. Adolescent
Term
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):

A. Specified time period has elapsed
B. Unpredicted time period has elapsed
C. Specified number of responses have been made
D. Unpredictable number of responses have been made
Definition
C. Specified number of responses have been made
Term
A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):

A. Unpredictable time has elapsed
B. Specified time period has passed
C. Specified number of responses has been made
D. Unpredictable number of responses has been made
Definition
B. Specified time period has passed
Term
Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for:

A. The law of effect
B. Spontaneous recovery
C. Observational learning
D. Extrinsic motivation
Definition
C. Observational learning
Term
The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called:

A. Classical conditioning
B. Cognitive Learning
C. Partial reinforcement
D. Shaping
Definition
B. Cognitive Learning
Term
Psychologists define learning as the process of:

A. Adapting to the environment
B. Responding to external stimuli
C. Reinforcing behavioral responses
D. Acquiring new information or relatively enduring bahviors
Definition
D. Acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors
Term
A learned association between two stimuli is central to:

A. Shaping
B. Negative reinforcement
C. Extrinsic movement
D. Classical conditioning
Definition
D. Classical conditioning
Term
Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) _____ stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a(n) ______ stimulus following a behavior.

A. pleasant;pleasant
B. Aversive;aversive
C. Pleasant;aversive
D. Aversive;pleasant
Definition
D. Aversive;pleasant
Term
In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a _____ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the _____.

A. US;CS
B. UR;CR
C. CS;US
D. CR;UR
Definition
C. CS;US
Term
Extinction occurs when a _____ is no longer paired with a _____.

A. UR;CR
B. CS;UR
C. US;UR
D. CS;US
Definition
D. CS;US
Term
The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of:

A. Spontaneous recovery
B. Cognitive processes
C. Associated learning
D. Discrimination
Definition
B. Cognitive processes
Term
Five-year-olds copy senseless and irrelevant adult actions such as stroking a plastic jar with a feather before reaching inside the jar for a toy. This best illustrates:

A. Spontaneous recovery
B. Instinctive drift
C. Negative reinforcement
D. Overimitation
Definition
D. Overimitation
Term
A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of:

A. Negative reinforcement
B. Instinctive drift
C. Discrimination
D. Extinction
Definition
C. Discrimination
Term
A Skinner box is a(n):

A. Aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors
B. "slot machine" used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices
C. Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
D. Television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning
Definition
C. Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
Term
Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits:

A. Justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm
B. Unjustified violence that causes no visible pain or harm
C. Justified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm
D. Unjustified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm
Definition
A. Justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm
Term
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called:

A. Generalization
B. Spontaneous recovery
C. Secondary reinforcement
D. Shaping
Definition
B. Spontaneous recovery
Term
B.F. Skinner's work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called:

A. Shaping
B. Observational learning
C. The law of effect
D. Latent learning
Definition
C. The law of effect
Term
Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence _____ increased rates of violent behavior.

A. Inhibits
B. Causes
C. Is unrelated to
D. Predicts
Definition
D. Predicts
Term
B.F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both:

A. Continuous reinforcement and latent learning
B. Positive reinforcement and punishment
C. Shaping and immediate reinforcement
D. Observational learning and spontaneous recovery
Definition
C. Shaping and immediate reinforcement
Term
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:

A. A tone
B. Salivation to the sound of a tone
C. The presentation of food in the dog's mouth
D. Salivation to the food in the mouth
Definition
C. The presentation of food in the dog's mouth
Term
Comedian-writer Mark Malkoff reported that his fear of flying faded after he faced his fear and lived on an airplane for 30 days. His reduction in fear best illustrated the process of:

A. Shaping
B. Extinction
C. Spontaneous recovery
D. Secondary reinforcement
Definition
B. Extinction
Term
The use of physical punishment may:

A. Lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior
B. Model aggression as a way of coping with problems
C. Lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent
D. Have all of these results
Definition
D. Have all of these results
Term
Shaping is a(n) _____ procedure.

A. Latent learning
B. Operant conditioning
C. Classical conditioning
D. Observational learning
Definition
B. Operant conditioning
Term
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:

A. Secondary reinforcement
B. Generalization
C. Shaping
D. Spontaneous recovery
Definition
B. Generalization
Term
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because:

A. It highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning
B. So many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned
C. It demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning
D. All learning depends on reinforcement
Definition
B. So many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned
Term
Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of:

A. Immediate reinforcement
B. Spontaneous recovery
C. Observational learning
D. Shaping
Definition
C. Observational learning
Term
B.F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's:

A. Personal freedom
B. Early childhood experiences
C. Please-seeking tendencies
D. Cultural background
Definition
A. Personal freedom
Term
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves:

A. Latent learning
B. Extrinsic motivation
C. Partial reinforcement
D. Delayed reinforces
Definition
B. Extrinsic motivation
Term
The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of _____ in conditioning.

A. Shaping
B. Discrimination
C. Generalization
D. Cognitive processes
Definition
D. Cognitive processes
Term
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called:

A. Acquisition
B. Discrimination
C. Generalization
D. Latent Learning
Definition
B. Discrimination
Term
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food of pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signalling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n):

A. Unconditioned stimulus
B. Partial reinforcement
C. Discriminative stimulus
D. Primary reinforcer
Definition
C. Discriminative stimulus
Term
A psychologist would be most likely to use _____ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.

A. Mirror neurons
B. Modeling
C. A cognitive map
D. Shaping
Definition
D. Shaping
Term
Operant response rates tend to be _____ when linked to a ratio schedule rather than an interval schedule. Operant response rates tend to be _____ consistent when linked to a variable schedule rather than a fixed schedule.

A. Higher;less
B. Lower;more
C. Higher;more
D. Lower;less
Definition
C. Higher;more
Term
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit:

A. Respondent behavior
B. Latent learning
C. Spontaneous recovery
D. Intrinsic motivation
Definition
D. Intrinsic motivation
Term
Mood congruent memory best illustrates that the emotions we experienced while learning something become:

A. Implicit memories
B. Retrieval cues
C. Iconic memories
D. Source misattributions
Definition
B. Retrieval cues
Term
The retention of encoded information over time refers to:

A. Effortful processing
B. Implicit memory
C. Repression
D. Storage
Definition
D. Storage
Term
After hearing a list of items, peoples' immediate recall of the items is more likely to show a _____ effect than is their later recall of the items.

A. Spacing
B. Recency
C. Misinformation
D. Self-reference
Definition
B. Recency
Term
Researchers observed that people exposed to very convincing arguments about the value of frequent toothbrushing tended to:

A. Quickly forget the arguments if they were in the habit of brushing frequently
B. Quickly forget the arguments if they were not in the habit of brushing frequently
C. Exaggerate how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the past
D. Exaggerate how infrequently they had brushed their teeth in the past
Definition
C. Exaggerate how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the past
Term
The process of getting information out of memory is called:

A. Encoding
B. Relearning
C. Retrieval
D. Rehearsal
Definition
C. Retrieval
Term
Retroactive interference involves the disruption of:

A. Automatic processing
B. Iconic memory
C. Memory Retrieval
D. Semantic processing
Definition
C. Memory Retrieval
Term
A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as:

A. Retroactive interference
B. Proactive interference
C. Repression
D. Priming
Definition
C. Repression
Term
The basal ganglia facilitate the processing of:

A. Procedural memories
B. Explicit memories
C. Echoic memories
D. Flashbulb memories
Definition
A. Procedural memories
Term
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially:

A. Slow and subsequently stays slow
B. Slow and subsequently speeds up
C. Rapid and subsequently stays rapid
D. Rapid and subsequently slows down
Definition
D. Rapid and subsequently slows down
Term
The neurotransmitter glutamate _____ LTP and the protein CREB _____ LTP.

A. Disrupts;disrupts
B. Facilitates;facilitates
C. Disrupts;facilitates
D. Facilitates;disrupts
Definition
B. Facilitates;facilitates
Term
Memories are primed by:

A. Repression
B. Retrieval cues
C. Retroactive interference
D. Source amnesia
Definition
B. Retrieval cues
Term
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decided whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of:

A. The serial position effect
B. The peg-word system
C. Deep processing
D. Echoic memory
Definition
C. Deep processing
Term
Research on memory construction indicates that:

A. Recent events are more vulnerable to memory distortion than events from our more distant past.
B. False memories of imagined events are often recalled as something that really happened
C. Hypnotic suggestion is a particularly effective technique for accurate memory retrieval
D. It is very difficult to lead people to construct memories of events that never happened
Definition
B. False memories of imagined events are often recalled as something that really happened
Term
Déjá vu refers to:

A. Emotional arousal produced by events that prime us to recall associated events
B. Tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with our current mood
C. Unconscious activation of particular associations in memory
D. Eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event
Definition
D. Eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event
Term
After long-term potentiation has occurred:

A. Sending neurons release their neurotransmitters more easily
B. It takes longer to process new information
C. A receiving neuron's receptor sites are reduced
D. You more readily forget facts that you once knew
Definition
A. Sending neurons release their neurotransmitters more easily
Term
Cortex areas surrounding the hippocampus and supporting the processing and storing of explicit memories are located in the:

A. Amygdala
B. Basal ganglia
C. Cerebellum
D. Temporal lobe
Definition
D. Temporal lobe
Term
Long-term potentiation is believed to be:

A. The elimination of anxiety-producing thoughts from conscious awareness
B. The disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
C. The process of getting information out of memory
D. A neural basis for learning and memory
Definition
D. A neural basis for learning and memory
Term
A mnemonic is a:

A. Sensory memory
B. Test or measure of memory
C. Long-term memory
D. Memory aid
Definition
D. Memory aid
Term
When children are interviewed about their recollection of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially credible if:

A. They are asked specific, detailed questions about the issue rather than more general, open-ended questions
B. After responding to an interviewer, they are repeatedly asked the same question they just answered
C. They use anatomically correct dolls to indicate if and where they had been physically touched
D. Involved adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to the interview
Definition
D. Involved adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to the interview
Term
Removing a rat's hippocampus 48 hours after it had learns the location of some tasty food does not prevent if from forming a long-term memory of where the food is located. This best illustrates the importance of:

A. Chunking
B. The spacing effect
C. Memory consolidation
D. The serial position effect
Definition
C. Memory consolidation
Term
Encoding verbal information semantically involves:

A. Shallow processing
B. Echoic memory
C. Deep processing
D. Iconic memory
Definition
C. Deep processing
Term
The process of encoding refers to:

A. The persistence of learning over time
B. The recall of information previously learned
C. Getting information into memory
D. A clear memory of an emotionally significant event
Definition
C. Getting information into memory
Term
In the study led by Elizabeth Loftus, two groups of observers were asked how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word, "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled:

A. Broken glass at the scene of the accident
B. That the drivers of the vehicles were intoxicated
C. That the drivers of the vehicles were males
D. The details of the accident with vivid accuracy
Definition
A. Broken glass at the scene of the accident
Term
The effortful processing of information:

A. Cannot occur simultaneously with automatic processing
B. Refers to the process of getting information out of our memory storage
C. Can become automatic through practice
D. Occurs less frequently among adults than children
Definition
C. Can become automatic through practice
Term
In one experiment, participants primed with words related to _______ were less likely to help another person who asked for their help.

A. Food
B. Money
C. Books
D. Computers
Definition
B. Money
Term
Varsity basketball players can recall the positions of the players after a 4-second glance at a basketball play. This ability is best explained in terms of:

A. The spacing effect
B. Chunking
C. The serial position effect
D. Mood-congruent memory
Definition
B. Chunking
Term
Explicit memory is also known as:

A. Procedural memory
B. Context-dependent memory
C. Declarative memory
D. Mood-congruent memory
Definition
C. Declarative memory
Term
When Sperling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only one-twentieth of a second, research participants:

A. Recalled only half of the letters because they did not have enough time to see all of them
B. Recalled only about seven letters due to storage limitation
C. Had a momentary photographic memory of all nine letters
D. Formed a sensory memory of no more than a single letter
Definition
C. Had a momentary photographic memory of all nine letters
Term
Sea slugs, mice, and fruit flies have displayed enhanced learning following enhanced production of the protein:

A. LTP
B. CREB
C. GABA
D. THC
Definition
B. CREB
Term
Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of:

A. The serial position effect
B. Chunking
C. The spacing effect
D. The peg-word system
Definition
B. Chunking
Term
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:

A. 12 seconds
B. 1 minute
C. 12 minutes
D. 1 hour
Definition
A. 12 seconds
Term
The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on:

A. The serial position effect
B. Proactive interference
C. Visual encoding
D. Memory
Definition
D. Memory
Term
Experimental participants viewed symbols on a computer screen without knowing that these symbols had earlier been subliminally flashed on the screen. Half of the participants reported experiencing:

A. The misinformation effect
B. Anterograde amnesia
C. Déjá vu
D. The spacing effect
Definition
C. Déjá vu