Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Professional Baking - Fifth Edition
Vocabulary and terms
107
Culinary Art
12/28/2011

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Cards

Term
Crumb
Definition
Baker's definition of the interior of the product.
Term
Lean dough
Definition
Dough that is low in fat and sugar.
Term
Rich dough
Definition
Dough that contain higher proportions of fat, sugar, and sometimes eggs.
Term
Rolled-in dough (or laminated dough)
Definition
Dough in which a fat is incorporated into the dough in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure.
Term
Pickup stage
Definition
Flour and other dry ingredients are hydrated or combined with liquid ingredients. Loose dry ingredients are gradually picked up and incorporated by the developing dough.
Term
Cleanup stage
Definition
All dry ingredients are hydrated and form a rough dough. The dough forms enough to pull away from (or clean up) the bowl into a compact mass.
Term
Initial development phase
Definition
The dough appears rough and under-mixed.
Term
Final development phase
Definition
Gluten becomes smooth and elastic.
Term
Straight dough method (or direct dough method)
Definition
Consists of one step. Combine all ingredients in the mixing bowl and mix.
Term
Sponge, yeast starter or yeast pre-ferment
Definition
First stage of pre-ferments.
Term
Sponge method
Definition
A procedure that gives the yeast a head start.
Term
Windowpane test
Definition
Good indication of complete and proper gluten development. Small ball of the developed dough stretched so it is a thin, translucent membrane.
Term
Fermentation
Definition
The process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches in the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Term
Young dough
Definition
An under-fermented dough.
Term
Old dough
Definition
An over-fermented dough.
Term
Punching
Definition
Folding the dough after bulk fermentation.
Term
Rounding
Definition
Process: After scaling, pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. This procedure forms a kind of skin by stretching the gluten on the outside of the dough into a smooth layer.
Term
Benching (Bench rest)
Definition
Rounded portions of dough are allowed to rest for 10 to 20 minutes, allowing the gluten to relax, making the dough easier to shape.
Term
Hearth breads
Definition
Breads baked directly on the bottom of the oven. May be placed in floured baskets or other molds after makeup.
Term
Proofing
Definition
A continuation of the yeast fermentation process that increases the volume of the shaped dough.
Term
Oven spring
Definition
Rapid rising in the oven due to production and expansion of trapped gases as a result of the oven heat.
Term
Wash
Definition
Many to most yeast products are brushed with a liquid called a wash, just before baking. Water, starch base, egg wash, commercial aerosol.
Term
Short fermentation
Definition
In a typical small retail shop, most breads are mixed by the straight dough method. The dough is then given a bulk fermentation time (until molding and proofing) of 1 to 2 1/2 hours.
Term
No-time dough
Definition
Made with a large quantity of yeast, preferably instant dry yeast, taken from the mixer at a higher temp (up to 90 degrees) and given only a few minutes' rest before being scaled and made up.
Term
Long fermentation dough
Definition
Dough fermented for 5 or 6 hours or longer, sometimes overnight at a temp of 75 degrees or lower.
Term
Retarding
Definition
Slowing the fermentation or proof of yeast doughs by refrigeration.
Term
Retarder-proofer
Definition
Equipment: A combination of freezer/retarder and proofer. Labor-saving tool.
Term
Lean dough
Definition
Dough that is low in fat and sugar.
Term
Rich dough
Definition
Dough that contain higher proportions of fat, sugar, and sometimes eggs.
Term
Rolled-in dough (or laminated dough)
Definition
Dough in which a fat is incorporated into the dough in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure.
Term
Pickup stage
Definition
Flour and other dry ingredients are hydrated or combined with liquid ingredients. Loose dry ingredients are gradually picked up and incorporated by the developing dough.
Term
Cleanup stage
Definition
All dry ingredients are hydrated and form a rough dough. The dough forms enough to pull away from (or clean up) the bowl into a compact mass.
Term
Initial development phase
Definition
The dough appears rough and under-mixed.
Term
Final development phase
Definition
Gluten becomes smooth and elastic.
Term
Straight dough method (or direct dough method)
Definition
Consists of one step. Combine all ingredients in the mixing bowl and mix.
Term
Sponge, yeast starter or yeast pre-ferment
Definition
First stage of pre-ferments.
Term
Sponge method
Definition
A procedure that gives the yeast a head start.
Term
Windowpane test
Definition
Good indication of complete and proper gluten development. Small ball of the developed dough stretched so it is a thin, translucent membrane.
Term
Fermentation
Definition
The process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches in the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Term
Young dough
Definition
An under-fermented dough.
Term
Old dough
Definition
An over-fermented dough.
Term
Punching
Definition
Folding the dough after bulk fermentation.
Term
Rounding
Definition
Process: After scaling, pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. This procedure forms a kind of skin by stretching the gluten on the outside of the dough into a smooth layer.
Term
Benching (Bench rest)
Definition
Rounded portions of dough are allowed to rest for 10 to 20 minutes, allowing the gluten to relax, making the dough easier to shape.
Term
Hearth breads
Definition
Breads baked directly on the bottom of the oven. May be placed in floured baskets or other molds after makeup.
Term
Proofing
Definition
A continuation of the yeast fermentation process that increases the volume of the shaped dough.
Term
Oven spring
Definition
Rapid rising in the oven due to production and expansion of trapped gases as a result of the oven heat.
Term
Wash
Definition
Many to most yeast products are brushed with a liquid called a wash, just before baking. Water, starch base, egg wash, commercial aerosol.
Term
Short fermentation
Definition
In a typical small retail shop, most breads are mixed by the straight dough method. The dough is then given a bulk fermentation time (until molding and proofing) of 1 to 2 1/2 hours.
Term
No-time dough
Definition
Made with a large quantity of yeast, preferably instant dry yeast, taken from the mixer at a higher temp (up to 90 degrees) and given only a few minutes' rest before being scaled and made up.
Term
Long fermentation dough
Definition
Dough fermented for 5 or 6 hours or longer, sometimes overnight at a temp of 75 degrees or lower.
Term
Retarding
Definition
Slowing the fermentation or proof of yeast doughs by refrigeration.
Term
Retarder-proofer
Definition
Equipment: A combination of freezer/retarder and proofer. Labor-saving tool.
Term
Creme Anglaise
Definition
A vanilla custard sauce.
Term
Bake
Definition
To cook food with dry heat usually in an oven.
Term
Beat
Definition
The process of mixing to incorporate air.
Term
Edible Portion
Definition
Portion of product actually consumable.
Term
Fold
Definition
A gentle mixing method used to preserve air cells.
Term
Glaze
Definition
Thin, glossy, transparent coating that gives shine and prevents drying.
Term
Leavening
Definition
An ingredient that causes dough or batter to rise such as baking powder/soda or yeast.
Term
Patissier
Definition
Pastry chef.
Term
Recipe
Definition
A set of instructions for producing a certain dish.
Term
Sanitize
Definition
To cleanse completely of microorganisms.
Term
Tempering
Definition
Preparing for dipping, coating, or molding by melting, cooling, and rewarming.
Term
Whip
Definition
The process of mixing with a whisk at great velocities.
Term
Zest
Definition
The colored outer portion of the peel of citrus
Term
Chemical Leavener
Definition
A leavener such as baking soda, powder, or ammonia
Term
Batter
Definition
A semi-liquid mixture used to make cakes breads or coatings for frying.
Term
Creaming Method
Definition
A mixing method that begins by combining butter and sugar.
Term
Crepe
Definition
A very thin french pancake.
Term
Croissant
Definition
Flaky buttery yeast roll, shaped into a crescent.
Term
Emulsion
Definition
A uniform mixture of two unmixable substances.
Term
Fermentation
Definition
The process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Term
Foaming
Definition
The process of whipping egg whites to incorporate air.
Term
Frangipane
Definition
A type of almond flavored cream.
Term
Ganache
Definition
A rich cream made from chocolate and heavy whipping cream.
Term
Genoise
Definition
A cake made using the main sponge method.
Term
Hard Sauce
Definition
A flavored mixture of confectioner's sugar and butter.
Term
High-ratio
Definition
Cake that have more sugar than flour.
Term
Inversion
Definition
A chemical process in which a double sugar splits into two simple sugars.
Term
Mousse
Definition
A soft or creamy dessert made light by the addition of whipped cream, egg whites, or both.
Term
Muffin Method
Definition
A mixing method in which the mixed dry ingredients are combined with the wet.
Term
Pasteurized
Definition
Heat treated to kill bacteria that cause disease and spoilage.
Term
Pastry cream
Definition
A custard that usually contains starches to stabilize the eggs.
Term
Pastry flour
Definition
A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
Term
Cake flour
Definition
A weak flour for cake and other delicate pastries.
Term
Peel
Definition
Flat wooden shovel.
Term
Petit fours
Definition
Any small cake or pastry that can be eaten in 1 or 2 bites.
Term
Phyllo
Definition
Paper thin dough or pastry.
Term
Piping jelly
Definition
A transparent sweet gel used for decorating cakes.
Term
Profiterole
Definition
A small puff of eclair paste.
Term
Puff pastry
Definition
Term
Pulled sugar
Definition
Term
Retarding
Definition
Term
Sabayon
Definition
Term
Scaling
Definition
Baker's term for Weighing
Term
Soft wheat
Definition
Term
Souffle
Definition
Term
Sponge
Definition
A batter or dough of yeast, a pre-ferment
Term
Sponge cake
Definition
Type of cake made by whipping egg whites and sugar to a foam then folding in flour.
Term
Sponge method
Definition
A cake-mixing method based on whipped egg whites and sugar.
Term
Strong flour
Definition
Flour rich in protein.
Term
Tempering
Definition
The process of heating cooling and warming in preparation for coating dipping and molding.
Term
Torte
Definition
German word for layer cake.
Term
Tulipe
Definition
A thin crisp cookie molded into a cup shape.
Term
Tunneling
Definition
Elongated caverns found in muffins caused by overmixing.
Term
Temper
Definition
To add a small amount of hot substance to eggs to increase the temperature so the eggs can be added back into the substance's origin.